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BULLETIN 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS 

No. 3A5 

SOEKTinC SERIES No. 29 OCTOBER 15. 1914 



Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology 

WILLIAM B. nULUPS, Director 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 

BY 

William B. Phillips 



AUSTIN, TEXAS 



THE MEW V ]»K 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

1049,'?7A 

ASTOR. LFNOX AN» 



Publications of the Bureau of Economic 
Geology and Technology 

The Mineral Resources of Texas. Wni. L. Phillips. Issued by tbe 
State Departnient oF Agriculture as Its Bulletin No. 14, July-Auguai, 
1910. (Out ot prlit). 

Tile Composition of Texas Coals and LigniteB and ihe Use of Producer 
Gaa in Texas. Wni. B. Phillips, S. H. Worrell and Drury McN'. 
Phillips. University of Texas Bulletin No. 1S9. July, 1911. (Out 
of print). 

A Reconnaissance Report on the Geology of the OH and Gas Fields 
of Wichita and Clay Counilea. J. A. Udden. as'j'.ated by Drury McX. 
Phillips. University of Texas Bulletin Xo. 2U. September, 1912. 

A Map Showing the Location of Iron Ore Oepi'.ltB In Bast Texas; 
Blast Furnaces: Lignite Mines In Operation; Lignite Outcrops; 
Producing Oil Fields, etc. Wm. B. Phillips, September, 1913. (Out 
of print). 

Eighteen Press Letters, dealtng with various feati'ns of mineral pro- 
duction in Texas. (Out of print). 

The Fuels Used in Texas. Wm. B. Phillips and t'. H. Worrell. Uni- 
versity of Texas Bulletin No. 307, December 22 1913. 

The Deep Boring at Spur. J. A. Udden. University of Texas Bul- 
letin No. 363. October 5. 1914. (Out of nrlnt). 

The Mlner.ll Resources of Texas, by counties. Bulletin 365. 1914. 

Potash In the Texas Permian. J. A. Udden. No. IT, 191G. 

Map of Thrall Oil Field, Williamson county. X91S. 
Address all comm un lea t ions to: 

Wm, B. Phillips, DiBerroR. 
University Station. Austin. Texas. 






INTRODUCTIOM. 



The information contained in this Bulletin has been derived 
from many sources, chief among these are the following, viz. : 
The publications of the Texas Geological Survey. 1888-1892 ; the 
publications of the University Mineral Survey, 1901-1905; tho 
Annual Keports of the Mineral Resources Division of the Unit(»d 
States Geological Survey, 1882-1913; The Min-ral Industry, 1892- 
1913; the Bulletins of the Bureau of Economic Geolog>' and 
Technology, University of Texas, 1911-1914. In addition various 
reports on mining properties have been placed at our disposal. 
Wherever it has been possible to do so the statistics of the T'uited 
States Geological Survey have been adopted 

Latitude, longitude and magnetic declination have been taken 
from the reports of the United States Coast ;>nd Geodetic Sur- 
vey. Elevations have been taken from .Bulletins and topographir 
sheets of the United States Geological Survey and these have been 
supplemented by many contributions from railroad companies, 
to whom our grateful acknowledgments are due. 

Nearly all of the analyses and physical tests of stones and 
brick have been made in our own laboratory ]\v S. 11. Worrell, 
O. H. Palm, J. E. Stullken, Jas. P. Xash and E. L. Porch, Jr. 
The physical tests of clays are taken from the report of Dr. 
Heinrich Ries on Texas clays made for the University Mineral 
Survey in 1903-1904 and issued by the University of Texas in 
1908. 

Much valuable information has been obtained from the sev- 
eral volumes of the Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide 
issued by the Dallas News. This is one of the best publications 
concerning Texas. 

Statistics of population are from the U. S. census of 1910. 
unless otherwise stated. Property valuations and railroad mile- 
age are for the year 1913. 

The difficulty of preparing a publication on the mineral re- 
sources of the State which should be at onco hopeful and con- 
servative has been fully appreciated. In petroleum, especially. 
developments may come with considerable rapidity, as witness th«» 
Thrall field, Williamson county, which assimied commercial im-. 



iv Bvlleiin of the University of Texas 

portance within a few weeks in the spring of 1915. Where, as 
in this case, drilling can be done for $1 00 to $1.25 a foot, to a 
depth of 1000 feet, an oil field can be brought in rapidly. Where 
the formations are harder and the cost of drilling greater there 
is a corresponding delay. 

Considering the State as a whole it is thought that this present 
publication covers the ground fairly well. A^ the work of the 
Bureau progresses it is hoped that fuller information may be 
acquired. 

Wm. B. PHIIX.IPS. 

Austin, Texas, July, 1915. 



TABLE OP CONTENTS. 

Page. 

CHAPTER I— Statistics of Mineral Production— Dis- 
tribution of Items — ^Annual Statistics, 1882 to 1913 . . 1-51 

CHAPTER II — Discussion of Counties: Anderson to 

Duval 52-110 

CHAPTER III — Discussion of Counties, Continued. 

Eastland to Lee 111-164 

CHAPTER IV— Discussion of Counties, Continued, 

Leon to Rusk, 165-209 

CHAPTER V— Discussion of Counties, Continued, Sa- 
bine to Zavalla 210-256 

CHAPTER VI— The Mining Law 257-270 

CHAPTER VII— Location, Elevation and Population of 

Cities, Towns and Villages 271 812 

CHAPTER VIII— Location and Elevation of Mountain 

Ranges, Peaks and Hfills -.313-320 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 
No. 

1. Plant of El Paso Smelting Works, El Paso. 

2. Oil derrick, Spindle Top, near Beaumont, Jefferson county, 1901-2. 

3. An oil gusher at Thrall, Williamson county. Texas. 

4. Oil gusher near Strawn, Palo Pinto county. 

5. A line of fuel oil cars. Sour Lake, Hardin county. 

6. Natural gas. White Point, San Patricio county, opposite Corpus 

Christi. 

7. Gas well, Little Giant Oil and Gas Ck)., Mexia field, Limestone 

county. 

8. The Miller gas well, Petrolia, Clay county — Lone Star Gas Co. 

9. Natural gas line at plant of Northwiestem Brick Co., Wichita Falls, 

Wichita county. 

10. Olmos Coal Co., Eagle Pass, Maverick county— Washer Plant. 

11. American Lignite Briquette Co., Big Lump, Milam county. Tunnel 

in ten feet of lignite, 2000 feet. 

12. Underground electric haulage, American Lignite Briquette Co., 

Big Lump, Milam county. 

13. ESxposure of native sulphur, Culberson county. 

14. Sulphur forced out of ground, Freeport Sulphur Co., mouth of 

Brazos river. 

15. Plant of Elgin-Butler Brick & Tile Co., Butler, Bastrop county. 

16. Red granite quarry. Granite Mountain, Burnet county. 

17. Radiographs made with fergusonite, from Barringer Hill. Llano 

county. 

18. Exposure of silver ore, Mina Grande cut, Shaf rer, Presidio county. 

19. Limestone quarry and plant of Dittlinger Lime Co., near New 

Braunfels, Comal county. 

20. Limestone quarry. Tiffin, Eastland county. 

21. Limestone quarry, Risley Bros., Jacksboro, Jack county. 

22. Twenty-five feet of kaolin, near Leakey, Real county. 

23. Quicksilver furnaces, Marfa and Mariposa Mining Co., Terlingua, 

Brewster county. 

24. Red sandstone quarry, near Barstow, Ward county. 

25. A gray granite quarry, Llano county. 

26. Loading salt, Salt Basin, El Paso county. 

27. Works of Texas Trap Rock Co., Knippa, Uvalde county. 

28. Interior view of salt works, B. W. Carrington & Co., Grand Saline, 

Van Zandt county. 

29. Mill for concentrating lead ore, Quitman Mountains, El Paso 

county. 

30. Plant of Thurber Brick Co., Thurber, Erath county. 

31. Outcrop of magnetic iron ore. Iron Mountain, Llano county. 

32. State Iron Furnace, Rusk, Cherokee county. 

33. Iron ore dock, Port Bolivar, Galveston Bay. 

34. Plant of Southwestern Portland Cement Co.. El Paso, El Paso 

county. 

35. Plant of Texas Portland Cement Co., near DaPas, Dallas county. 

36. Plant of San Antonio Portland Cement Co.. near San Antonio, 

Bexar county. 

37. Texas City refinery: Pierce-Fordyce Oil Association. 

38. Port Arthur, Texas, oil refinery, of The Texas Company. 

39. Port Arthur refinery, Gulf Refining Company. 

40. Beaumont refinery, Magnolia Petroleum Compeny. 



CHAPTER I. 

STATISTICS OF MINERAL PRODUCTION. 

For present purposes we shall have to consider the expres- 
sion ** mineral resources" as of the same meaning as ** mineral 
products," for mineral resources that have not been utilized do 
not appear in statistics of mineral production. Latent resources 
may or may not be of commercial importance. They may come 
into use within the near future, they may not be available until 
conditions of transportation and of markets undergo a change. 
Sometimes such changes come with unexpected rapidity, follow- 
ing radical alterations in demand; sometimes they are of slow 
development following upon the steady depletion of other sources 
of supply, or the creation of new demands of no great intensity 
at the beginning. 

Mineral production is a fairly safe indication of mineral re- 
sources, for there are but few resources that have not already 
been developed, to some extent, at least. 

During the year 1913, the mineral products of Texas were 
listed under 22 general items and some of these are separable 
into two or more. These 22 general items were as follows : 

Asphalt. 

Cement. 

Clays and clay products. 

Coal. 

Copper. 

Gems and precious stones. 

Gold. 

Gypsum. 

Iron ore. 

Lead. 

Lignite. 

Lime. 

Mineral waters. 

Natural gas. 

Petroleum. 

Quicksilver. 

Salt. 

Sand and gravel. 

Silver. 

Stone. 

Sulphur. 

Zinc. 



2 Bulleiin of the Umversity of Texas 

Asphalt may be divided into natural rock asphalt and as- 
phalt derived from oil refineries. 

Stone may be divided into granite, limestone, sandstone, trap- 
rock, etc. 

The total value of the mineral products for the year 1913 
was $31,666,910, including an item of $441,901 for miscellaneous 
products. 

Ten years previously, i. e., in 1904, the total value was $14,- 
353,270, while five years previously, i. e., in 1909, the total value 
was $17,217,807. The following statement gives the total an- 
nual value since the. years 1882-1886: 

Year. Value. 

1882-1886 % 4,935,363 

1887 1,006.534 

1888 1,255,344 

1889 1,760,473 

1890 1,992,806 

1891 2,525,259 

1892 3,295,240 

1893 2,655,437 

1894 3,116,835 

1895 2,856,537 

1896 2,956,940 

1897 3,330,798 

1898 3,417,511 

1899 4,573,631 

1900 5,316,222 

1901 6,647,926 

1902 9.390,585 

1903 12,766,865 

1904 14,353,270 

1905 13,752,346 

1906 14,751,037 

1907 '. . 19,806,458 

1908 • 15,212,920 

1909 17,217,807 

1910 18,383.451 

1911 18,817,304 

1912 22,797.015 

1913 31,666.910 

Total $268,161,519 

In order to see just what items comprise this total the fol- 
lowing statement has been prepared. In explanation of the last 
item, of $28,629,659, covering the 32 years involved, it may be 
said that separate statistics are not available. '*All others'' in- 
<»ludes everything not mentioned in the statemeut. Clay pro- 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 3 

duets include raw clay, brick, tile, pottery, etc. Lime means 
burned lime and is not included under limestone. 

Itemized statem^it of the value of the mineral products of 

Texas, 1882-1913: 

Value. 
Asphalt: 

Rock % 112,260 

Manufactured 7,646,481 

Cement 8,962,913 

Clay products and raw clay 43,093,634 

Coal 31,980,159 

Copper 16,245 

Gold 43,757 

Granite 3.053,752 

Gypsum 1,800,000 

Iron ore 600,000 

Lead 28,466 

Lignite 8,258,588 

Lime 2,532,369 

Limestone 5,097,066 

Mineral waters 2,831,933 

Natural gas 5,099,578 

Petroleum 97,429,885 

Pig iron 3,000,000 

Quicksilver 2,227,807 

Salt 3,854,494 

Sand and gravel 2,743,496 

Sandstone 1,891,936 

Silver 7,171,214 

Zinc 55,832 

Total $239,531,860 

Miscellaneous products for 32 years 

all others % 28,629,659 

Grand total $268,161,519 

The following table gives the relative value of these items and 
ttie percentage of the total value: 

Per Cent 
Value. of total. 

Petroleum $ 97,429,885 40.6 

Clay products (and raw clay) 43,093,634 17.9 

Coal 31,980,159 13.3 

Cement 8,962,913 3.7 

Lignite 8,258,583 3.4 

Aspbalt, manufactured 7,646,481 3.2 

Silver 7,171,214 3.0 

Natural gas 5,099,578 2.1 

Limestone 5,097,066 2.1 

Salt 3,854,494 1.6 

Granite 3,053,752 1.3 

Pig iron 3,000,000 1.3 

Mineral waters 2,831,933 1.2 

Sand and gravel 2,743,496 1.2 



Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per Cent 
Value. of total. 

Lime 2.532,369 1.0 

Quicksilver 2.227,807 0.9 

Sandstone 1,891,931 0.8 

Gypsum 1,800,000 0.8 

Iron ore 600,000 

Asphalt rock 112,260 

Zinc 55,832 

Gold 43,757 [ 0.6 

Lead 28.466 

Copper 16,245 



Total $239,531,860 100.0 

The total value of the petroleum produced is $97,429,885, or 
40.6 per cent of the total value. Considerable as this value is, 
yet it exceeds the value of the coal and lignite, clay products 
and stone, by a little more than $3,000,000. If to the value of 
the coal and lignite, clay products and stone be added the value 
of the sand and gravel, the total value of these common articlas 
almost equals the total value of the petroleum. 

If these figures mean anything, they mean that the value of 
the common things, coal, lignite, clay products, sand and gravel, 
closely approximates the value of the peti^oleum, a material the 
production and treatment of which call for large investments. 
The stability of the industries based on these common things 
has also to be considered, for they are not subject to the same 
fluctuations of value or of interest charges as are often seen 
in the petroleum industry. 

We speak now of crude petroleum, for there is no way of ar- 
riving at the value of the different articles made from crude 
oil. If this value could be included in the discussion we would 
also have to include the value of the articles made from coal, 
lignite, clays, sand and gravel. This would lead us too far 
afield for our present purpose, which is to point out that it is 
not always the materials requiring large investments that add 
most to the value of the mineral production. 

Another very interesting deduction from this statement is 
that the total value of the production of metals and metallic 
ores in the State for 32 years is $13,143,321. This is very little 
more than the combined value of the stone, sand and gravel. So 
far as can now be ascertained with a reasonable decree of ae- 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 5 

curacy the annual value of the production of the metals and 
metallic ores in the State, 1882-1913, is as follows: 

Year. Value. 

1882-1886 435.363 

x887 347,534 

1888 475,844 

1889 404,126 

1890 • 428,099 

1891 793,540 

1892 483,347 

1893 421,530 

1894 379,708 

1895 392,768 

1896 388,546 

1897 386,458 

1898 390,642 

1899 461,689 

xifOO 592,569 

1901 467,538 

1902 482,270 

1903 723,704 

1904 458,237 

1905 406,664 

1906 430,160 

1907 353,835 

1908 363,388 

1909 410,745 

1910 354,893 

1911 326,325 

1912 383,924 

1913 445,411 

$12,388,857 
Miscellaneous and not fully stated. . 754,464 

$13,143,321 

No pig iron has been made in the State since the spring: of 
1909, and the iron ore industry is not of much present import- 
ance. This is an instance of the difference between mineral 
development and mineral resources. The iron resources of the 
State are of considerable importance, but the development is 
not. The resources of the State in the more valuable metallic 
ores, such as those of silver, lead, copper, zinc, etc., are thought 
to be much greater than the production would indicate, but, 
with the exception of silver and quicksilver, they have hardly 
been touched. Opinions as to the reason for this may and do 
differ widely. We do not discuss this here, but merely point 
out certain facts which are accentuated by the statistics of pro- 
duction for nearly a third of a century. A great deal ha.s been 



6 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

said and written concerning the mineral wealth of the State 
as represented by the more valuable metallic ores, particularly 
such as occur in what is known as trans-Pecos Texas, i. e., the 
extreme western part of the State, west of the Pecos river. It 
is unquestionably true that in some parts of this area, compris- 
ing about 31,000 square miles, there are the most encouraging 
indications of mineral wealth, as, for instance, in the Chinati 
Mountains, Presidio county; in the Quitman Mountains, El 
Paso county; in the Sierra Diablo, Culberson county; near 
Altuda, Brewster county, etc. But it is also true that these dis- 
tricts have not been developed and that the shipments made 
from them do not materially affect the total value of the min- 
eral products credited to the State for many years. 

Before stating the annual mineral production, it would be 
well to mention, as briefly as possible, the sources of the several 
items comprising the mineral production, and included in the 
total value of $239,531,860. 

Practically all of this material is a 
product from oil refmeries. Very 
little natural rock asphalt was produced. There are 11 oil re- 
fineries in the State with a combined daily capacity of 100,000 
barrels of crude oil. 

The annual production and value of asphalt-rock and manu- 
factured asphalt, 1894 to 1913, is given in the following table: 

Year. 

Rock: Tons. Value. 

1894 3,000 $ 45,000 

1895 1,050 10.000 

1896 5,000 25,000 

1897 65 650 

1898 80 1,000 

1903 2.158 30.550 

1904 3 60 

11,356 $112,260 
Oil Refineries: 

1906 24,900 306,750 

1907 53,649 929,857 

1908 17.167 * 350.440 

1909 46,304 857,204 

1910 57,713 1.040,825 

1911 55,826 786,785 

1912 94,530 1,404,266 

1913 122,026 1,970,354 

472,115 $7,646,481 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 7 

Tons. Value. 

Total rock 11,356 $ 112.260 

Manufactured 472,115 $7,646,481 

483,471 $7,758,741 

Portland cement is made in four 
plants, two m Dallas county, one in 
Bexar countv, and one in El Paso countv. 

The statistics of the total production of Portland cement are 
not complete, but during the five years ending with 1913, the 
production and value were as follows: 

Production. 
Year Bbls. Value. 

1909 656,361 $ 808.997 

1910 1,292,445 1,643,729 

1911 1,700,000 1,785,000 

1912 1,762,780 2,062,124 

1913 2,108,737 2,663,063 

Total 7,520,323 $8,962,913 

Clays and Clay Many counties are represented, but 

Products. the chief ones are Bastrop, Bexar, 

Bowie, Denton, Ellis, El Paso, Erath, Fort Bend. Gonzales, 
Guadalupe, Harris, Henderson, Jefferson, Parker, Rains, Travis, 
Wilson and Wise. Ellis county was the largest producer of 
common brick, with 90,481,000. It is the chief clay-workinj^ 
county in the State, as well as the largest producer of cotton. 

Texas does not produce much pottery. Red earthenware, stone- 
ware, yellow and Rockingham ware comprise the varieties. The 
total value of the pottery produced during the five years ending^ 
with 1913 was $600,908, an average of $120,181 a year. In 1913, 
Texas was ninth in the production of common brick and sixth 
m value ; it was eighth in the production of front brick and ninth 
in value: it was eleventh in the value of sewer pipe. About 60 
per cent of the value of all clay products is represented by com- 
mon brick. 

Annual value of clay products (including raw clay) : 

Year. Value. 

1882-1886 $ 1,500,000 

1887 400,000 

1888 500,000 

1889 600,000 

1890 700,000 



8 Btdletin of the University of Texds 

Year. Value. 

1891 800,000 

1892 900,000 

1893 1,000,000 

1894 1,028,853 

1S95 1,030,446 

1896 915,753 

1897 1,197,039 

1898 758,211 

1899 1,221,119 

1900 1,171,017 

1901 1,723,375 

1902 1,693,814 

1903 1,478,308 

1904 1,536,097 

1905 1,718,945 

1906 1,975,582 

190V 2,557,561 

1908 2,066,735 

1909 3,148,463 

1910 2,863,930 

1911 2,669,399 

1912 2,892,510 

1913 3,049,349 



$43,093,634 

The coal producing counties are East- 
C/Oal 

land, Erath, Maverick, Palo Pinto, 

Webb, Wise and Young. Since 1895 the amount of coal produced 
has been 14,615,623 tons, valued at $31,980,159. The original 
supply of coal is taken at 8,000,000,000 tons and the total work- 
able area at 8,200 square miles, with an additional area of 5,300 
square miles that may contain available seams. Erath county 
is the largest producer of coal. 

The amount and value of the coal mined since 1895 is given 
in the following table : 

Production, tons 
Year. of 2,000 lbs. Value. 

1895 360,616 $ 801,230 

1896 376,076 747,872 

1897 422,727 792,838 

1898 490,315 968,871 

1899 687,411 1,188,177 

1900 715,461 1,350,607 

1901 804,798 1,655,736 

1902 696,005 1,326,155 

1903 659,154 1,289,110 

1904 774,315 1,652.992 

1905 809.151 1,684,527 

1906 839,985 1,779,890 

1907 940,337 2,062,918 



The Mineral Resources of Texas *) 

Tear. of 2,000 lbs. Value. 

Production, tons 

1908 1,047,407 2,580,991 

1909 1,112,228 2,539.064 

1910 1,010,944 2,397.858 

1911 1,083,952 2,491,361 

1912 1,197,907 2,774,956 

1913 1,247,988 3,184,161 

Total 14,615,623 $31,980,159 

Some shipments of good ore have 
been made from the Quitman Moun- 
tains, El Paso county, and the Sierra Diablo, Culberson county. 
The copper resources of trans-Pecos Texas are thought to be 
worthy of a much larger development than has ever been re- 
corded. 

Some shipments of ore carrying 18 per cent of copper have 
been made from the John Gilcrease claims, northwest side of the 
Quitman Moimtains, El Paso county. 

Many years ago, shipments of high grade copper and silver ore 
were made from the old Hazel mine north of Van Horn, Cul- 
berson county, and some development work has been carried 
on there within the last few years. 

The copper ores occurring in the Permian formation in the 
counties of Foard, Knox, King, Stonewall, Haskell and Jones, 
contiguous to the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Railroad, and 
to the Wichita Valley Railroad, and to the Wichita Palls & South- 
ern Railroad, in Archer county, have not been developed. 

These ores occur as rich ** pockets" of chalcocite in clays, and 
also as pseudomorphs of malachite after wood. Many years ago 
some hopes were entertained of the probable working of these 
ores and a large amount of money was spent in the counties of 
Foard and Hardeman, but the enterprise was abandoned and 
nothing has been done since. 

During the last two or three years, some prospecting for ores 
of copper, associated with the ores of lead and zinc, has been car- 
ried on in Burnet county, about 9 miles west of the town of 
Burnet. Chalcopyrite, galena and zinc-blende occur here in 
gneissoid granite, associated with calcspar and fluorspar. The 
district has not been opened sufficiently to allow one to express 
an opinion concerning it, but good samples of these ores have 
been* submitted for examination. 



10 Bulleiiti of the University of Texas 

In Llano county, especially in the Baby Head Mountains 
northeast of the town of Llano, some prospecting was done sev- 
eral years ago for copper ore, but nothing has been attempted 
of late. 

The amount of copper credited to the State, since 1906, is 
93,285 pounds, valued at $16,245. 

The statistics relating? to the produc- 
FuUer's Earth. i- x- i, , Jl ^ 

tion of fuller s earth are not com- 
plete. In some years the returns are combined with those of 
other States, and in some years the returns are included under 
'* miscellaneous. *' The amount credited to the State is about 
2,000 tons, all told, valued at about $16,000. There are excellent 
fuller's earths in Texas and some of the deposits are extensive. 
The chief deposits are in the counties of Burleson, Cherokee, 
Fayette, Gonzales, Shelby, Smith, Walker and Washington. 

Tests of these earths have shown that some of them possess 
exceptional qualities for bleaching refined cotton seed oil and a 
few have good qualities for deodorizing mineral oils, fats, greases, 
etc. In this variety of clay we have a material that has peculiar 
(jualities. Some fuller's earths are adapted for treatment of 
vegetable (edible) oils, some for mineral oils and some for ani- 
mal fats and greases. The chemical composition appears to have 
no great influence on the bleaching powers, so that an analj'sis 
is of no special value, disconnected from actual trial under work- 
ing conditions. The mechanical and physical qualities of these 
earths, the fineness to which they are ground, and, perhaps, 
more than anything else, the method of using them, determine 
their value. Complaints have been made that Texas fuller's 
earth has not had fair treatment, but one must bear in mind that 
the change from an earth whose working qualities are already 
known to one whose qualities are not known is often expensive. 
It requires that a refining company, already satisfied with the 
earth it is using, shall undertake tedious and costly experiments 
with other earths. It is not often that such a company is willing 
to do this. If we are to prove the superior qualities of our 
earths we must have the evidence that the refiners demand, not 
so much the evidence that satisfies us as the evidence that satis- 
fies them. Experimentation with fuller's earth is tedious and 
costly. It can be successfully undertaken only by investigators 



The Mmeral Resources of Texas 11 

who have had abundant and varied experience in this kind of 
work. It cannot be left to ordinary chemists, no matter how 
skillful they may be in the usual processes of laboratory work. 

Gems and Precious This item is of small value. Pearls 

Stones. have been found in the Llano and 

Colorado rivers and in Caddo Lake, Marion county; topaz at 
Streeter, Mason county; fine amethysts in Llano and Brewster 
counties, and opal, with agates, etc., in Brewster county; clear 
and flawless quartz in Fayette county; turquois in El Paso and 
Culberson counties. 

Workable gold ores are scarce in 
Texas. The maximum amount of ^oW 
reported in any one year was 387 ounces, in 1896. It occurs 
sparingly in certain silver-lead ores in trans-Pecos Texas; in 
association with quicksilver ores in Brewster county; in quartz 
veins in Blanco, Brewster, Burnet, Gillespie, Llano and Mason 
counties; in certain recent formations in the Gulf Coastal Plain, 
and in Cretaceous limestones in Tom Green and Williamson 
c'ounties. It has also been found in black sands in Llano county 
and in the sands of the Colorado river, near Austin. So far as 
can now be ascertained, the total amount of gold credited to 
Texas since 1889 was valued at $43,757. 

It is hardly possible to give the value 
of the granite produced in the State 
up to this time, but it is thought that $3,053,752 would be a fair 
estimate. This includes the value of the granite used in the con- 
struction of the Capitol, which came from Granite Moimtain, 
Burnet county. The highest value recorded, $348,317, was in 
the year 1904. Quarries are operated in the counties of Burnet, 
Gillespie and Llano. There are many beautiful varieties of 
granite in the State and the deposits are very large. The stone 
used in the Capitol' is a coarse-grained red granite, but there are 
also many excellent quarries of light and dark gray, bluish gray 
and reddish gray. The so-called opal-granite of Llano county 
(Uanite) is really a quartz porphyry. It is of a reddish brown 
color, and carries many inclusions of opaline quartz, which gives 
it a strikingly handsome appearance. It has not been utilized, 
although the belt of country in Llano county to which it be- 
longs is of easy access. It is a ver\' hard stone and takes a fine 



12 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

polish. A fuller description of this granite is to be found under 
Llano county. 

Crushed granite for concrete has met with favor, but the 
supply has not been steady. Generally, throughout the granite 
area, embraced in the counties of Blanco, Burnet, Gillespie, 
Llano and Mason, there are very extensive deposits of a natural 
granite gravel which makes a good road material. Several of 
these deposits are immediately along the line of the Austin & 
Northwestern Railroad (part of the Sunset-Central system), in 
Burnet and Llano counties. 

The annual value of the granite produced in the State, 1882 
to 1913, is as follows: 

Year. Value. 

1882-1888 11,000,000 

1889 22,550 

1890 22,550 

1891 75,000 

1892 50,000 

1893 38,991 

1897 3,500 

1898 4,685 

1899 84,945 

1900 76,069 

1901 27,005 

1902 60,000 

1903 173,325 

1904 348,317 

1905 132,193 

1906 168,061 

1907 ! 122,158 

1908 190,055 

1909 173,271 

1910 66,909 

1911 70,488 

1912 67,613 

1913 76,067 

$3,053,752 

Separate statistics of the production 
^f gj'psum are not now available for 
each of the vears under consideration. The traceable amount 
since 1882 is about 800,000 tons, so that it is not likely that the 
total amount exceeds 900,000 tons, valued at about $1,800,000. 
The gypsum (and gypsite) resources of the State are very large, 
not only in the counties where present operations are conduetofl 
(Hardeman and Jones), but in many other counties west of the 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 13 

Carboniferous formation and in El Paso, Culberson, Reeves, 
etc. In Stonewall, King, Knox, etc., there are beds of alabaster 
up to four feet in thickness, and these beds, although not so 
thick, are to be seen on the Colorado river northwest of Robert 
Lee, in Coke county. Gypsite, an earthy variety of gypsum, is 
the kind produced and used in Texas, at Acme, Hardeman 
coimty, and Hamlin, Jones county. 

The iron ore resources of the State 
are of an excellent character. In 

east and northeast Texas the total iron ore area is thought to 

be approximately as follows, by counties : 

Square Miles. 

Anderson 47 

Cass 350 

Cherokee 350 

Gregg ^ 22 

Harrison ' 245 

Henderson 19 

Marion 27 

Morris 15 

Smith 81 

Upshur 10 

Wood 25 

Total 1191 

There are also undefined areas in Panola, Shelby, Rusk, etc., 
which may bring the total area up to 1,250-1,300 square miles. 
It is not to be understood that each square mile of this area is 
ore-bearing, in the commercial sense, for such is not the case. 
It is meant that over this area workable beds mav be found. In 
east and northeast Texas this iron ore is limonite (hydrated ses- 
quioxide of iron), and siderite (carbonate of iron), the latter 
variety, however, not constituting a large proportion of the total. 
The ore exists as ** blankets'' near the tops of hills and ridges, 
has generally less than six feet of over-burden (sands, clays and 
thin sandstones), and varies from two to five feet in thick- 
ness. Shipments of several thousand tons of roughly screened 
but not washed, or calcined ore, carried from 55 to 57 per 
cent of iron. Taking any one given **bank," however, and con- 
sidering all of the material that would have to be moved by 
steam shovel, it is not likely that large and continuous opera- 
tions would have a better material than ore carr>4ng from 30 



14 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

to 35 per cent in iron. This means that in such operations the 
earth, sand, clays, sandstone, chert, etc., would have to be re- 
moved in order to bring the content in iron up to an acceptable 
percentage, not less than 45 to 50. If this washed or otherwise 
improved ore should then be calcined, the percentage of iron 
would increase to 55 to 60 per cent, and the reducibility of the 
ore in the blast furnace would be greatly enhanced. 

For the handling of these ores, coastwise shipments, the Gulf, 
Colorado & Santa Fe Railway has constructed an iron ore dock 
at Port Bolivar, Galveston Bay, of a capacity of 3,500 tons a 
day. It has also built a railroad from Longview, in Gregg county, 
into the northwestern part of Marion county, to reach the ore 
deposits there. 

Other iron ore areas are in Llano and Mason counties, where 
excellent hematites and magnetites are found, but there are no 
commercial developlnents. 

The statistics of iron ore production are not complete, but 
from the best information to hand, it is thought that the total 
production since 1882 may be taken as 600,000 tons, valued at 
$600,000, practically all of it from northeast Texas. 

The value of the pig iron made in Texas is not known with 
certainty, but has been estimated at $3,000,000, 1882-1909. No 
pig iron has been made in the State since the spring of 1909, 
when the State furnace, at Rusk, Cherokee county, was closed 
down. 

The State has been a very small pro- 
ducer of lead. The total amount 
credited since 1907 is 320 tons, valued at $28,466. The lead has 
been derived from the concentration of ores at Shafter, Pre- 
sidio county, and in the Quitman Mountains, in El Paso county, 
together with small shipments of ore from near Altuda, Brews- 
ter county; the Chinati Mountains, Presidio county, and pros- 
pects on the northwest side of the Quitman Mountains. 

The silver-lead ore near Altuda and in the Quitman Moun- 
tains is certainly worthy of further development. The former 
locality is within one mile of the Southern Pacific Railroad and 
the latter within four miles of the Southern Pacific and the 
Texas & Pacific Railroads, and within eighty miles of the El 
Paso smelter. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 15 

There is also a promising lead prospect on the west side of 
the Chinati Mountains, Presidio county, about forty-five miles 
from rail. Small shipments of hand-picked ore from this place 
netted $26.00 a ton at El Paso. 

Excellent samples of high grade galena have come from the 
Solitario, Presidio county, but the locality is almost inaccessi- 
ble except by pack-train and is about seventy-five miles from 
rail. 

Some prospecting for galena has been carried on in Burnet 
county, on Silver Creek, twenty-five miles northwest of the town 
of Burnet, where the mineral occurs in sandstone. 

Good samples of galena have also been obtained in the eastern 
part of Coleman county, but no prospecting has been done there. 

The most encouraging outlook for lead ores, carrying a little 
silver (about an ounce for each per cent of lead) is in the Quit- 
man Mountains, on the northeast and northwest sides (old Bo- 
nanza property, now owned and operated by the Southwestern 
Mines Company, Sierra Blanca; old McKinney property, etc.) 
On the northeast side of these mountains, where most of the work 
has been done, and where there is now a concentrating mill, the 
galena is associated with ores of zinc and copper. The zinc and 
copper have not yet appeared with the galena on the northwest 
side, but may do so in depth, especially when one considers that 
an excellent copper ore has been mined on the John Gilcrease 
claims almost immediately adjoining the lead properties. 

In the State there are about 60,000 
square miles of lignite area, occupyr 
ing, in a general way, that portion of the State lyino: east of a 
line drawn from the Rio Grande to Red river through Austin, 
Waco and Dallas. Of the total known area of liirnite in the 
United States, about 127,000 square miles, nearly one-half is in 
Texas. The original supply of lignite in this State is taken at 
30,000,000,000 tons and the production, so far as can now be 
ascertained, has been 9,186,455 tons, valued at $8,258,583, to 
the close of the year 1913. 

The lignite producing counties are: Bastrop, Fayette, Hen- 
derson, Hopkins, Houston, Lee, Leon, Medina, Milam, Robert- 
son, Titus and^ Wood. The chief producing county is Wood, 



16 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

seventy- five miles east of Dallas, where (at Hoyt and Alba) 
the normal production is from 1,000 to 1,500 tons a day. 

Lignite is used, for the most part, as a fuel under stationary 
boilers, but about 20 per cent of the production goes for making 
gas in gas producers to be sent to gas engines. A small amount 
of ** slack,'' through a i/4-inch screen, is used at hollow-tile works 
for imparting porosity to the tile, as also to add to the strength. 
The lignite is mixed with the clay in the machines and burns 
out in the kilns. It is said that it is much superior to sawdust 
for this purpose. 

There has been a remarkable growth in the lignite industry in 
Texas during the last ten years. In 1904, the production was 
421,629 tons, in 1908 it was 847,970 tons, and in 1913, 1,144,515 
tons. 

The amount and value of the lignite mined since 1895 is given 
in the following table: 

Production, tons 
Year. of 2,000 lbs. Value. 

1895 124,343 $ 111,908 

1896 167,939 148,379 

1897 216,614 179,485 

1898 196,419 170,892 

1899 196,421 146,718 

1900 252,912 231,307 

1901 303,155 251,288 

1902 205,907 151,090 

1903 267,605 216,273 

1904 421,629 330,644 

1905 391,533 284,031 

1906 472,888 399,011 

1907 707,732 715,893 

1908 847,970 838,490 

1909 712,212 602,881 

1910 881,232 763,107 

1911 890,641 781,927 

1912 990,705 880,788 

1913 1,144,515 1,104,759 

Total 9,186,455 $8,258,583 

No lignite briquettes are made in the State, although many 
of the lifmitos are well adapted for this purpose. Briquettes 
made from raw lignite are not to be recommended. A much 
better procedure is to drive off all of the water and a part of 
the volatile combustible matter and to use the residue, mixed 
with asphalt and some glutinous material as a binder, for the 



Tlie Mineral Resources of Texas 17 

manufacture of domestic fuel. Made in this manner, the lignite 
briquettes are hard, dense, keep well on storing, burn with but 
little smoke, and have a heating value almost as great as the 
best domestic coals brought into the State. They can be made 
and sold profitably at prices varying from $1.00 to $2.50 a ton 
less than the cost of domestic coal in many cities and towns. 
From the volatile substances distilled from lignite, an excellent 
heating and illuminating gas can be made, as well as sulphate of 
ammonia, light oils, tar and pitch. 

By converting the surplus gas, through gas engines, into elec- 
tric current, a central power plant, making briquettes, could dis- 
pose of all of the products from the lignite — gas, tar, light oils, 
pitch and sulphate of ammonia. The by-products from a ton 
of lignite costing $1.00 could be made to yield from $3.00 to 
$3.50. 

It may be possible to manufacture gasoline from gas distilled 
from lignite, although there is no positive information on this 
subject. There are some lignites in the State which yield nearly 
10,000 cubic feet of gas per ton of dry material. The composition 
of this gas is as follows: 

Per Cent. 

lUuminants 1.8 

Carbon monoxide 9.8 

Hydrogen 56.2 

Methane 24.4 

Nitrogen 7.8 



100.0 



This gas carried 496 B. t. u. per cu. ft. 

Considering the steadily increasing demand for gasoline and 
that it is now made in large quantities from certain kinds of 
natural gas associated with oil, it would, appear that experiments 
in making this material from gas distilled from lignite should 
be undertaken at once. By controlling this distillation and re- 
moving the gas at regulated intervals, it would be possible to 
secure products of var3dng composition. The expense of such 
investigations has prevented us from undertaking them, but plans 
are now being made for co-operation between this Bureau and 
a regular gas plant for the treatment of 100,000 pounds of lig- 
nite on a working scale. 

Considerable work in this direction has already been done by 

2-Mfn. 



18 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

the Bureau, on a small but complete scale, and the results were 
published in our Bulletin No. 307, entitled, ' ' The Fuels Used in 
Texas," in the spring of 1914. 

We propose now to treat 100,000 pounds of lignite in regular 
gas retorts, to recover the gas, tar and solid residue, and have 
enough of each product to prosecute investigations as to the uses 
to which it may be put. The redistillation and treatment of the 
tar will certainly yield valuable products, some of which are not 
now made in the United States. The solid residue from the re- 
torts can certainly be made into high-class domestic briquettes, 
as has already been shown on a small scale. Sulphate of am- 
monia can certainly be recovered from the gas, but we do not 
know whether any other valuable products, such as gasoline, 
etc., can also be obtained. 

There are many limestones in the 
State excellently adapted to the man- 
ufacture of white lime. The principal counties engaged in this 
industry are: Bexar, Comal, Coryell, El Paso, Travis and Wil- 
liamson, although there are other localities where more or less 
lime is made. It is not possible to give the exact statistics of this 
business, but it is thought that the following statement is ap- 
proximately correct as to the annual value of the lime produced 
since 1894. 

The annual value of the lime produced in the State, 1894 to 
1913, is given in the following table: 

Year. . Value. 

1894 1 13.308 

1895 30,700 

1896 60,000 

1897 21,862 

1898 38,531 

1899 ? 79.399 

1900 79,659 

I90i 93,587 

1902 82,500 

1908 74,038 

1904 111,500 

1905 142,470 

1906 192,527 

1907 186,372 

1908 144,118 

1909 244.845 

1910 226,952 

^^11 218,007 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 10 

Year. Value. 

-^12 J. . •. 236,101 

1913 • 255,893 

Total $2,532,369 

Practically every known variety of 

Limestone. , • xi. «^i. ^ • 

stone occurs m the State in very 

large quantities and in practically every county, with the excep- 
tion of some of the counties in the Gulf Coastal Plain and in 
northeast Texas. Analyses and tests are given under each 
county wherever the information is to hand. During the last 
years there has been a notable increase in the value of the lime- 
stone produced, as in 1909 the value was $241,528, and $590,289 
in 1913. 

Investigations of many of our limestones with reference to 
their suitability for road-making are now under w^ay in the road 
material laboratory of the Bureau of Economic Geology and 
Technology and the results will appear in a special publication. 
These investigations also include tests of such stones for use as 
railroad ballast. Many of these limestones have a crushing 
strength of more tlian 10,000 pounds per square inch, while 
not a few go as high as 15,000 to 18,000. 

The use of limestone for building purposes, with the excep- 
tion of the exterior of some structures made of reinforced con- 
crete, is not large, although many of the deposits afford an ex- 
cellent stone for such purposes. So far as it is now possible to 
ascertain the annual value of the limestone produced, 1891-1913. 
it is given in the following statement : 

Year. Year. 

1891 $ 175,000 

1892 180,000 

x893 28,100 

1894 41,526 

lo95 62,526 

1496 77,252 

1897 57,258 

1898 70,321 

1899 100,025 

1900 124,728 

-901 209,658 

1902 228,662 

1903 262,053 

1904 387,061 

1906 171,847 

1906 239,125 



20 



Bulletin of the University of Texas 



Year. Value. 

1907 . , 267,757 

i^u8 314,571 

1909 241,528 

1910 447,239 

19lx 490,289 

x912 530,251 

1913 • 590,289 

Total $5,097,066 



Mineral Waters. 



The principal localities in which min- 
eral waters that are marketed occur 



are as follows, by counties: 



Bexar: 
Bowie: 

Callahan: 

Denton: 

Eastland: 

Erath: 

Falls: 

Galveston : 

Grayson: 

Gregg: 

Harrison: 

Hill: 

Hopkins: 

Kaufman: 

Lamar: 



Lampasas: 

Lavaca: 

Nacogdoches. 

Palo Pinto: 



Robertson: 

Smith: 
Titus: 

Williamson: 
Wilson: 



Hot wells at San Antonio and San Josg. 
Lonestar Mineral Well, Texarkana. 
Daiby Spring, Dalby. 

Putnam Mineral Well, Putnam. 

Brock's Mineral Well, near Denton. 

Mangum Wells, Mangum. 

Maurice Wells, Mangum. 

Southland Springs, Duffau. 

Marlin Hotel Wells, Marlin. 

High Island Mineral Well, High Island. 

Tioga Mineral Wells, Tioga. 

Capp's Well, Longview. 

Rosborough Spring, Marshall. 

Hubbard Hot WeU, Hubbard. 

Sour Wells, Sulphur Springs. 

Crystal Spring, Terrell. 

Beauchamp's Well, Blossom. 

Carlsbad W\ell, Blossom. 

Hefner Spring, Blossom. 

Hanna Springs, Lampasas. 

St. Mary's Mineral Well, near Hallettsville. 

Aqua Vitae Well, Nacogdoches. 

Weatherby Spring, Garrison. 

Austin Well, Mineral Wells. 

Crazy Well, Mineral Wells. 

Gibson Well, Mineral Wells. 

Indian Spring, Mineral Wells. 

Lamar Spring, Mineral Wells. 

Olympia Well, Mineral Wells. 

Orono Spring, Mineral Wells. 

Star Well, Mineral Wells. 

Texas Carlsbad Spring, Mineral Wells. 

Overall Mineral Wells, Franklin. 

Wootan Wells, Wootan Wells. 

Riviere Wells, Tyler. 

Roach Well, near Mt. Pleasant. 

Georgetown Mineral Wells, Georgetown. 

Hume Sour Water Well, Sutherland Springs. 



In addition to these, there are hot springs in Brewster county, 
near Boquillas; in El Paso county; in Presidio county, east of 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 



21 



Gallons. 
213,700 
298,200 
271,410 
405,400 
359.070 
950 
570 
912 
292 
100 
950 
700 
750 
550 
390 
500 
970 
315 
279 
634 
476 
248 
932 
992 
612 



Value. 
10.354 
16 



Candelaria, and in Travis county, Austin and South Austin. 
There is a good sulphur spring at Marble Palls, Burnet county, 
but it is sometimes covered by the water of the Colorado river. 
The production and value of the mineral waters in the State, 

1889-1913, is as follows: 

Year. 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 1,857 

1895 1,479 

1896 4,005 

1897 2,060 

1898 842 

1899 4,729 

1900 '. . 5,438 

1901 6,651 

1902 6,568 

1903 939 

1904 1,142 

1905 1,526 

1906 1,045 

1907 1,146 

1908 1,586 

1909 1,033 

1910 1,241 

1911 1,637 

1912 1,292 

1913 1,187 



23 

24 

21 

162 

72 

172 

38 

25 

155 

209 

180 

362 

53 

64 

144 

122 

152 

151 

98 

128 

158 

151 

132 



040 
132 
535 
957 
220 
100 
138 
745 
120 
047 
991 
503 
446 
613 
923 
421 
085 
233 
032 
499 
549 
367 
395 
488 



Total 48,962,902 



$2,831,933 



Natural Gas. 



The natural gas industry in Texas 
began to be of some importance in 
1909, when the total value of the gas produced was $127,008. Pre- 
vious to that time the production and value were included in the 
returns from other States, such as Alabama, Louisiana, etc. 
At many oil wells natural gas has been used locally for some 
years. 

The principal producing counties are Clay (where there were 
33 wells at the close of 1913), Limestone, Shackelford and Webb. 
The great well at White Point, San Patricio county, across the 
bay from Corpus Christi, was brought in early in November, 
1914, but soon became unmanageable and is now a wreck. 

The gas from Clay county (Petrolia field) is piped to Alvord, 
Arlington, Bellevue, Bowie, Bridgeport, Dallas, Dalworth, De- 
catur, Denison, Denton, Eagle Ford, Fort Worth, Gainesville, 



4 



09 



Bulletin of the University of Texas 



Grand Prairie, Henrietta, Irving, Petrolia, Rhome, Sherman, 
Sunset, Whitesboro and Wichita Palls. The total pipe mileage 
is about 450. Most of the natural gas produced in the State is 
from Clay county, 120 miles northwest of Port Worth. The 
gas from Limestone county (Mexia field) is piped to Mexia and 
Teague and arrangements are being made to pipe to Ennis 
and Waco. 

The gas from Webb county (Aguilares, Reiser) is piped to 
Laredo, the county seat. 

The gas from Brown county (Bangs field) is piped to Brown- 
wood. 

The Shackelford county gas (Moran field) is piped to Albany, 
Cisco and Moran. 

Gas from Trickham, Colemdn coimty, is piped to Santa Anna 

The Navarro county gas (Corsicana) is used locally, as also 
the gas from McMuUen county (Crowther), and from the oil 
fields of the Gulf Coastal Plain. 

Gas from the Caddo field, Louisiana, is used at Atlanta, Bloom- 
burg, Cass, Leigh, Marshall, Queen City and Texarkana. 

There are promising natural gas fields in Bexar county, from 
20 to 30 miles south and southwest of San Antonio, but they 
have not been developed. 

The gas wells on HoUoway Mountain, northwest part of Brown 
county, are not being used commercially. Other notices of nat- 
ural gas will be found under the separate counties, Gonzales, 
Houston, Maverick, Presidio, Trinity, etc. 

The record of the natural gas industry in Texas, 1909-1913, is 
given in the following table: 





Number 

of 

producers. 


Number ol 
consumers. 


Total value 

of gas 
produced. 


Wells. 


rear. 


Drilled. 


Pro- 
ductive, 
Dec. 31. 








Domestic. 


Industrial 


Oas. 


Dry. 


ino9 

1010 

1911 

Ifl12 

1913 


17 
19 
29 
41 
50 


5,086 
14,719 
22.972 
27,226 
37,850 


130 
183 
SOS 
829 
806 


$ 127.008 

447,275 

1,014,945 

1.405,077 

2,073,823 


7 
22 
19 
24 
43 


5 

28 
29 


88 
52 
69 

87 
123 



The total value of the natural gas, 1909-1913, is $5,068,128. 
During the three years ending with 1913, the total amount of 
natural gas produced in Texas was 25,183,521,000 cubic feet, 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 23 

valued at $4,493,845, or a little over 17 cents per thousand cubic 
feet. 

The manufacture of gasoline from natural gas has progressed 
rapidly during the last three or four years, but none is made 
in Texas. During 1911, 1912 and 1913 the total quantity of gaso- 
line made from natural gas in the United States was 43,567,835 
gallons, valued at $4,547,623, or a little of 10 cents a gallon. 
The gas used was more than 17,000,000,000 cubic feet. The chief 
producing State is West Virginia. 

Some experiments, made by the Bessemer Gas Engine Com- 
pany, Grove City, Pennsylvania, on natural gas from Electra, 
Wichita coimty, Texas, showed a yield of 3.5 gallons of gaso- 
line per thousand cubic feet of gas. This result was higher than 
the average yield in West Virginia, which was 2.57 gallons in 
1913. 

The extraction of the gasoline from natural gas does not ma- 
terially affect the quality of the gas for ordinary uses. 

The manufacture of gasoline from gas distilled from lignite 
might open new avenues for the use of lignite. No practical 
work has been done in this direction, but plans are now being 
made by the Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology to- 
wards this end, as has already been stated under Lignite. 

Gas distilled from lignite in regular gas retorts will be used 
for these investigations. In addition to the gas which can be 
thus obtained there will be other by-products, such as tar, am- 
moniacal liquor and solid residue, nil of which can be made 
to yield valuable commercial products. 

So far as can now be ascertained, the 
production of petroleum in Texas, 
from 1889 to the close of 1913, was 183,731,197 barrels, valued 
at $97,429,885. To the close of the year 1900, the total produc- 
tion was 2,123,908 barrels, valued at $1,699,462. Practically all 
of this production was from Corsicana, Navarro county, classed, 
for statistical purposes, in the North Texas fields. Up to 1896 
there was practically no oil produced in Texas for commercial 
purposes, if we except the operations in Nacogdoches county, 
between 1887 and 1890, of which we have no definite records 
as r^ards production. Prom 1889 to and including 1895, the 
total output of the State, so far as is now known, was but 30 1 



Z^ liuU.iJin oj iln t. Hii'trsitij of Tixats 

vfc^f».-l^ \ii:u»r»J a1 JflJ^IM*. ;iii uf wbieli came from the DuUnig 
t'i-'ij^ fi»'j ♦ S;ij Ajji'>iiio. 'J'iiis was lubricating oil and the aver- 
*;^<; jVfM • j7<T \jkirn*\ wa> a Jilil«? (jvvj* $5.53. This price may be 
"///jMi/ri.t/j wjib ifu' jiri M's that jjiaiutaiiied shortly after the 
oiJ^'Si i^y V.1 liii' Sjijij.Jh:' 'J'o|» n^'jcj. uear Beaumont, Jefferson 
"/t/.'/s. jV 3'>«>2. vvIhjj oil was MjJd as low at 18 cents a barrel. 

li vvah ;j'ji ijjjijj ll^O] thai tho jnoduction in the State during 
uny <tUi: \*hi rr'<:';ij<d a luillion barrels. For statistical purposes 
Uj<' 'n\ fi« ''is ;-.•*- di id"d into two classes. North Texas, includ- 
\u{r ('om"iijiy, <ijjd ]*'*v:(i\\, in Navarro county; Elcctra. Wichita 
t'tnniiy . J^';jr.<'i*a-J'clroliM. Clay county, and the new field in 
Marion '"/«i/j\v, no/ihcast Tc.xjw. The Coastal Texas (Gulf 
CtmHinl Plain o:) f:*-Ms in^'ludc Batson, Saratoga and Sour Lake, 
Hardin 'ountv; Spin»lh* Top. JefTerson county; Humble and 
(Uttmit ('n-'l'. Ifarris '-ninjtv: Davton, Libei'tv coimtv; Markham, 
Miilapiorda ''Oiinfy. 

Till* followinj/ staf^'nicnt lnvcs the total production of these two 
Mn'/il ficldh from )W2 to the close of 1913: 

('(H.htiil TfXiLH 153.873.162 

N<irih 'IVxuH 23.335.469 

Totn! 177.208.631 

hiii'in^' 1Ih» Inst three years, however, the production in the 
Nni'tli TexiiM rield was 4(1 per cent of the entire production, and 
fill* the year lIMJi it exceeded the production in the Coastal field 
by :i;j{)!l.o:!(; barn^ls. 

The rolhiwin^ tables ^ivt* the annual production and value of 
the |iehM»lenni. ISSP-lDlll, and the production and value by dis- 
IrieH I'nim l!M)'J to the close of \9\X 

The nnnnal pnulnetion and value of petroleum, 1SS9 to 1913, 

^ *'in UMs. Value. 

tSS'i 4S 340 

ISV»» -4 227 

t^*M .-4 227 

\ IS^U* . . 4- 22-". 

tS>>^ . . . .-.-. 210 

*^^^ . ... •? • 420 

l^>' . -* 350 

»>^^^» . 1.4" ■ 4.000 

*^^' -V--- «5.>75 

*. S*»s *4.; ■'■*.^ •^^ -4^ 

'«^^i» •?>^;.'^:? 47i!44i 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 



25 



Year. Bbls. Value. 

1900 836,039 871,996 

1901 4,393,658 1,247,351 

1902 18,083,658 3,998,097 

1903 17,955,572 7,517,479 

1904 22,241,413 8,156,220 

1905 28.136,189 7,552,262 

1906 12,567,897 6,565,578 

1907 12,322,696 10,410,865 

1908 11,206,464 6,700,708 

1909 9,534,467 ©,793,050 

1910 8,899,266 6,605,755 

1911 9,526,474 6,554,552 

1912 11,735,057 8.852,713 

1913 15,009,478 14,675,593 

183,731,197 $97,429,885 

The production in Orange county in 1913 was 17,706 barrels. 
The production in the Goose Creek field, Harris county, in 1913, 
was 249,641 barrels. Both of these are included in the total pro- 
duction. 

In 1912 the Goose Creek field produced 43,898 barrels. 

The total value includes $19,123 for Orange county and 
$206,311 for the Goose Creek field, Harris county, 1913. 

In 1912 the value of the production from the Goose Creek field 
was $27,791. 

Production of Petroleum in Northern Texas, 1902-1913. Barrels 

of 42 Gallons. Statistics of the United States 

Geological Survey. 



1902 

1903 

19)4 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1900 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 



Year. 



Total- 



Gorsfcana, 


Henrietta, 


Navarro 


(Petrollaj 


County. 


Clay 




County. 


571,050 




401,817 




374,318 


65,455 


311,564 


75,502 


832,622 


111,072 


226,811 


83,260 


211,117 


85,963 


180.764 


113,485 


137,881 


126,531 


128,526 


168,965 


283,282 


197,421 


158,830 


844.868 


3,267,422 


1,312,612 



Powell, 

Xavarro 

County. 



46.812 
100,143 
129.829 
132,806 
673,221 
506.897 
421,650 
383,137 
450,188 
373,055 
251,240 
282,476 



3.841.023 



Marion 
County. 



Electra, 
Wichita 
County. 



251,717 
677.689 
862,870 
262,392 



899,579 
4,227,104 
8,131,624 



1,564,678 



13,258,807 



Total, 
Includinif 

other 
districts. 



617,871 

501,960 

569,252 

520,282 

l,117,iK)6 

912,618 

723,264 

681,940 

996,40fi 

2,251,193 

5,275, 52§ 

9,184, 2Se 



23. 835,499 



The high-water mark of production was reached in 1905, when 
^he amount was 28,136.189 barrels, but the high-water mark of 



26 



Bviletin of the University of Texas 



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The Mineral Resources of Texas 29 

value was in 1907, when the total value was $10,410,865. The 
12,322,696 barrels produced in 1907 were worth $2,858,603 more 
than the 28,136,189 barrels produced in 1905. 

Prior to the year 1900 practically all of the petroleum pro- 
duced in Texas came from the Corsicana field. Since 1898 that 
field has maintained its reputation for supplying^ high grade oil, 
the average price, per barrel, being 81.6 cents during the 12 
years ending with 1913. The total production of the Corsicana 
field may be taken at 5,448,820 barrels, valued at $4,856,844. 
The Powell field, also in Navarro county, yields a heavier oil 
than the Corsicana field. It came into production in 1902 and 
has yielded 3,841,023 barrels, valued at $2,265,825, or 55.6 cents 
a barrel. The Henrietta field, Clay county, came into produc- 
tion in 1904, and has yielded 1,312,612 barrels, valued at $996,- 
741, or 57.9 cents a barrel. 

The Electra field. Wichita county, came into production in 
1911, and has produced 13,258,307 barrels, valued at $11,975,800, 
or 75 cents a barrel. This is also a high-grade oil. 

The other oil field classed as belonging to Northern Texas is 
in Marion county, in northeast Texas. It is the Caddo Lake 
district in Texas, and may be the west extension of the Caddo 
fields in Louisiana. It came into production in 1910, and has 
yielded 1,554,678 barrels, valued at $552,939, or 90 cents a barrel. 

The entire production of all of the Northern Texas fields may 
be taken at 25,415,450 barrels, valued at $20,648,149. 

In Coastal Texas the first of the great fields to come into 
production was that at Spindle Tom (Beaumont), Jefferson 
county. It began to produce in January, 1901, and since that 
time has yielded 45,895,103 barrels, valued at $16,002,860, or an 
average of 35 cents a barrel. 

Saratoga and Sour Lake, Hardin county, came into produc- 
tion in 1902. The statistics for these two fields are combined for 
the years 1902 and 1903, but since 1904 Saratoga has yielded 
15,000,097 barrels, valued at $11,133,302, or 62.7 cents a barrel. 
Since 1904, Sour Lake has yielded 23,020,082 barrels, valued at 
$13,268,909, or 63.6 cents per barrel. 

The Batson field, Hardin county, came into production in 
1903, but it was not until 1904 that the yield was considerable. 



^^ B^iaiim of flu Tiwrerfi/y of Ttxms 

^IKV liKXiv 15 kfts pn>due^ 25,661.013 barreU. Talned at $12.- 
4c^T.:JT4. AT t^VS ^eiits per bam^L 

M*::jM^''iir\U A>asi;y Marktiazo. ,ete. txnut into prodaetk>n in 
:i:!^M j^^ ii*> TNfUifd 2:^19.»3 harrrijw Tah^d at *l,i03J62, or 

iXjvjr^Ht^ l^Sfrrv rciiaty. .'am^e into pfiodQetitai in 19t)5. and 
$a5>*>r ;^: im** ids^ yarided 3S^'.l->»> bftrrsis. valued at $199^35. 

r^ Kxaat>i»? f^»?t»i. BLurrts ^orairj. fame inixi prodnetion in 
^^.*i^ ia?i iji? :;r>ruik^i JZST^^J^Vy 5arr«ia. Tailed ar *I»w564JL12, 
/r >r > ^*ii.'5v wr jiirr^L IHirm^ its fesc p»flr. tiiis 5eld pro- 
irt»,>!^i ">.?^5I?; jarr-usw 7ge:: f-iil to LJTLiI^J barrda the fol- 

7^ ;jipv ui»i 3i.leii:j?f in tae Sdr^* is ^nojibly >iose to 2,<») 
iiiitjs iL -iiAi!' ::J3ie r!ie iiamnl £a» pipe line nri ea im. all toM. 
>^ iLhmf -n'l) :nii**k 

'^r^ fcr*2 II Jii ^iifjBiri'es in rfte Stare, -vrni i ^imbined ♦iailv 

Onr ^Eioat 5)r •nt^tmning potash 

^aiTs i& mumir "he Timenu rewnrrjes 

£ :?r Scait- :i- "iiur r^irmai ^coDsniHitSL JL au "nftirnPT auihurized 

">• >>> !i.'.> :»\inii utir -^vxj Jica "iie pubiii- irmis "n :iie effect 

iiat -^cfi itt-H>^rs J id 3w*n fjjund inr-r Ji ?*immer^iai uianrtties. 

^t*:!*< -A.^.?:: •is'rfitS' iP^ ^irrfra«iusw r^ey ^njoabir iroae trrnxL pub- 

rratr-'tt^ 5»»e^L »y ^ing. 3ni>au *3itr n x:an*r "aicpn. froin the 

.•ri*^ 1 x'^'i: JLJIK' j^!*?'' 11 i it^p 'urniir ir ^ronr, Diekow 

•»'.m^ . -MUi«r -t?<' nilr^ Ti-!< »i: Ft^ ^'irrt. vfr iiit nnif pata»> 

-iiiin •ti-rT'j.'r v* ^r -unounr )l iit r:mns> ^tr Taired Stares^ 

j^iix. ^"M rr.r-r o»>\f*^ sbx i*4uit -i!:^^ i^^pttI iid nor ftmrain 

-a 3iita. *^:ia -inouiir >f -^onta^a. toiIc iLL3*?r imn ax jett JTiier 

.: r -^f^ir^'r^L ir***^ lit' Joice*! '^n-^. 5 inr irom **>iiinier- 

:=Li ■»•=«»!. I. • >. It irtrTHv ttiii-jai^i.-:!- iii^r -**nie:riier?' limur tiiis 

- -r. I n.> vir*::'t:ar ti» 1 "n'rrt' TUit- ji iniisiiaL imimnr it 

* uissi. ^XL ? •^♦♦fcruv ve ijtv** •xiumnfi --^iiiit ••irrm» from 

•- . :i '\:-;fr •♦.♦tit:!:'-, il^ mi^if t. r'^''^*'**?; -r -iiaarrllo- Ar a 

_*■ :i . ^^ :: *lii3 .!re»" vi* i-tcz^.i. -:ia.c "lit -*Ji:iv?ie Tomim. was 

■~ * ^ -ai. nil I ::::* u^^rr' v*uj. *i!5 '^r*^ f^ar »f pwcash 

> . *!'-u -tieii!: -"» I^-^i 't-r ■*-fi', I -^iCSfiHw::!!! rfiiomit. This 



TJie Mineral Resources of Texas 31 

tained a much larger amount of potash than any deep boring 
have shown in any part of the United States. 

A well in Kandall county, 16 mil^s southwest of Amarillo, 
has also yielded borings from a depth of 1,700 to 2,100 feet 
which contained 25 per cent of soluble matter, which held 2.79 
per cent of potash, equivalent to 4.38 per cent of potassium chlo- 
ride. 

Dr. J. A. Udden, geologist for the Bureau of Economic Geol- 
ogy and Technology, discussed the question of the existence of 
potash salts in Texas in the American Fertilizer, Philadelphia, 
December, 1912, and much more in detail in Bulletin No. 307, 
of the Bureau, entitled *^The Deep Boring at Spur," issued 
during the summer of 1914. 

In a paper presented before the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers at its New York meeting, February 15-17, 1915, enti- 
tled ''Possible Sources of Potash in Texas,'* the writer reviewed 
the entire subject and gave, also, an account of the discovery of 
nitrate of soda in Presidio county and nitrate of potash in 
Brewster county. None of the localities examined appears to 
present commercial possibilities. In Presidio county, near Can- 
delaria, there are a few thin seams of nitrate of soda held in 
rhyolite (an igneous rock). East of Maverick Mountain, and 
between this and the Chisos Mountains, southern part of Brews- 
ter county, there are thin seams of nitrate of potash in a Cre- 
taceous sandstone, and this substance is also found in El Paso 
county, in small caves inhabited by bats and rats, and in Pre- 
sidio county at a locality about 55 miles south of Marfa. On 
the Devil's river, Val Verde county, nitrate of soda and potash 
has been found in the debris of an old Indian camp. This mate- 
rial is also reported from near Burnet, Burnet county. But, so 
far as kno\Mi, not one of these localities can be expected to yield 
either nitrate of potash or nitrate of soda in commercial amounts. 
Whether deep borings in any part of the State will reveal sources 
of potash salts that may be utilized remains to be seen. There 
are indications of the existence of beds of potash salts in Potter 
county, both northwest and southwest of Amarillo, but it will 
require much exploitation and the expenditure of considerable 
capital before definite information can be acquired. The im- 
portance of the subject is certainly very great, for we do not 



32 Bulletin of tlie University of Texas 

produce any potash salts of much consequence in the United 
States. Practically all that we use is imported from Germany, 
the value of such imports during the year 1913 having been 
$10,793,913. During the five years ending with 1913, the value 
of the potash salts brought into the United States was $49,- 
361,115. 

We are aware of the risk one takes in venturing to predict 
this, that or the other. At the same time, it appears to us that 
there are localities in Texas where deep borings for potash salts 
might be undertaken with fair prospects of success. These locali- 
ties are contained within the area from Potter county on the 
north to the Texas & Pacific Railway on the south, and include 
the counties lying along the Texas-New Mexico border and im- 
mediately east. Deep boring in this region would be expensive. 
It is not likely that the cost would be less than $10 a foot, and 
it might be more. The more favorable localities would appear 
to be in Potter and Randall counties and near the salt basins 
in the counties of Lamb, Bailey, Hockley, Cochran, Yoakum, 
Terry, Gaines, Andrews, Loving, Winkler, Ector, Ward and 
Crane. 

The production of quicksilver is 
given at 52,178 flasks, valued at $2,- 
227,807, since the year 1900, when the industry began. This 
figure is probably lower than the actual production, and we 
are inclined to take the total amount at 55,000 flasks, valued at 
$2,310,000. All of this has come from the Terlingua district, 
southern part of Brewster county, from 80 to 90 miles south 
of the Southern Pacific Railway. 

The real possibilities of this district have hardly been touched. 
For the last several years the average content of quicksilver in 
the ores treated has been much above the average in the Califor- 
nia ores. For the last 15 years Texas has ranked second in the 
production of quicksilver, with California considerably in the 
lead. But for lack of transportation facilities, the Terlingua 
district could easily show a much greater development than has 
been recorded. The following statement gives the annual pro- 
duction, in flasks of 75 pounds, net, and the value from 1900 
to the close of 1913 : 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 33 

Flasks of 75 

Year. lbs. net. Value. 

1899 1,000 $ 42,000 

1900 •. . .. 1,800 75,600 

1901 2,932 132,438 

1902 5,319 239,360 

1903 5.029 211,218 

1904 5.336 232,116 

1905 4,723 172,362 

1906 4,761 178,829 

1907 3,686 148,387 

1908 2,384 122,260 

1909 4,188 194,084 

1910 3,320 154,413 

1911 (Est.) 2.000 84,000 

1912 (Est.) 2,700 114,750 

1913 (Est) 3,000 126,000 

ToUl 52.178 12,227,807 

^ , So far as actual statistics are con- 

cemed the production of salt, since 
1892, is taken at 6,646,422 barrels, valued at $3,854,494. For 
three of these years the returns were estimated. This amount 
is probably less than the real production, as no account was 
kept of the salt hauled in wagons from old salt lakes, etc., in 
the counties of Crane, El Paso, etc. It is impossible to estimate 
the amount of this salt, but it would hardly be more than 500,000 
barrels for the period of 1892-1913. The statistics given are 
from the counties of Anderson, Mitchell and Van, Zandt. 

Heavy beds of salt are known to exist at Spur, Dickens county \ 
in the vicinity of Amarillo, Potter county, etc., as revealed by 
deep borings. The old salines in Smith 'county (Steen, Lindale 
and Brooks) have not been in operation for many years. (See 
under Smith county.) 

The salt produced in Texas is from the evaporation of brines 
pumped from depths varying from 300 to 600 feet. 

The following statement gives the annual production and 
value of salt from 1892 to the close of 1913 : 

Year Barrels. Value. 

1892 121,250 % 99,500 

1893 126,000 110,267 

1894 142,857 111,000 

1896 125,000 55,000 

1896 (Est.) 150,000 75,000 

1897 (Est.) 225,500 122,750 

1898 254,284 119,700 

1899 312,436 204,330 

1900 (Est.) 320,000 210,000 

S-MlD. 



thiL>sim4f^^. r^muarmam^T 



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r«i w>i«« 






U#lf? 4-^CJ::^ 

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if ^vaflBL joAiM if mmd sui ^zvsi if ipMek cftese is no 
K idL aor !2rL '±isr!^ ii»L *>r£iiLjjeii pmimoss. wk» bpep 
JK JCLaiiULL if "arar unsni**. ir* tfiij?^ *i> ?»5wrt "^iHr output, bat 

3^ iar "fie ^ase^^ »r: it! thn^ iaiui ^ laai ox Tiafcfng eoo- 



X *TiiMtifi«rM£g- ^et -if die zn^^ a»s fir 
5ir ^sBlriatt iftCiisc -^^^^ ^9p«!eiaZy ^e -v^i^ed ^rsidL wkcAer 
if TiBTnriL iPigfTi ir ^r'^por^ti is. a 'iiasbsT'. '^^ ^gegnt j«ns a 
'Wffj -ac3R ino^ffram Kf "it* zn^r^ w^i3ie«tL -nfC&s- Bated ar 

c ja» i#«T THc^i 31 "^ -soEacrsfOxi if t^i*^ 

'WjijL 'hit isxisnl f2XS&«Ei^ ^b>w7L 31 '^e mEi£zi^ of better 
(Si X j» ZksirT ^aa:: -yz^^ ^ar mtst a lir?*^ ii«v^»iiKnBeBt of die 
ET^ imtnHcrj in ^laiij para •>£ tae Scire Vifaiim riMds, 
imit: JL TT'ass:. pan if saast*^. ir^ !t:scLy. ilraixcik A^ are per- 
iiam^r. -tml zi'^^l pnp«?r irr.^iiHi- 0:ci^^«te r»& require 
J. ir^^fir \jp^kL \t TncT^ 3*11 taisr ?36C s ijs^ iici^ For ordmary 
inn#i**»^ -^ lesr nrd ?i*»ar«!s: r:ar:^ in T*iiss will be boilt 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 35 

In order to meet the increasing demand for information con- 
cerning the quality of road making materials in this State, the 
Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology has equipped a 
complete laboratory for making all kinds of tests. No charge 
is made for this work. It is necessary only to send from 30 to 
40 pounds of gravel, or sand, or stone, and to ask that the in- 
vestigations be made. 

The following statement gives the annual production and value 
of sand and gravel, 1905-1913. The greater part of the value is 
on account of the gravel, as out of a total value of $840,850 for 
1912 and 1913, the value of the gravel was $473,692, or more 
than 56 per cent. 

The annual production and value of sand and gravel in the 
State, 1905-1913, is as follows : 

Tons of 
Year. 2,000 lbs. Value. 

1905 75,000 146,462 

1906 314,110 159,367 

1907 283,484 149,294 

1908 309,250 140,067 

1909 676,506 246,365 

IL910 1,006,584 517,225 

1911 1,048,352 543,866 

1912 716,468 384,942 

1913 870,943 455,908 

ToUl 5,300,697 $2,743,496 

Considering its resources in many va- 
rieties of sandstone, this State has not 
a large output to its credit. During the twenty-four years ending 
with 1913 the total value of the sandstone produced was $1,891,- 
936, or about $79,000 a year. In only eight years of this period 
did the value reach $100,000. 

Excellent sandstones occur in many counties, especially in 
Bexar, Burnet, Fayette, Lampasas, Lavaca, Tyler, Ward, etc. 
Most of the stone is of a clear gray color, but in Ward county, 
near Barstow, there is a good quarry of a reddish-brown stone 
that has been used to a considerable extent. One of the latest 
buildings to employ this stone is the addition to the Bexar 
county courthouse, San Antonio. 

One of the best gray sandstones in the State occurs on both 
sides of the Colorado river at Chaddick's Mill, Lampasas county. 
This locality has afforded stone for local use. but now that the 



36 B%Ul€tin of ike University of Texas 

San Saba Branch of the Gulf, Ck>Iorado & SanU Fe Bailwa 
crosses the river immediatelv contiguous to some of the mofi 
favorable deposits, it would appear that this stcme could com 
into more extensive use. The proportion of native stone use 
for buildings is not large, rip-rap and concrete aceounting fo 
the greater part. The following statement gives the prodnctio] 
and value of the sandstone^ 1SS9-1913 : 

The annual value of the sandstone produced ^ the State froi 
1SS9 to 19ia, is as follows : 

TcAT. Vaiae. 

1SS$ I 14.C51 

1S*1 €.##• 

1S*3 4a.*## 

1$5S TT.C75 

1$M €2,SS# 

1$»5 9T^3€ 

!$*« S<,#M 

IS^T S«,##« 

1S>$ TTa»* 

1S5> S5,T1S 

!*♦♦ 3tT.«S 

15#1 11U>4S 

1>#2 i^.^<;> 

1>« 114,«1 

1#^ IW^IX 

i*«e irjLJi^i 

1S#% 11I.5M 

if#r i^i.'Mr 

!>•* l$4.9^4S 

IM* *I.<>W 

i>i# 4*.4n 

1»1I - rj^-l^t^ 

l*lr — $i.^n 

1*15 ~ . MvTJ* 

.tI.»lLi4i|: 




The Mineral Besowrces of Texas 37 

^*^an forty miles of shafts, tunnels, levels, upraises, winzes and 
^^ambers. The deepest shaft is about 700 feet. The ore occurs 
^^ great chambers in a Carboniferous limestone, with but few sur- 
*^ indications. The silver-lead ore near Altuda, Brewster 
county, is held in a limestone of the same age as the Shafter 
deposits, but has not been developed to any considerable extent. 
In the statement of the production of silver, no account is taken 
ot the rich silver-copper ores which were obtained at the old 
flazel mine, north of Val Horn, Culberson county, many years 
ago, and shipped to the El Paso smelter. Some of these ores 
are said to have carried as much as 2,000 oimces in silver per ton. 
Considerable operations were carried on there at one time, and 
of recent years attempts have been made to re-open the property. 
-Aside from the silver value in the ores of that part of the Sierra 
Diablo, there are excellent copper ores as well. It is a long and 
tedious story to explain why such promising mining districts in 
Texas have not been developed. It is no part of our present 
purpose to do this. We merely call attention to the fact that 
they have not been developed, and this in spite of their known 
values. From the time when Von Streeruwitz first described these 
districts in the reports of the Texas Geological Survey, 1889- 
1892, to the present moment, there has been practically no sys- 
tematic attempt to bring these ores into commercial use, if we 
except the operations at the Hazel mine, which are chiefly of 
historic interest. 

The following statement gives the production and' value of 
the silver, 1882-1913 : 

Production. 

Year. Troy ozs. Value. 

1882-1886 155,039 | 154,263 

1887 193,798 189,534 

1888 232,558 218,604 

1889 324,165 303,418 

1890 300,690 312,7(J9 

1891 375,000 370,500 

1892 328,100 287.087 

1893 349,400 272,530 

1894 429,314 270,467 

1895 450,000 292,850 

1896 525,400 352,543 

1897 404,700 241,970 

1898 472,900 283,200 

1899 520,000 312,000 

1900 477,400 295,988 

1901 472,400 284,040 



38 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Production, 

Year. Troy 'ozs. Value. 

1902 446,200 236,486 

1903 454,400 245,376 

1904 385,576 213,935 

1905 412,200 234,054 

1906 301,772 202,187 

1907 305,300 201,500 

1908 447,000 239,100 

1909 408,100 212,200 

1910 864,400 196,800 

1911 444,200 239,900 

1912 406,067 249,731 

1913 427,553 258,242 

Total 1,313,632 |7,171,214 

To the close of the year 1913 the 
production of sulphur probably did 
not exceed 12,000 to 13,000 tons, valued at about $250,000. All 
of this came ft-om the plant of the Freeport Sulphur Company, 
at the mouth of the Brazos river. The operations here are briefly 
described under Brazoria county. During the year 1914 the 
capacity of the Freeport plant was greatly increased, so that 
the production for 1914 will be much larger than for 1913. The 
present capacity is about 120,000 tons of sulphur a year, and 
Texas now ranks second, Louisiana being first. All of this sulphur 
comes from deposits lying 1,000 feet and more below the surface. 
It is obtained not through shafts but by forcing superheated 
water (and steam) through pipes, dissolving and suspending the 
sulphur and pumping it back. 

There is another known area of sulphur where the material 
sets in practically at the surface and extends to unknown depths. 
The deepest pit, 41 feet, left off in material carrying 46 per cent 
in sulphur. Other pits, from 10 to 20 feet in depth, show masses 
of almost pure sulphur. 

This area is in Culberson county, trans-Pecos Texas, from 
40 to 50 miles northwest of Pecos and about the same distance 
north of Toyah. 

Nearly twenty years ago St. Louis people built a sulphur- 
extracting plant in this field, and produced, it is said, two car- 
loads of excellent sulphur. Nothing has been done since that 
time, although one of the reports made states that there are 300,- 
000 tons of sulphur within forty feet of the surface, near Maver- 
ick Springs, Section 13, Block 113, Culberson county (formerly 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 39 

the eastern part of El Paso county). The nearest railroad point 
to these deposits would be about fourteen miles, Dixieland, or 
Riverton, on the branch of the Santa Pe system running north 
from Pecos, Beeves county. 

It would appear that these deposits are well worth considera* 
tion (see further under Culberson county). The latest publica* 
tion on the geology of that part of the State is the report of 
George B. Richardson, entitled ** Reconnaissance in trans-Pecos 
Texas north of the Texas & Pacific Railway.'' This was pub- 
lished by the University Mineral Survey as its Bulletin No. 9, 
November, 1904, but has long been out of print. The field work 
was done in co-operation with the United States Geological 
Survey. 

A small amount of tin has been cred* 
ited to Texas during the last few 
years, all of it from the deposits on the eastern side of the Frank- 
lin moimtains in El Paso county, about sixteen miles north of 
El Paso. The entire production has been valued at $5,000. 

The tin ore here is cassiterite (oxide of tin) and stannite, and 
it occurs in granite. Considerable lumps of extraordinary rich- 
ness have been found on the surface, some of them assaying more 
than 40 per cent of tin. A small concentrating mill and smelter 
was built on the property several years ago, and some pig tin was 
made, but operations were not continued, and nothing further has 
been done for two or three years. 

The scarcity of tin ore in the United States, the nearness of 
these deposits to railroad transportation (less than five miles 
to the Rock Island lines) and the fact that ore of extraordinary 
richness has been found here, would seem to render the situa- 
tion of peculiar interest. The Franklin mountains have been 
subjected to a great erosion, and it is possible that praspecting^ 
shafts sunk near the foothills through the ''wash*' would come 
upon a workable deposit of stream tin. The ore is very heavy, 
and, under ordinary circumstances, would not travel far. It 
does not appear to be unduly mixed with other minerals of like 
density, so that the concentration should not offer any unusual 
difBculties. 

Tin ore has also been reported from Mason county, in the 
vicinity of "Willow creek and Herman 's creek, a few miles east of 



40 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

m 

the town of Mason. It is asserted that slag carrying particles of 
metallic tin has been found, indicating some ancient workings. 
This is an interesting statement, and is worthy of much more 
attention than has been given to it. The locality is about twenty- 
five miles west of Llano, the terminus of the Austin & North- 
western Railway (Sunset-Central System), and about the same 
distance southeast of Brady (Santa Fe and Frisco Systems). In 
the museum of the Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology 
at the University there is an excellent piece of tin ore, which is 
said to have come from Mason county. So far as concerns geo- 
logical conditions favorable to the occurrence of tin ore. there is 
no reason for doubting that such ore has been found in Mason 
county, at this locality and also near Streeter. 

The total amount of zinc credited to 
^*"^' the State is valued at $55,832, all of 

it from El Paso county. The ore was **dry bone*' (zinc car- 
bonate). This same ore occurs, also, in Presidio county, two 
miles west of Shaf ter, where it is reported to exist in considerable 
quantities. It is also reported from the southern part of Brewster 
county, Boquillas district. 

Zinc blende (sulphide of zinc) occurs northwest of Boracho, 
Culberson county; in association with silver, lead and copper 
ores in the Quitman mountains. El Paso county ; and in associa- 
tion with ores of lead and copper, in Hooking Valley, nine miles 
west of the town of Burnet, Burnet county. At this latter local- 
ity it occurs in a gneissoid granite, and a good deal of prospect- 
ing work has been done during the last two years. An interest- 
ing, but seemingly sporadic, occurrence of zinc blende is near 
the town of St. Jo, in the eastern part of Montague county, 
in Cretaceous limestone. Of the kno\vn deposits of zinc ore those 
near Shafter, Presidio county, would appear to be the more im- 
portant. The locality is about fifty miles from rail (Southern 
Pacific, at Marfa). 

Texas Mineral Products, 1882-18^. 

Clay products, estimated value $ 1,500,000 

Coal (Including lignite), estimated, 500,000 tons 1,000,000 

Iron ore, 33,100 tons 33,100 

Pig iron, 12,400 tons, estimated value 248,000 

Silver, 155,039 ounces, commercial value 154,263 

All other products, including building stone, cement, 

gypsum, salt, etc., estimated 2,000,000 

Total value for five years $ 4,935,363 

Note. — The value of the building stone used in the construction 
of the State Capitol is taken at $1,000,000 and is included in the 
above Ogurea. 



The Mineral Besources of Texas 41 
Texas Hlii«nd Products, 1887. 

Clay ated .| 400,000 

Coal i tona 150,000 

Iron < 9,000 

value 80,000 

Pig Iron, 3,900 78,000 

Silver, 193,798 value 189,534 

All other products, including building stone, cement, 

gypBum, Bait, etc., eetlmated 100.000 



Total I 1,006,534 

Texas Miperal I'roductn, 1888. 

Clay products, eatlmated value ( 600,000 

Coal and lignite, 90 _' 184,600 

Iron ore, estimated, 16,000 abort tons 15,000 

Lime, 139,476 barrels 125,000 

Pig Iron, 6,862 long tons 117,240 

Silver, 232,568 ounces, commercial value 218,604 

All other products, including building stone, cement, 

gypsum, salt, etc 125,000 

Total S 1,256,344 

Texas Mineral Products, 1889. 

Clay products, estimated t 600,000 

Coal and lignite, 128,216 short tons 340,617 

6,828 

22,550 

short tons 13,000 

6,700 

217,835 

TOO gallons 10,354 

ralue 340 

tons 80,880 

Sandstone, value .• 14,661 

Silver, 334,165 ounces, commercial value. . .' 303,418 

All other products. Including ceraent, gypsum, salt, etc. . 143.300 

Total I 1.760,473 

Texas Mineral Products. 1890. 

Cement, hydraulic, 40,000 barrels $ 40,000 

Clay products, estimated value 700 000 

Coal and lignite, 184,440 short tons 465,900 

Qranlte, value 22.650 

Iron ore, 22,000 tons 22,000 

gallons 16,040 

227 

_ ns. . , 193 380 

Sliver, 300,690 ounces, commercial value 3121709 

All other products, estimated 200,000 

Total t 1,992,806 



42 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Texu Mineral ProdacU, 1891. 

Cement, hydraulic, 40.000 barrels I 40,000 

Clay products, estimated 800,000 

Coal and lignite, 172,100 short tons 412.360 

Granite, value 7B,000 

Iron ore, 61,000 long tons 51.060 

Limestone, value 175,000 

Mineral waters, 271,410 gallona 23.132 

Petroleum, 64 barrels 227 

Pig Iron, 18,602 long tons 372,040 

Sandstone, value 6.000 

Sliver, 376,000 ounces, commercial value 370,500 

All other products, estimated value 200,000 

Total I 2,525,259 

Texaa MlnenU Products, 1892. 

Cement, hydraulic. 40,000 barrels t 40,000 

Clay products, estimated value 900.000 

Coal and lignite, 245,690 short tons 569,333 

Granite, value EO.OOO 

Iron ore, 24,903 long tons 24,000 

180,000 

406,400 gallons 24,535 

barrels 225 

^J long tons 172,260 

barrels ■ 99,600 

lue 48,000 

) ounces, commercial value 287,087 

All other products, estimated value 200,000 

Total I 3.295.240 

Texas Miner*! Prodnctn, l(t»8. 

Cement, hydraulic, 10,000 barrels S 27,500 

Clay products, estimated value 1,000,000 

Coal and lignite, 302,206 short tons 688,407 

Granite, value 38,991 

Irwn ore, 25,620 long tons 25,000 

Limestone, value 28,100 

Mineral waters, 359,070 gallons 21,957 

Natural 500 

barrels 210 

Pig Iron. 6,216 long tone 124.300 

Salt, 126,000 barrels 110,267 

Sandstone, value 77,676 

Silver, 349,400 ounces, commercial value 272,530 

All other products, esUmated 260,000 

Total -..I 2,665,437 

Texas Mineral Products, 1804. 

Asphalt, 3.000 short tons » 45,000 

Cem^t — Hydraulic, 12.000 barrels, (18.000; Portland, 

8.000 barrels. 124.000 42,000 

Clay products, value 1,028,853 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 43 

Coftl and Ugnlte, 420,S4S short tons 976.4&S 

Gold, 209 ounces *,300 

Orpsom, S,92E short tons 27,300 

Iron ore, 15,361 long tons 11,521 

13.308 

41,526 

867,950 gallons 162,220 

irrels 420 

ng tons 93,420 

rrolB 101,000 

62,350 

luoces, commeTcial value 270,467 

All otber products, estimated 236,692 

ToUl t 3,116,836 

TexM Mlnw»l Prodncta, 1895. 

ABptutlt, 1,060 short tons | 10,000 

Asphalt, crude rock, 3,600 short tons 17,500 

10,000 barrels, tl7,000; Portland, 

1 SI! 0.000 47,000 

Clay 1,030,446 

Goal ai 59 short tons 725,000 

Gypsnii short tons 36,511 

Iron oi ong tons 6,278 

30,700 

62,526 

79,570 gallons 72,100 

I 350 

2 long tons 93,640 

barrels 55,000 

Sandstone, value 97,336 

Silver, 460,000 ouncee, commercial value 292,850 

All other products, estimated 269,300 

Total i 2,856,537 

Texas Mineral Products, 1896. 

Asphalt, crude rock, 5,000 tons | 25,000 

!,000 barrele, flS.OOO; Portland, 

00 42,000 

and tile, 1857,672; pottery, 

915,753 

'i^^ 544,015 short tons 896,251 

8,000 

Gypsum, 16,022 short tons 25,000 

Iron ore, 4,771 long tons 3,583 

60,000 

value 77,252 

,005,912 gallons 172,138 

Petroleu barrels 4,000 

Pig iron. 1,221 long tons 24,420 

Salt, estimated 160,000 barrels 75,000 

Sandstone, value 36,000 

Silver, 626,400 ounces, commercial value 352,543 

All other products, estimated 240,000 

Total t 2,956,940 



44 BtMetin of the University of Texas 

Texas Mineral Products, 1897. 

Asphalt, 65 short tons $ 650 

Cement — Hydraulic, 11,390 barrels, $17,085; Portland, 

7,779 barrels, $23,334 40,419 

Clay products — -Brick and tile, $1,134,829; pottery, 

$62,210 1,197.039 

Coal and lignite, 639,341 short tons 972,323 

Gold, 358 ounces 7,400 

Granite, value 3,500 

Gypsum, 24,454 short tons 65,651 

Iron ore, 13,588 long tons 13,588 

Lime, value 21,862 

Limestone, value 57,258 

Mineral waters, 2,060,292 gallons 38,745 

Petroleum, 65,975 barrels 65,975 

Pig iron, 6,175 long tons 123,500 

Salt, estimated, 225,500 barrels 122,750 

Sandstone, value 30,000 

Silver, 404,700 ounces, commercial value 241,970 

All other products, estimated 328,138 

Total $ 3,330,798 

Texas Mineral Products, 1898. 

Asphalt, 80 short tons $ 1,000 

Cement — Hydraulic, 11,000 barrels, $16,500; Portland, 

8.000 barrels. $24,000 40,500 

Clay products — Brick and tile, $631,738; pottery, $55,- 

342; miscellaneous, $71,131 758,211 

Coal and lignite, 686,734 short tons 1,139,763 

Granite, value • 4,685 

Gypsum, 34,215 short tons * 58,130 

Iron ore, 9,705 tons 3,882 

Lime, value 38.531 

Limestone, value 70,321 

Mineral waters, 842,100 gallons 25.120 

Petroleum, 546,070 barrels 382,249 

Pig iron, 5,178 long tons. : 103,560 

Salt, 254,284 barrels 119,700 

Sandstone, value 77,190 

Silver, 472,900 ounces, commercial value 283.200 

All other products, estimated 311,469 

Total $ 3,417,511 

Texas Mineral Products, 1899. 

Cement — Hydraulic, 12,000 barrels $ 12,400 

Clay products — Brick and tile, $1,139,067; pottery. 

$82 052 . . 1 221 119 

Coal and lignite. 883,832 short tons 1^3341895 

Gold, 334 ounces 6,900 

Granite, value 84.945 

Gypsum, 53,773 short tons 110,000 

Iron ore, 14,729 tons 14,729 

Lime, value 79,399 

Limestone, value 100,025 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 45 

Mineral waters, 4.729,950 gallons 155,047 

Petroleum, 669,013 barrels 473,443 

Pig iron, 5,803 long tons 116,060 

Quicksilver, 1,000 flasks 42,000 

Salt, 312,436 barrels 204,330 

Sandstone, value 35,738 

Silver, 520,000 ounces, commercial value 312,000 

All other products, estimated 270,601 



V 



Total $ 4,573,631 

Texas Mineral Products, 1000. 

Cement — ^Hydraulic, 17,000 barrels, $28,900; Portland. 

26,000 barrels. $52.000 $^ 80,900 

Clay products — Brick and tile, $1,083,553; pottery, 

$87,464 1.171.017 

Coal and lignite, 968,373 short tons 1.581.914 

Gold, 53 ounces 1,100 

Granite, value .• 76,069 

Gypsum, 50,000 short tons 100,000 

Iron ore, 16,881 long tons 16,881 

Lime, value 79,659 

Limestone, value 124,728 

Mineral waters, 6,438,700 gallons 209,991 

Natural gas, value 20,000 

Petroleum, 836,039 barrels 871,996 

Pig iron, 10,150 long tons 203,000 

Quicksilver, 1,800 flasks 75,600 

Salt, 320,000 barrels, estimated 210.000 

Sandstone, value 37,038 

Silver, 477,400 ounces, commercial value 295,988 

All other products, estimated 320^340 

Total .$ 5,316.222 

Texas BOneral Products, 1001. 

Cement, Portland (including one plant in South Da- 
kota) $ 215,327 

Clay products — Brick and tile, $1,632,189; pottery. 

$91,186 1.723,375 

Coal and lignite, 1,107,953 short* tons 1,907,024 

Gold, 29 ounces 600 

Granite, value 27,005 

Iron ore, estimated value 5.000 

Lime, value 93,587 

Limestone, value 209,658 

Mineral waters, 6,651,750 gallons 180,503 

Natural gas, value 18.577 

Petroleum, 4,393,658 barrels 1,247.351 

Pig iron, 2,273 long tons 45.460 

Quicksilver, 2,932 flasks 132,438 

Salt, estimated value. 140,000 

Sandstone, value 111,568 

Silver, 472,400 ounces, commercial value 284,040 

All other products, estimated 306,413 



Total $ 6.647.926 



46 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Texas Mineral Products, 1902. 

Cement — Hydraulic, 17,000 barrels, |28,900; Portland, 

165,500 barrels, |234,950 $ 263,850 

Clay prbducts — Brick and tile, |1, 595,612; pottery 

198,202 1,693,814 

Coal and lignite, 901,912 short tons 1,477,245 

Granite, value 60,000 

Gypsum, estimated •..-.. 100,000 

Iron ore, 6,516 tons 6,434 

Lime, value . . • 82,500 

Limestone, value 228,662 

Mineral waters, 6,568,550 gallons 362,446 

Natural gas, value 14,953 

Petroleum, 18,083,658 barrels 3,998,097 

Quicksilver, 5,319 flasks 239,350 

Salt, 347,906 barrels 143,683 

Sandstone, value . • ^ . 165,565 

Silver, 446,200 ounces, commercial value 236,486 

All otber products, estimated 317,500 



Total $ 9,390,585 

Texas Mineral Products, 1008. 

Asphalt, 2,158 short tons $ 30,550 

Clay products — Brick and tile» $1,374,914; pottery, 

$100,531 1,475,445 

Clay, raw, value •. . . . 2,865 

Coal and lignite, 926,759 short tons 1,505,383 

Coal tar, 154,629 gallons 13,373 

Coal gas, 131,610,100 cubic feet 205,949 

Gas coke, 8,755 short tons 50,112 

Granite, value 173,325 

Iron ore, 34,050 long tons 34,050 

Lime, value 74,038 

Limestone, value 262,053 

Mineral waters, 939,390 gallons 53,613 

Natural gas, value 13,851 

Petroleum, 17.955,572 barrels 7,517,479 

Pig iron, 11,653 long tons 233,060 

Quicksilver, 5,029 flasks 21i.2i« 

Salt, 314,000 barrels 117,647 

Sandstone, value *. . . 114,381 

Silver, 454,400 ounces, commercial value 245,376 

All other products, estimated. 325,962 



Total .$12,766,865 

Texas Mineral Products, 1004. 

Asphalt, 3 short tons $ 60 

Clay products — Brick and tile, $1,429,596; pottery, 

$106,501 1,536,097 

Coal and lignite, 1,195,944 short tons 1,983.636 

Coal tar, 185,364 gallons 13.838 

Coal gas, 139,190,500 cubic feet 211,962 

Gas coke, 10,114 short tons 60,895 

Gold, 9 ounces 186 



The Mineral Resov/rces of Texus 47 

Granite, value 348,317 

Gypsum, eBtimated value 100,000 

Iron ore, estimated value 12,000 

Lime, 35,318 short tons 141,500 

Liimestone, value 387,061 

Mineral waters, 1,142,500 gallons 64,923 

Natural gas (including Alabama), value. . . . • 14,082 

Petroleum, 22.241,413 barrels 8,156,220 

Quicksilver, 5,336 flasks 232,116 

Salt, 376,695 barrels 149,246 

Sand, 9,958 short tons 6,783 

Sandstone, value 209,313 

Silver, 385,576 ounces, commercial value 213,935 

Strontium sulphate (celestite), 17 short tons 500 

All other products, estimated 400,000 



Total $14,353,270 

Texas Mineral Products, 1005. 

Clay products — Brick and tile, $1,618,157; pottery, 

$100,788 $ 1,718.945 

Coal and lignite, 1,200,684 short tons 1,968,558 

Gold, 12 ounces. 248 

Granite, value 132,193 

Gypsum, estimated 100,000 

Ldme, 31,984 short tons 142,470 

Limestone, value 171,847 

Mineral waters, 1,526,970 gallons 144,421 

Natural gas, estimated 14,000 

Petroleum, 28,136,189 barrels'. 7,552,262 

Quicksilver, 4.723 flasks 172.362 

Salt, 444.832 barrels 142,993 

Sand and gravel, value 146.462 

Sandstone, value ^. 123,281 

Silver, 417,200 ounces 234,054 

All other products, including cement, iron ore, pig iron. 

etc 987,250 

Total . . $13,752,346 

Texas Mineral Products, 1006. 

Asphalt. 24,900 short tons $ 306.750 

Clay products — Brick and tile. $1,860,963; pottery, 

$108,635 1,969,598 

Clay, raw, 3,167 short tons 5,984 

Coal and lignite, 1,312,873 short tons 2,178,901 

Coal tar, 236,341 gallons; coal gas, 166,917,672 cubic 

feet; gas coke, 11,984 short tons 355,560 

Copper, pounds, 51,377 9,916 

Gold, 77 ounces 1,592 

Granite, value 168,061 

Gypsum, estimated 100,000 

Iron ore. 36,660 long tons 36,660 

Ume, 41,183 short tons 192,527 

Limestone, value 239,125 

Mineral waters. 1,045,315 gallons 122,085 



48 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Natural gas (including Alabama and Louisiana) 150,695 

Petroleum, 12.567,897 barrels 6,565,578 

Quicksilver, 4,761 flasks 178,829 

Salt, 360,733 barrels 170,559 

Sand and gravel, 314,110 short tons 159,367 

Sandstone, value 111,533 

Silver, 301,772 ounces, commercial value 202,187 

Zinc, 8 short tons 976 

All other products 1,524,554 

ToUl 114,751,037 

Texas Mineral Prodncts, 1007. 

Asphalt, 53,649 short tons $ 929,857 

Clay products (brick, tile and pottery) 2,557,561 

Coal and lignite, 1,648,069 short tons 2,778,811 

Gold, 48 ounces 1,000 

Granite, value 122,158 

Lead, 10 short tons 1,060 

Lime, 38,101 short tons 186,372 

Limestone, value 267,757 

Mineral waters, 1,146,279 gallons 152,233 

Natural gas (including Alabama and Louisiana) 178,276 

Petroleum, 12,322,696 barrels 10,410,865 

Quicksilver, 3,686 flasks 148,387 

Salt, 356,086 barrels 226,540 

Sand and gravel, 283,484 short tons 142,294 

Sandstone, value 108,047 

Silver, 305,300 ounces, commercial value 201,500 

Zinc, 16 short tons : 1,888 

All other products 1,391,854 

Total $19,806,458 

Texas Mineral Products, 1008. 

Asphalt, 17,167 short tons $ 350,440 

Clay products (brick, tile and pottery) 2,066,735 

Coal and lignite, 1,895,377 short tons 3,419,481 

Gold, 24 ounces 500 

Granite, value 190,055 

Lead, 42 short tons 3,528 

Lime, 33,725 short tons 144,118 

Limestone, value 314,571 

Mineral waters, 1,586,634 gallons 151,032 

Petroleum, 11,206,464 barrels 6,700,708 

Quicksilver, 2,384 flasks 122,260 

Salt, 442,571 barrels 255,652 

Sand and gravel, 309,250 short tons 140,067 

Sandstone, value. . 154,948 

Silver, 447,000 ounces, commercial value. .• 239,100 

All other products 959^734 

Total . $15,212,929 

Note. — The production of iron ore in 1908 was 55,966 tons val- 
ued at $30,663. 



The Mineral Bestno'ces of Texas 49 
T«KM Hlnend Prodncta, 1909. 

Quantity. Value 

Asptialt, Bbort tonB 46.304 ( 867.204 

CemeDt, Portland, barrels 656,361 808,997 

3.14S.468 

1,112,228 2.S39,064 

3,456 449 

Gems and precious stones 234 

rinij mqq ounces, Troy 19 400 

173,271 

in *2 3,611 

712,212 602,881 

68,578 244.846 

'iff 341,528 

Mineral waters, gallans sold 1.033,476 98,499 

Natural gas, not separately reported. 

arrelB 9,634.467 6,793.060 

nasks 4,188 194,084 

400.315 260.286 

Sand short tons 676,606 246,365 

value 61.600 

Silver, fine ounces, Troy 408,100 212,200 

Other products 1,207,174 

Totol 117,217,807 

Note. — Other products Include natural cement, tuller's earth, 
ETPSum, natural gas, pig Iron, eand-llme brick. 

Tesaa Mineral Prodncts, 1010. 

Quantity. Value 

Asphalt, short tons 67,713 t 1,040,826 

Cement, Portland, barrels 1,292,446 1.643,729 

Clay 2,863.930 

Coal, 1,010,944 2,897.868 

2,961 376 

stones, etc 834 

19 400 

66,909 

)rt tons 881.232 763!l07 

Lime, short tons 48,200 226,952 

447,239 

sold 1,241,248 12S.649 

H feet 

barrels 8,899.266 6,606,756 

fl^^jijiKMilasks 3,320 164,413 

Salt, l^^asi: 382,164 272.668 

Sand and grarel, short tons 1,006.584 517.226 

Sandstone, value 40.471 

Silver, fine ounces, Troy 864.400 196.800 

All other 1,012,607 

Total 118.383.451 



50 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

TfXM* Hlnenl ProdncU, 1911. 

Quantity. 

Asphalt, short tons 56.826 

Cement. Portland, est. barrels. . . . 1.700,000 

Clay products 

Coal, short tons 1.007,695 

105 

Qems and precious stones, est. . - - 

Qold. fine ounces. Troy 189 

at* 

57 

870,206 

43.064 

Mineral waters, gallons sold 1.637,932 

Natural gas, cubic feet 5,503,393,000 

9,526,474 

flasks, est 2,000 

Salt, barrels 885,200 

Sand short tons 1,048,862 

Sandstone, value 

Sliver, fine ounces, Troy 444.200 

All other 

Total 



Value 

; 786,786 

1.785.000 

2,669,399 

2,491.361 

12 

1,000 

3.900 

70.488 

G13 

781,927 

218,007 

490.289 

158. 3S7 

1,014.946 

6,554.562 

84,000 

299,537 

543,866 

28,000 

239,900 

596,456 



Texas Mineral Prodncts, 1912. 

Quantity. Value 

Asphalt, short tons 94.530 | 1,404,266 

Cement, barrels 1,762,780 2,062,124 

Clay products 2.892.510 

Coal, short tons 1,088,962 2,491.361 

721 119 

Oems and precious stones 145 

Oold, fine ounces, Troy 3 63 

Oranite, value 67.618 

Oypsum, short tons 160,863 356,579 

33 2,939 

990.705 880,788 

46.629 236.101 

530.251 

Mineral waters, gallons sold 1,292.992 161.396 

Natural gas. cubic feet 7,470.373.000 1,406,077 

11,735.057 8,852,713 

>.^ flasks, est 2,700 114,750 

Salt, barrels 873,064 290,228 

Sand iWi short tons 716,468 3B4.942 

aa^SKiSB value 82.501 

"uncos, Troy 406.067 249,731 

ns 119 16,422 

161,894 

Total 122.797.015 



The Mineral Resources of Tex(is 51 

Texas Mineral Products, 1918. 

Quantity. Value 

Asphalt, short tons . . . '. 122,026 I 1,970,354 

Cement, barrels 2,108,737 2,663,063 

Clay products 3,049,349 

Coal, short tons 1,197,907 2,774,956 

Copper, pounds 34,665 5,373 

Gems and precious stones 344 

Gold, Troy ounces 16 340 

Granite, value 76,067 

Gjrpsum, short tons 161,090 345,749 

Iron ore, long tons 27,000 27,000 

Lead, short tons 113 9,910 

Lignite, short tons. 1,144,515 1,104,759 

Lime, short tons 45,897 255,893 

Limestone, value 590,289 

Mineral waters, gallons 1,187,612 132,488 

Natural gas, cubic feet 12,159,755,000 2,073,823 

Petroleum, barrels 15,009,478 14,675,593 

Quicksilver, flask, est 2,700 108,000 

Salt, barrels 355,529 278,00S 

Sand and gravel, short tons 870,943 455,908 

Sandstone, value 58,750 

Silver, Troy ounces 427,553 258,242 

Sulphur, short tons 12,000 240,000 

Zinc, short tons 326 36,546 

Miscellaneous 441,901 



Total $31,666,910 



CHAPTER II. 

DISCUSSION OF COUNTIES. 
Aiiderson-Duval, 

Before discussing the mineral resources of the several counties, 
some explanation may be necessary in respect of the plan pur- 
sued. 

It has not been the intention to list every mineral or mineral 
resource within each county, for this would be an almost endless 
task and unprofitable withal. The purpose has been to consider 
such things as now appear to be of commercial value or within 
commercial possibilities. It is realized that important discov- 
eries may be made at any time, especially in petroleum and 
natural gas. Furthermore, the progress of industrial chemistry, 
with all of its allied sciences, is so rapid that what is today of no 
special value may be of considerable value tomorrow. Take, for 
instance, the Doremus process for the extraction of alumina from 
highly aluminous clays, relatively free of iron. Up to the pres- 
ent time the chief source of alumina (from which metallic alumi- 
num, and salts of alumina are made) has been certain well known 
bauxites, from Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, etc. These bauxites 
are required to carry about 60 per cent of alumina soluble in sul- 
phuric acid and to have a low content in iron. Such clays are 
scarce, and the industry of mining and preparing them has been 
restricted to favored localities. 

The Doremus process, however, using hydrofluoric acid, prom- 
ises to bring into use aluminous clays not necessarily soluble in 
sulphuric acid, nor of as high a content in alumina. We have in 
Texas no known deposits of bauxite, but we have very large de- 
posits of highly aluminous clays almost free of iron. These clays 
may come into use as a source of alumina. 

As another instance, take Ichthyol, a medicinal preparation 
made from pyropissit (a variety of brown coal, or lignite) or 
natural asphalt. It may be found that this substance can be 
made from asphaltic limestone or asphaltic sandstone, of which 
we have large supplies in Texas. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 53 

The deposits of eelestite (sulphate of strontium) in this state 
are known to be of exceptional purity, but they are not now 
utilized. 

In speaking of mineral resources, one must bear in mind that 
not everything listed may now be of value, for the requirements 
of trade, distances from transportation, etc., must be considered. 

It would be a man unmindful of the conditions of modem 
progress who would venture to say that such and such things 
are not to be ranked among mineral resources because they are 
not now utilized. If one is to err, it is better to err as a con- 
servative optimist rather than as a progressive pessimist. 

It is to be regretted that we have so little information about 
large areas in Texas. Many of the more populous counties, al- 
ready within easy reach of transportation, are showing marked 
progress. During the last ten years the value of our mineral 
products has risen from $14,353,270 to $31,666,910. Since 1908 
the value has more than doubled. This increase has not been due 
to the value of metals or metallic ores, but to the common things 
that minister more particularly to every day life. 

But there is in Texas today a total area of more than 64,000 
square miles (a territory larger than the state of Missouri) 
concerning which our information is so meager that for all prac- 
tical purposes we must consider its mineral resources as unknown. 
This area comprises 67 counties with a total population of 194,043 
and with 1,718 miles of railroads. It represents 25 per cent of 
the total area of the state, 5 per cent of the population, and 11 
per cent of the railroad mileage. Nearly all of this domain is 
in the western and northwestern part of the state, a region now 
being penetrated by several lines of railroad. 

It may be that most of these counties are not within any 
known mineral belt, as the term is usually employed, but they 
have the liveliest interest in the most important of all minerals — 
that is, water. No fund derived from public taxation could be 
expended to better advantage than in the study of water condi- 
tions in those counties, but this very matter has received scant 
attention. The only systematic study of this most important 
matter that has been attemped for many years was besfun by 
this Bureau in Hale county in the fall of 1914. This work will 
be continued as funds are supplied, for we realize that it is a 



54 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

vital question and one that should receive the most careful con- 
sideration. 

The property valuation and railroad mileage are for the year 
1913. 

The elevations given for the county towns and those given in 
the long list of elevations have been derived from various sources, 
such as the list given in ** Gazetteer of Texas/' published by 
the United' States Geological Survey; data supplied by rail- 
roads, by private observers, etc. They are thought to be sub- 
stantially correct. The figures given are feet above sea level. 

The elevations of hills, mountains, mountain ranges, etc., are 
taken, for the most part, from the topographic sheets of the 
United States Geological Survey. Our, authority for the state- 
ment that El Capitan, Guadalupe mountains, Culberson county, 
is the highest point in Texas is the Bl Paso Folio of that Survey. 
This peak probably exceeds the height of Old Baldy, Jeflf Davis 
county, by 300 to 400 feet. 

The latitude, longitude and magnetic declination are taken 
from the reports of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
the magnetic declination being corrected to the year 1905, unless 
otherwise stated. The declination is east and varies from 7 deg. 
1 min., at Orange, in the extreme southeastern part of the state, 
to 12 deg. 33 min., at Dimmit, Castro county, in the southwest 
part of the Panhandle. At El Paso, which is considerable further 
west, the declination is 12 deg. 3 min. 

The population is from the census of 1910, unless otherwise 
stated. 

ANDERSON COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast of center; between the Trinity and the 
Neches rivers. 

County seat — Palestine; population, 11,413; elevation, 495 
ft. ; lat. 31° 47' ; long. 95° 38' ; mag, dec. 7° 51'. 

Area, square miles, 1,060. 

Population, 29,650. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 58.75. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $13,688,660. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rocks; clays; iron ore; lignite: 
limestone; salt; gravel. 



The Mineral Resources of Texcks 55 

The asphalt rocks of Anderson county are bituminous sand- 
stones. They occur at distances varying from ten to thirteen 
Hiiles northeast of Palestine. Samples from three separate lo- 
calities were examined by the University Mineral Survey, with. 
the following results: 

Analyses of Bituminous Sandstones from Anderson County 

Chapel well. Haswell well. Brule's Hole. 

Per cent Per cent. Per cent. 

Asphaltene 11.25 0.92 2.35 

Petrolene 12.09 16. 5^ 5.82 

Silica 76.71 81.60 91.83 

Sulphur 0.43 0.61 0.18 



Total bitumen... 23.34 17.44 8.17 

With the exception of the rock from the old tar well, Jasper 
county, the bituminous sandstone from the Chapel well contains 
more bitumen than any rock we have examined. 

There are excellent clays in Anderson county, but they have 
not been fully investigated. 

Northwest of Palestine there is an area of iron ore covering 
about ten square miles. The ore is of the laminated variety 
(limonite, brown hematite) and showed the following average 
composition : 

Per cent. 

Metallic iron 44.62 

SiUca 11.17 

Alumina 13.51 

Phosphorus 0.49 

There is a much smaller area to the east of this, while to the 
north there is an area considerably larger, viz., about fifteen 
square miles. In this larger area the ore is laminated and gave 
the following analysis: 

Per cent. 

MetalUc iron 48.65 

Silica 11.35 

Alumina : 8.00 

Phosphorus 0.24 

There are other iron ore areas in Anderson county, especially 
on the high divide between Still's creek and Ionic creek, where 
the area is about nineteen square miles. The laminated ores 
here had the following average composition : 



56 Bulletin of the Vmvergity of Texas 

Per cent. 

MetalUc iron 46.61 

Silica 10.72 

Alumina 10.11 

Phosphorus, trace to 0.80 

These ores are in the central-west part of the county, around 
Fosterville, Nechesville, etc. South of Palestine the iron ores 
seem to be more siliceous, and, consequently, of less value. The 
iron ore area appears to cover 47 square miles. 

The lignite area in Anderson county occupies a large part of 
the county, but no mining operations are carried on. On Caddo 
creek, about seventeen miles northeast of Palestine, where there 
is an outcrop of lignite two feet thick, the lignite had the follow- 
ing composition: 

P«r cent. 

Moisture 8.85 

Volatile combustible matter 41.28 

Fixed carbon 42.78 

Ash 7.64 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.24 

The limestones in Anderson county occur six miles west of 
Palestine, at Salt City (old Saline). The stone here is white, 
chalky, and fossiliferous, with seams of yellow calcite. The age 
is Upper Cretaceous, although the surrounding territory is Ter- 
tiary. The following analysis represents this stone : 

Per cent. 

Silica 8.28 

Alumina 2.98 

Oxide of iron 1.07 

Lime 50.72 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 88.30 

Loss on ignition 3.80 

100.10 

A considerable salt plant is in operation at Salt City, using 
Jbrines. 

ANDREWS COUNTY, 
liocation — ^West Texas, borders on New Mexico. 
»County seat — Andrews ; population, no returns for 1910. 
Area, square miles, 1,590. 
Population, 975. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 57 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,387,860. 
Mineral resources — Practically unknown. Salt occurs in shal- 
low basins and as deposits from old lakes. 

ANGELINA COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas; between the Neches and the Angelina 
rivers. 

County seat — Lufkin; population, 2,749; elev. 323; lat. 
31° 21'; long. 94° 44'; mag. dec. 7° 44'. 

Area, square miles, 880. 

Population, 17,705. 

Railroads, 7. 

Miles of railroad, 159. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,078,407. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; petroleum T; 
natural gasf ; gravel; asphaltic sandstone. 

While there are many excellent clays in Angelina county, they 
have not been fully investigated. The same may be said of the 
lignite (brown coal), although some analyses may be given. A 
brown coal, almost like pitch coal, from the Angelina river, haii 

the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 12.15 

Volatile combustible matter 87.14 

Fixed carbon 41.19 

Ash 6.50 

Sulphur 8.02 

100.00 

It was said to be hard and firm, black and with a luster like 
pitch. 

Other brown coal from Angelina county had the following 

composition : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 12.50 

Volatile combustible matter 36.37 

Fixed carbon 37.77 

Ash 13.46 

100.00 

But little is known of the iron ore deposits in this county, or 
of the oil and natural gas. 



58 Bulletin of the Univenity of Texas 

AEANSAS COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas ; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 

County seat — ^Kockport; population, 1,382; dev. 6. 

Area, square miles, 295. 

Population, 2,106. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 10.77. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,893,718. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Aransas county have not been in- 
vestigated, but as it lies wholly within the Gulf Coastal Plain, 
it may contain both petroleum and natural gas. 

ARCHER COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas.* 

County seat — Archer City; population, 825; elev. 1,085. 

Area, square miles, 960. 

Population, 6,525. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 75.17. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,869,114. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; copper ore ; petroleum ; sandstone ; 
gravel. 

No large oil wells have been brought in in Archer county, but 
the geological conditions are such as to warrant further drilling. 

The Permian copper ores occur in many places throughout 
the county, especially at the old Isbell property, north of Archer 
City. Some of these ores, especially the nodular variety of chal- 
cocite, are rich in copper, running as high as 50 to 60 per cent. 
Except in the way of sporadic and small shipments, these ores 
have not been utilized. Whether or no they can be profitably 
worked remains to be seen, but it would appear that when copper 
ore of less than one per cent in copper is now being mined, by 
steam shovel, in New Mexico, the Archer county deposits should 
be worthy of close investigation. The high content in copper 
would allow of the mining and handling of a heavy overburden, 
and the specific gravity of the ore is such as to render concentra- 
tion a comparatively easy problem. 



The MinercU Resources of Texas 59 

ARMSTRONG COUNTY. 

Location — Southern part of Panhandle. 

County seat — Claude; population, 692; elev. 3,405; lat. 
35^ 8' ; long. 101° 23' ; mag. dec. 10° 58'. 

Area, square miles, 870. 

Population, 2,682. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 32.72. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,558,141. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gypsum; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Armstrong county have not been 
investigated. 

ATASCOSA COUNTY. 

Location — South Texas. 

County seat — ^Pleasanton ; population, 420 ; elev. 365. 

Area, square miles, 1,182. 

Population, 10,004. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 79.83. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,431,750. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; sandstone; gravel; natural 
gas. 

The clays of Atascosa county have not been investigated. 

The average composition of the lignite that has been mined 

at Poteet is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 27.94 

Volatile combustible matter 24.67 

Fixed carbon 37.13 

Ash 10.26 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.04 

British thermal units per pound 8,322 

Prom some of the artesian wells that have been drilled in the 
county there is sufBcient natural gas obtaijied to be used locally 
for heating, etc. 

AUSTIN COUNTY. 
Location — Southeast Texas ; west of Brazos river. 
County seat — Bellville; population, 1,076; elev. 265; lat. 
29° 56'; long. 96° 13'; mag. dec. 8° 11'. 



66 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 712. 
Population, 17,699. 
Railroads, 4. 
Miles of railroad, 90.52. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,459,333. 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Austin county have not been inves- ' 
tigated. 

BAILEY COUNTY (Unorganized). 
Location — ^West Texas; borders on New Mexico. 
County seat — 
Area, square miles, 1,000. 
Population, 312. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 19.68. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $299,958. 
Mineral resources — ^Practically unknown. 

BANDERA COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest of center. 

County seat — Bandera; population, 419; elev. 1,258; lat. 
29° 44' ; long. 99° 5' ; mag. dec. 8° 45'. 

Area, square miles, 822. 

Population, 4,921 (inclusive of 184 sq. ms. now in Real County, 
created in 1913). 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,785,235 (in- 
clusive of 184 sq. ms. now in Real county). 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; kaolin, reported; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Bandera county have not been in- 
vestigated. 

BASTROP COUNTY. 
Location — Southeast of center. 

County seat — Bastrop ; population, 1,709 ; elev. 368 ; lat. 30"" 6' ; 
long. 97° 18' ; mag, dec. 8° 40'. 

Area, square miles, 881. 
' Population, 25,344. 
Railroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 94.63. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 



61 



Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $13,642,198. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; gravel; petroleum? 

The clays of Bastrop county have long been famous for their 
excellent qualities, and they are extensively used for the manu- 
facture of all kinds of brick, including fire brick. Some of the 
largest brick plants in the State are located in this county, and 
place on the market more than forty varieties of products. 
Through the courtesy of the Elgin-Butler Brick and Tile Com- 
pany, the Elgin Standard Brick Company, and the Texas Fire 
Brick Company, in supplying the brick for the tests, the Bureau 
of Economic Geology examined a considerable number of brick 
made in Bastrop county. 

The examinations included, among other items, the determi- 
nation of the weight per cubic foot deduced (from the specific 
gravity), the' per cent of cells by volume, the volume of cells 
in 100 parts by weight, the percentage weight of water absorbed 
and the crushing strain in pounds per square inch. The analyses 
were made by S. H. Worrell and J. E. Stullken. The following 
table gives the results obtained. 

Tests on Brick Made in Bastrop County, 



Color. 



Brown 

BulT _ 

Buff spot 

BufT spot 

Gray 

Oray 

Gray 

Oray 

Gray 

Gray buff 

Gray spot 

Gray spot 

Dark gray 

Lijrbt gray 

Lljrht irray 

Iron speckled 

Mancaoese speckled. 

Iron spot 

Iron spot 

White mottled 

BufT speck 

Baff speck 

9ray 



Marks 

Shade 



Quality 



Anal. 
No. 



Welgiht 
per cu. 
ft., lbs. 



Per ct. 

cells 
by vol. 



ElRin-Butlcr Brick & Tile Company. 



485 




1211 


110 




1*210 


220 




1212 


210 




1232 


42S 




1210 


440 




1217 


485 




1218 


481 




1241 


40O 




1242 


105B 




1434 


218 




1214 


216 




1437 


490 




1433 


415 




1485 


410 




1436 


120 




1239 


225 




1240 


125 




1430 


115 




1431 


237 




1215 



120.78 
111.2?) 
121.16 
118.50 
121.40 
118.50 
117.90 
115.80 
124.60 
119.30 
115.16 
121.90 
119.60 
120.40 
117.80 
126.10 
125.80 
126.80 
119.00 
127.77 



22 
28 
21 
25 
22 
24 
24 
26 
19 
24 
27 
22 
23 
23 
27 
17 
18 
17 
24 
14 



Vol. of 

■ells Ii 
100 pts. 
by wt. 



.49 
39 
.72 
.70 
.19 
.28' 
.60! 
.13! 
.66: 
.35 
.21 
.12| 
.12 
.55 
.45 
.08 
.93 
82 
.25 
.71 



FKIn standard Brick Company. 



360 
826 
640 



1 
1 
1 



1364 
1365 
1366 



122.20 
118.70 
123.30 



21.58 
23.00 
20.70 



Lbs. of 

water 
absorb- 
ed per 
cu. ft. 



11.62 

15.50 

11.19 

13.53 

11.41 

12.79 

13.07 

14.06 

9.86 

12.74 

14.48 

11.32 

12.06 

12.211 

14.54 

8.41, 

9.43 

8.77 

12.72 

7.19 



11.02 
12.57 
10.48 



Crush- 
ed at 
lbs. per 
^q. in. 



14.03 
17.71 
13.55 
16.03 
18.85 
15.16 
15.40 
16.30 
12.28 
15.09 
16.67 
13.79 
14.42 
14.70 
17.12 
10.60 
11.81 
11.12 
15.13 
9.18 



13.46 
14.92 
13.92 



4.844 
3.860 
5,0G7 
4,911 
5.333 
3,476 
4.560 
2.9&4 
5.570 
4,787 
4,879 
4,911 
5.496 
1.223 
4.486 
6.491 
5.787 
5.890 
4,530 
4.840 



5.096 
5.479 
6.321 



62 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

The quality of the brick made in Bastrop county is further 
illustrated by samples received from the Texas Fire Brick Com- 
pany, Dallas, with plant at Lasher. 

Buff Manga- Buff, 

nese, Shade Shade 
460 77 

Weight of a cu. ft, pounds 118.60 168.72 

Per cent, of cells by volume 23.04 26.26 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight 12.12 9.72 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 14.37 16.39 

Crushed at, lbs. per square inch 4,410 3,850 

The average composition of two samples of fire-clay from near 
Elgin is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 68.45 

Alumina 21.10 

Oxide of iron 1.10 

Lime 1.40 

Magnesia Trace 

Soda 1.25 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 0.05 

Water 6.75 

100.10 
Total fluxes 3.75 

The fusion point of these clays was about 3,000 degrees P. 
A pottery clay from near McDade had the following composi- 
tion: 

Per cent. 

Silica 74.30 

Alumina 16.00 

Oxide of iron 1.40 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia None 

Soda 0.60 

Potash 0.50 

Titanic acid 0.50 

WTater 5.07 

99.60 

Total fluxes 2.50 

Point of fusion 3,038 degrees P. 

The composition of a sample of red and brown burning clay 
for common and pressed brick, from Elgin, was as follows: 

t 

Per cent. 

Silica 70.40 

Alumina ; . . . 17.30 

Oxide of Iron 1.80 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 63 

Per cent. 

Lime 1.00 

Magnesia Trace 

Soda 2.20 

Potash 0.60 

Titanic acid 0.80 

Water 5.40 

99.50 
Total fluxes 5.60 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,498 deg. F. 
A sandy brick clay from Elgin had the following composition : 

Per cent. 

SlUca 72.70 

Alumina 9.50 

Oxide of Iron 4.10 

Lime 4.10 

Magnesia 0.80 

Soda Trace 

Potash 2.40 

Titanic add 0.60 

Water 4.50 

99.10 

Total fluxes 11.04 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,390 degrees F. 

The lignite of Bastrop county has been mined extensively by 
the Independence Mining Company, at Phelan. The average 
'eomposition of this material is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 30.98 

Volatile combustible matter 34.93 

Fixed carbon 27.67 

Ash 6.42 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.60 

British thermal units per lb 7,597 

The Calvin Coal Company also mines lignite in this county, 
but no analysis can be given. The same is true of the Standard 
Company. 

BAYLOR COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — Seymour; population, 2,029; elev. 1,290; lat. 
33^ 36' ; long. 99^ 16' ; mag. dec. 9^ 55'. 

Area, square miles, 957. 



64 Bulletin of the Uuijersity of Texas 

Population, 8,411. 
Eailroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 57.73. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,249,391. 
Mineral resources — Copper ore ; gypsum ; sandstone ; gravel. 
Permian copper ores occur in Baylor county, but they have 
not been developed. 

BEE COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Beeville; population, 3,269; elev. 214; lat. 
28° 23'; long. 97° 46'; mag. dec. 8° 55' 

Area, square miles, 875. 

Population, 12,090. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 62.45. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,461,725. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The mineral resources, of Bee county have not been investi- 
gated. 

BELL COUNTY. 

Location — Central Texas. 

County seat — Belton; population, 4,164; elev. 511; lat. 31° 4'; 
long. 97° 28'; mag. dec. 8° 11'. 

Area, square miles, 1,091. 

Population, 49,186. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 98. 

Assessed valuatioiifnf property of all kinds, $29,669,830. 

Mineral resources^^-Clays ; limestone; mineral waters; gravel; 
petroleum ; natural gas. 

The clays of Bell county are utilized in the manufacture of 

brick by the Belton Brick Company, Belton. They are classed 

as calcareous clays, and the average composition of two samples 

was as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 64.80 

Alumina 3.63 

Oxide of iron 1.57 

Lime 13.16 

Magnesia 0.90 

Soda 0.77 



T 

The Mineral Resources of Texas 65 

Per cent. 

Potash 0.45 

Titanic acid 0.45 

Water 2.60 

Carbonic acid 1 1:05 

99.72 
Total fluxes 16.86 

These clays do not bum steel hard at a temperature of 2,246 
degrees P. 

We have examined one sample of brick from the Belton Brick 

Company, with the following results: 

Weight in lbs. per cu. foot 102.60 

Per cent, of cells by volume 28.92 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . 17.60 
Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft.... 18.25 
CraaUed at, lbs. per square in 3,008 

BEXAR COUiNTY. 

Location — South of center. "^ 

County seat — San Antonio; population (1913-14), 115,065 j 
elev. 656; lat. 29° 29'; long. 98° 32'; mag. dec. 9° 35'. 

Area, square miles, 1,268. 

Population, 119,676. 

Railroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 185.69. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $105,898,862. 

Mineral resources — Cement materials; clays; lignite; lime- 
stone; natural gas; petroleum; phosphatic pebbles; sandstone; 
mineral waters ; infusorial earth ; gravel. 

The cement making materials in Bexar county (limestone 
and shale) are utilized by the San Ant 'o Portland Cement 
Company, whose plant is on the Internatioi al & Great Northern 
Railway, about five miles north of San Antonio. 

Analyses of the crude materials are as follows: 

Limestone Shale 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Silica 7.80 55.30 

Alumina 3.45 13.56 

Oxide of Iron 1.35 4.50 

Lime 46.64 9.48 

Magnesia None None 

Carbonic acid 36.65 7.45 

Loss on IgnlUon. 3.35 8.85 

99.24 99.14 

The lignite in Bexar county is not now utilized. 

fr-Mln. 



66 



Bulletin of the University of Texas 



Of limestones there are many varieties in Bexar county, from 
a softy somewhat friable and chalk-like stone, to material which 
closely resembles lithographic stone. By far the greater devel- 
opment of the limestones is along the line of the San Antonio 
& Aransas Pass Railway northwest of San Antonio and around 
Leon Springs. 

Analyses of some of these limestones are as follows: 









Balcones, used 




Leon Sprgs. 


Near 


in Federal Bldg. 




(3) 


Helotes. 


San Antonio. 


Silica 


1.80 


0.38 


1.40 


Alumina 


2.48 


1.55 


0.24 


Oxide of iron 


0.65 


0.45 


0.76 


Lime 


51.23 


52.43 


51.92 


Magnesia 


0.16 


0.25 


Trace 


Carbonic acid 


39.48 


41.20 


. 41.36 


Loss on ignition. . . 


4.14 


2.54 


2.92 



99.94 



98.80 



98.60 



The stone from the Balcones, used in the construction of the 
Federal Building in San Antonio, had the following physical 
qualities : 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 133.00 

Per cent, of cells by volume 19.09 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by wt 8.96 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft.... 11.91 
Crushed at, lbs. per square inch 2,425 

A sample of limestone received from the San Antonio Lime 
Company and representing material in a quarry 14 miles north 
of San Antonio, and on the S. A. & A. P. Railway, had the fol- 
lowing composition: 

Per cent. 

SUica 0.70 

: Alumina 0.28 

Oxide of iron 0.72 

Lime 55.05 

Carbonic acid 41.90 

Loss on ignition 2.10 



100.00 



The physical qualities of this stone were as follows: 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 167.60 

Per cent, of cells by volume 0.20 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 0.07 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.11 

Crushed at pounds per square inch 6,666 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 67 

Prom Ling & Hughes, San Antonio, we received a sample of 
limestone from Bexar county which had the following compo- 
sition : 

Per cent. 

SiUca 4.60 

Alumina and oxide of iron 3.90 

Lime 51.12 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 39.88 

99.50 

This stone had the following physical properties : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 128.25 

Pounds of water absorbed per ciibic foot 12.83 

Crushed at pounds per square inch 4,400 

The fire-clays are represented by one analysis of the clay from 

Adkins, as follows: 

Per cent. 

SiUca 69.70 

Alumina 21.50 

Oxide of iron 0.40 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia 0.50 

Soda 1.00 

Potash 0.30 

Titanic acid 0.12 

Water 7.10 

100.62 

Total fluxes 2.32 

Fusion point, deg. F 3,038 

The pottery clays are represented by two analyses, as follows : 

Myer Pottery, 2% mi. south 

Strumberg. of Elmendorf. 
Per cent. Per cent. 

Silica 65.64 68.30 

Alumina 20.48 20.10 

Oxide of iron 1.44 1.00 

Lime 1.70 Trace 

Magnesia 0.32 2.40 

Soda 0.60 0.60 

Potash 1.00 Trace 

Tltonic acid 0.27 1.20 

Water 7.50 6.60 



98.95 100.20 

Total fluxes 5.06 4.00 

Fusion point, deg. F 3,038 3,038 



68 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Bexar county clays of easy fusibility are represented by the 
following analyses of two samples from San Antonio : 

1 2 

Silica 38.08 57.04 

Alumina 11.36 11.85 

Oxide of Iron 2.60 3.02 

Lime 23.70 9.56 

Magnesia Trace 1.20 

Soda 1.60 2.01 

Potash 0.58 0.75 

Titanic acid 0.70 1.13 

Water 3.06 4.00 

Carbonic acid 18.80 8.00 

100.48 98.56 

Total fluxes 28.48 16.54 

These clays began to be viscous at a temperature of 2,174 
deg. P. 

The buff -burning, semi-refractory clays are represented by an 
analysis of a sample from Adkins, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 68.70 

Alumina 15.90 

Oxide of iron 3.30 

Lime 3.10 

Magnesia 0.50 

Soda 0.30 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid • 1.40 

Water 5.90 

99.10 

Total fluxes 7.20 

Becomes viscous at, deg. P 2,570 

The red and brown-burning clays for common and pressed 
brick are represented by an analysis of a sample from San An- 
tonio, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 59.47 

Alumina 18.24 

Oxide of iron 4.77 

Lime 4.30 

Magnesia Trace 

Soda 0.24 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 1.14 

Water 5.70 

Carbonic acid 3.25 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 69 

Per cent. 

Sulphuric acid 0.90 

Organic matter 0.55 



98.56 

Total fluxes 9.31 

Becomes viscous at about, deg. F 2,300 

The brick made in Bexar county, at Elmendorf, by the Star 
Clay Products Company, is represented by sample of stiff mud 
Star fire-brick, the physical tests of which are as follows : 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 126.7 

Per cent, of cells by volume 17.61 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight: . . 8.67 

Pounds of water absorbed per ru. ft 10.98 

Crushed at, pounds per square Inch 5,330 

A sample of dry press fire-brick from the same company had 
the following physical properties: 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 11 5.5 

Per cent- of cell* by volume '. . 25.94 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight 14.02 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 16.18 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 2,685 

On Leon creek, about 7 miles west of San Antonio, on the 
Castroville road, there is a heavy deposit of phosphatic greoi 

sand of the following eomposition: 

Per cent- 
Silica 35.18 

Alumina 5.30 

Oxide of iron 17.25 

Lime 1 ^.00 

Magnesia Tra^« 

Soda 1.39 

Potash l-«9 

CarlK>n!c acid ^.00 

Loss on ignition 10.10 

Phosphoric add 3.30 



99.21 



This deposit eoDtalns roimdcd phofphatic pebbles, from i^-ineh 
to ^-inch in diameter, of ihe following eompOfKition : 



7,^0 

Alumina .•-... ZI/jZ 

Oxide of iroa. . . . 4.5% 

Lime :i.0% 

CarboBie acid.... ... 4.CC» 

Phos]»ho(rit arid... .. 'if^.lV 

.- ItX^ 

^h,Z4 



,y 



70 BtMetin of the University of Texas 

The larger pebbles are not abniidant. For the most part the 
pebbles are very small, less than 1-20 inch in diameter. 

An examination of 10 feet of this phosphatic green sand foot 
by foot gave the following results, from above downwards: 

Phosphoric acid. 
Per cent. 

First foot , 3.09 

Second foot 2.38 

Third foot 8.22 

Fourth foot 3.07 

Fifth foot 4.00 

SUth foot 2.73 

Seventh foot 4.32 

Eighth foot 2.60 

Ninth foot 3.70 

Tenth foot 3.97 

Average 3.80 

The total thickaess of the deposit is about 20 feet, and it sets 
in at from 4 to 6 feet below the surface. 

Taking the deposit as a whole, it carries enough lime, potash 
and phosphoric acid to make it a good fertilizing agent. The 
rock is soft and easily pulverized. It could be finely ground 
and used with distinct advantage on many farm lands in south 
Texas, especially those in the vicinity of San Antonio. With 
the exception of some ** stray*' phosphate in Fayette county, 
the exact locality of which is somewhat uncertain, the phos- 
phatic pebbles from Leon creek carry considerably more phos- 
phoric acid than any other known deposit in the State. 

There are no commercial developments of natural gas in Bexar 
county, although the possibilities along the San Antonio and 
Medina rivers are such as to warrant much more extensive and 
systematic drilling than has heretofore been carried on. This 
is especially true of the country along the Medina river from 
near its junction with the San Antonio river to Somerset, (Jood 
rock-pressures have been observed in some wells bored along this 
line. 

The proximity of this district, 15 to 25 miles, to the largest 
city in Texas would of itself appear to justify careful investiga- 
tions of the situation with respect to both natural gas and pet'^- 
leum. The oil wells near Somerset now supply crude oil for h 
refinery in San Antonio. 

The Dullnig wells, which formerly yielded small amounts of 



The Mineral Besources of Texas 71 

a good lubricating oil, are not in production now. At one time 
that oil brought $5.00 a barrel, an attractive price for crude oil. 
The quality of the sand-lime brick made at San Antonio is 
represented by the following tests made on a sample received 
from the manufacturers: 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 116.1 

Per cent, of celis by volume 27.44 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . .14.75 
Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. .17.12 
Crushed at, pounds per square inch 2,116 

The composition of Dullnig's chalybeate water is as follows: 

Grains per U. S. 
Gallon. 

Magnesium sulphate 66.213 

Sodium chloride 26.213 

Ferrous bi-carbonate 3.021 

Calcium bi-carbonate 44.374 

Calcium sulphate 7,960 

Strontium bi-carbonate Trace 

Sodium sulphate 7.190 

Ammonium nitrate Trace 

Magnesium phosphate Trace 

Organic matter None 

144.228 

Analysis by James Kennedy, School of Pharmacy, University 
of Texas. 

The composition of the mineral water from San Jos6 (Terrell 

Hot Well) is as follows: 

Grains per U. S. 
Gallon. 

Silica 1.336 

Alumina 0.088 

Iron bicarbonate 0.076 

Calcium sulphate 77.241 

Calcium bicarbonate 0.612 

Calcium chloride 66.623 

Calcium phosphate 0.326 

Sodium bromide. 0.464 

Sodium biborate 0.326 

Sodium iodide 0.362 

Sodium sulphate 83.104 

Potassium sulphate 4.326 

Magnesium chloride 26.304 

Lithium 0.222 

Strontium sulphate 0.104 

230.404 

Carbonic acid gras 40.78 cu. in. per gallon 

Hydrogen sulphide gas... 9.69 cu. in. per gallon 



'IxwTf^, .iiiiiftita. 

'.•nnrr ^•>aT--.iiUiiisnn Mrr. lonniaiimi, 1-fefc: .»iev: L2fK. 
won, ^nnai'f* .Tiiii**!, "^ii. 
?Tsnlatinn. ^..III, 

.tMSMRpfi TfHiuuinn if prin«^ rf ifl. iimis. 1341134^ 
Jinpmi -»snnr?p« — -Isiir inaiia: •iaYS: limeffaae: saiiitooe: 
:rriVi>i 

liit rnano v»f»nn .n aiany iimesrane sotb* ami •a'^cras in 
ilant^n »nnnT ;. in a if ^iirnhie 'jnmposinaa. Tlie best btt 
rruma 'ontams frim 10 m 1:1 i#»r icm: iif ;nmnnnfa,. w^irfia from 
r(» "(» KT pnuniis r)Ar !Tinii» :aor imi is ^nrrii ihauc C^lOO per unit 
•r* unmnnia. leiivar-ii ir iirriiizer fahtantfaL 



ZORZES COUNTY. 
Ij)i*jinnn — W*st T *x<is ; wurhenst if Sciked 

Ai'.?fl. square m!!i»s, '•Oi 

?ipnlarion, ij^J^^i. 

Railroflila, none. 

.ViW^sed 7aliiar:r.n.':;f pncerrj if iTL kizbii^ $1326310. 

]^f:nemi resonr^'fis — Uainown. 

B'jso.ce «:ocntt. 

Lnr^nrion — N'ortbear^:: of .n*nrt*r. 

'"^oiinrv ^eat — H-cri.Iijn: tt:T:rj.inciu 713; efar. T91; Imt. 31® 
.TT': Innij. 07"' 4^)': mj. i^v t':]'!'. 

Area, siquare miles. 072. 

Ponulation. 10,01:i. 

RriilroaiLs, 2. 

Mli»«^ of railroad. 7S.oo. 

A.sscfwefi val nation ol pr»: perry of all kinds. $llj978,670. 

Afinoral resources — Clays: limestone: sravel; petroleum; nat- 
irni ris. 

The clays of Bos<:ine ooanty have not been roYeBtigated. 

We received from Mr. Barr Moore Jr.» of Ae HeCall-Moore 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 73 

Engineering Company, Waco, a sample of limestone from V/^ 
miles west of Iredell, which had the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Silica 6.10 

Alumina 1.88 

Oxide of iron 0.78 

Lime 48.69 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 38.20 

Loss on ignition 3.30 

98.95 

This stone had the following physical qualities : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 157.1 

Per cent, of cells by volume 5.24 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . . 2.08 

Pounds of water absprbed per cu. ft 3.26 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch :>,750 



BOWIE COUNTY. 

Jjocation — ^Northeast corner; borders on Arkansas and Louis- 
iana. 

County seat — Boston; population, 140; elev. — ; lat. 33° 27'; 
long. 94° 24'; majr. dee. 7° 48' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 904. . 

Population, 34,827. 

Railroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 118.51. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $15,691,768. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; mineral waters; gravel. 

The fire-clays are represented by an analysis of a sample from 
New Boston, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 73.68 

Alumina 17.01 

Oxide of iron 0.50 

Lime O.OS 

Magnesia 1.36 

Soda 0.15 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 1.57 

Water 6.00 

100.35 

Total fluxes 2.09 

Point of fusion, about 3.200 deg. F. 



74 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

The pottery clays are represented by an analysis of a sample 
from Texarkana, as follows: 

Per cent. 

SlUca 71.20 

Alumina 18.00 

Oxide of iron 0.60 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia 2.00 

Soda 0.30 

Potash 0.90 

Titanic acid 0.70 

Water 5.80 

99.60 

Total fluxes 3.80 

Point of fusion 3,038 deg. F. 

The red and brown-burning clays for common and pressed 
brick are represented by an analysis of a sample from New Bos- 
ton, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 66.01 

Alumina 18.82 

Oxide of iron 6.38 

Lime • 0.55 

Magnesia 1.88 

Soda 0.08 

Potash 0.16 

Titanic acid 0.95 

Water 4.80 

99.58 

Total fluxes 9.00 

Becomes yiscous at 2,246 deg. F. 

The sandy brick clays are represented by an analysis of a 
sample from Texarkana, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 88.71 

Alumina 4.88 

Oxide of iron 2.00 

Lime 0.30 

Magnesia 0.97 

Soda Trace 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 0.90 

Water 2.28 

100.04 
Total fluxes 3.27 

The various clays are utilized on a larire scale, especially for 
common brick, tiles, hollowware, etc. 



Th^ Mineral Besources of Texas 75 

The lignites are not now utilized. The average of three analy- 
ses of lignite from the county is as follows: 

P«r cent. 

Moistare 12.39 

Volatile combustible matter 62.82 

Fixed carbon 26.36 

Ash 8.48 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.67 

British thermal units per pound (1) 10,370 

The thickness of a seam of lignite near New Boston is 12 feet. 
A notable circumstance in connection with the lignites of this 
county is that one analysis showed 1.45 per cent of ash, 76.41 
per cent of volatile combustible matter, and 10.62 per cent of 
fixed carbon. 

BRAZORIA COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas ; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 

County seat — ^Angleton; population, 898; dev. 31; lat. 29 "^ 9'; 
long. 95° 25'; mag. dec. V ^'. 

Area, square miles, 1,438. 

Population, 13,299. 

Railroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 141.96. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $18,346,755. 

Mineral resources — Clays; petroleum; sulphur; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. There are no producing 
I)etroleum or natural gas wells in the counts', although it is rea- 
sonable to suppose that both petroleum and natural gas will be 
found there in commercial quantities. 

A large establishment for the production of sulphur from beds 
lying a thousand feet below the surface h^s been built at Free- 
port, mouth of the Brazos river, and the capacity is now about 
120,000 tons a year. 

There is reason to believe that this is a very large deposit 
of sulphur. A costly plant was built after thorough investiga- 
tions over a number of years. The method of extraction is simi- 
lar to that used at Sulphur, Louisiana, viz: by forcing super- 
heated water through pipes into the deposit, suspending and 



i^.^'Z- J . ^m ^m 



-- r m. _ nr? ul- 



.-* 



^-- - --,■ -^.: - '-\^.r^ It . ifTfim r JUL tie 



V 






I** .~i.»i*I 






T>..-»' 



•1 J 






• ■•. • 



• •« 






• • .• 






The Mineral Resources of Texas 77 



Depth below 


Thickness of 


surface. 


lignite, 


Feet. 


Feet. 


12 


2 


34 


2^ 


38 


2 


41 


7 


52 


10 



177 23% 

At the Black Shoals (Niblitz), northwestern part of the 
county, a seam of brown coal occurs in the bank of the Brazos 
river. It is shaly near the top, but is compact at the bottom 
and has a thickness of 12 to 14 feet. This deposit extends also 
into Burleson county. 

There are no producing oil or gas wells in Brazos county. 

BREWSTER COUNTY. 

Location — Trans-Pecos Texas; borders on the Rio Grande. 

County seat — ^Alpine; population, 800; elev. 4,481; lat. 30^ 
22'; long. 103° 40'; mag. dec. 10° 18'. 

Area, square miles, 5,006. 

Population, 5,220. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 115.75. 

Assessed valuation of- property of all kinds, $8,439,882. 

Mineral resources — Clays; coal; granite; lignite; lead; lime- 
stone; marble; opal; petroleum; quicksilver; silver ores; gold; 
manganese ores; topaz; zinc ores? 

The mineral resources of Brewster county are quite varied, 
but at the present time Jhe only mineral product worthy of men- 
tion is the quicksilver from the southern part. The quicksilver 
area lies about 90 miles south of Alpine and centers around Ter- 
lingua postoffice. The total value of the quicksilver produced in 
Brewster county up to the present time is more than $2,200,000. 
There are no better quicksilver ores in the United States than are 
to be found in the southern part of this county. 

The clays have not been developed, but at the time of the 
building of the quicksilver furnaces there was considerable activ- 
ity at Harry Dryden's brickyard on Terlingua creek, in the 
southern part of the coimty. The brick made here was used for 



78 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

building the quicksilver furnaces, and it had the following physi- 
cal properties: 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 101.3 

Per cent, of cells by volume 33.46 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . . 20.63 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 20.89 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 1,496 

The coal in this county occurs in the southern part and has 
been used as fuel under steam boilers at the quicksilver furnaces. 
Three analyses may be given as representing the coal in this 
district : 

Cub Spring. 

Moisture 10.65 

Vol. combustible matter... 50.91 

Fixed carbon 19.52 

Ash 18.92 



Kimble Pits. 


Chisos Pen. 


4.74 


1.16 


29.84 


32.79 


49.84 


44.53 


15.68 


21.52 


100.00 


100.00 


1.26 


3.39 


11,887 


11,950 



100.00 

Sulphur : . . . . 0.86 

British thermal units per lb. 8,432 

An excellent granite not yet developed is f oimd 2^^ to 3 miles 
south of Altuda. Near Altuda, at the old Bird & Caruthers 
mine, good silver lead ore has been mined, but there are no 
operations at present. Ore from this place has yielded as high 
as $100 a ton in lead and silver. 

South of Marathon, about 16 miles, there is a quartz which 
carries in places about $4 a ton in gold. 

Five miles south of Marathon an excellent manganese ore has 
been found, but has not been developed. 

Six miles southwest of Marathon, o^ has been found at a 
depth of 90 feet, and it rose 14 feet in the well. The yield was 
7 barrels in 14 hours. It is possible that the area around Mara- 
thon may be found to be oil-bearing in a commercial sense. The 
1,200-foot well drilled 6 miles northwest of Marathon did not 
yield oil or gas in commercial amounts. 

About 14 miles west of Alpine and nearly the same dis- 
tance south of the Southern Pacific Railroad, there is a beau- 
tiful white marble with a faint bluish tinge and a black marble 
with white markings. The locality is known as the Jordan 
quarry. A sample of the white marble from this locality had 
a weight of 130.41 pounds per cubic foot and one cubic foot ab- 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 79 

dorbed 5.42 ounces of water. This stone crushed at 3,784 pounds 
per square inch. 

The black marble from this locality has a weight of 170.35 
pounds per cubic foot. One cubic foot absorbed 4.36 ounces of 
water, and the stone crushed at 10,420 pounds per square inch. 
The chemical composition of these two stones is as follows : 

White marble. Black marble. 

Silica 2.00 3.40 

Alumina 0.25 0.50 

Oxide of iron 0.15 0.25 

Lime 54.10 54.00 

Carbonic acid 42.15 42.00 

99.25 100.66 

Beautiful agates, amethysts and opals have been found in this 
county, together with many varieties of chalcedony. 

East of Maverick Mountain, about 90 miles south of Alpine, 
in Section 120, Block G4, excellent samples of nitrate of potash 
have been found. The locality is interesting from a scientific 
standpoint, but does not appear to afford commercial possi- 
bilities. The nitrate occurs as thin veins in and encrustations on 
a porous gray sandstone of Cretaceous age. 

Native alum has been found near Ash Spring, western foot- 
hills of the Chisos Mountains, but it does not seem to occur in 
commercial quantities. 

BRISCOE COUNTY. 
Location — South of the Panhandle. 

County seat — Silverton; population, 525; elev. 3,300; lat. 34° 
28'; long. 101° 23'; mag. dec. 10° 36'. 
Area, square miles, 850. 
Population, 2,162. 
Railroads (1913), none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,581,837. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

BROOKS COUNTY. 
Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Palfurrias; population, 750; elev. 119. 
.4Lrea, square miles, 1,964. 
Population, no official statistics. County created in 1911. 



80 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Railroads, 1. 
Wiles of railroad, 3.20. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,395,202 (in- 
elusive of 1,052 sq. ms. in Jim Hogg County), 
llineral resources — Unknown. 

BROWN COUNTY. 

Location — Northwest of center. 

County seat — Brown wood; population, 6,967; elev. 1,342; lat. 
3r 44' ; long. 98° 59' ; mag. dee. 9** 18'. 

Area, square miles, 911. 

Population, 22,935. 

Railroads, 3. 

lliles of railroad, 86.03. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $11,493,835. 

llineral resources — Clays; coal; limestone; natural gajsi; pe- 
troleum; sandstone; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

Lignite occurs in the county, but this has not been developed. 
A typical form of lignite, showing carbonized woody fiber, jet 
black in color, had the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 18.04 

Volatile combustible matter 44.91 

Fixed carbon 35.83 

Ash 1.23 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.77 

British thermal units per pound . .10,794 

Petroleum and natural gas occur in the northwest part of the 
<?ounty on Ilolloway Mountain, but no commercial wells have 
been broujrht in. The natural gas wells at Bangs supply the 
town of Brownwood with natural gas. 

At the close of the year 1913 there were four good gas wells 
.in Brown county. 

BURLESON COUNTY. 

IJocation — Southeast of center, west of the Brazos river. 
County seat — Caldwell; population, 1,476; elev. 406; lat. 30** 
32'; long. 96° 46', mag. dec. 8° 33'. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 81 

Area, square miles, 677. 

Population, 18,687. 

Bailroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 68.60. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,175,100. 

Mineral resources — Clays; fuller's earth; lignite; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. Lignite is known to 
occur in the county, but there are no developed mines, nor can 
any analyses be given. 

There are excellent deposits of fuller's earth in Burleson 
county, but they have not been utilized to any considerable ex- 
tent. 

A sample of fuller's earth from Somerville gave J. C. Blake 
(A. and M. College) a bleaching power of 152 as compared with 
English earth at 100, for bleaching refined cotton seed oil. 

In a private communication from J. R. Lyon, Lyons, he re- 
X)orts that he had had many pits dug on a 100-acre tract and 
that the thickness of the fuller's earth varied from 4 to 30 feet. 
Tests of the earth made by Armour & Co., Fort Worth, were 
most favorable. Under date of November 7, 1914, R. A. Brantly, 
manager of the Puller's Earth Company, Somerville, writes that 
they now have a representative visiting the principal cotton oil 
refiners in the United States with the purpose of acquainting 
them with the character of material that can be furnished. For 
bleaching vegetable oils this earth is said to be of excellent qual- 
ity. 

BURNET COUNTY. 

Location — ^Near center (south). 

County seat — Burnet; population, 981; elev. 1,294; lat. 30° 
45'; long. 98° 13': mag. dec. 9° 4'. 

Area, square miles, 1,010. 

Population, 10,765. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 60.82. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,102,807. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock; bat guano ; copper ore; 
granite; graphite; lead ore; limestone; marble; sandstone; silver 
ore; zinc ore; granite gravel. 

The mineral resources of Burnet county are quite varied, but 

«— Mln. 



82 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

at the present time only the granite is utilized. There are many 
beautiful varieties of granite in the county : red, light gray, dark 
gray, and bluish gray. The great deposit of coarse red granite 
at Granite Mountain has been worked for a number of years, 
and supplied the stone used in the construction of the Capitol 
Building at Austin. The quality of the granite from Granite 
Mountain was determined as early as 1881 by Colonel D. W. 
Flagler, U. S. A., at the Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Illi- 
nois. It was then ascertained that the crushing strength in 
pounds per square inch was 11,891; that it absorbed an inap- 
preciable amount of water, and that the weight in pounds per 
cubic foot was 163.64. Since that time other analyses have been 
made of the Granite Mountain stone, and the weight of a cubic 
foot was found to be 165 pounds, with a crushing strain of 
13,400 to 15,225 pounds per square inch. 

A sample of coarse red granite from the old Hoover quarry, 
east side of the Colorado river, which was used in the construc- 
tion of the Tarrant county court house, Port Worth, had the 
following physical properties: 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 13,365 

A sample of dark gray granite from a quarry northwest of 
Burnet had a weight of 182.83 pounds per cubic foot, and crushed 
at 10,880 pounds per square inch. 

A sample of light gray granite from the same locality had a 
weight of 170.97 pounds per cubic foot, and crushed at 9,340 
pounds per square inch. 

Near Marble Falls there are large deposits of a granite gravel 
mixed with clay which makes an excellent road material. 

A bituminous limestone occurs on and near Post Mountain, 
near the town of Burnet. It had the followinpf corapasition : 

Per cent. 

From. To. 

Afiphaltene 1.90 7.76 

Petrolene 6.75 8.40 

Carbonate of lime 81.33 88.20 

Silica 1.50 4.16 

Sulphur 0.22 0.23 

Total bitumen 10.30 14.51 

There is to be found at this locality a bituminous limestone 
which corresponds closely in composition to the famous Seyssel 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 83 

rock of southeast France. This material occurs also north of 

Burnet. 

There is a tfain seam of coal on a cre^ tribntary to the Colorado 

river below Marble Falls. The composition of this coal is as 

follows : 

Per cent. 

MolHture 3.72 

VolaUle combusUble matter 42.27 

nxed carbon 39.41 

Ash 14.60 

100.00 

This coal does not seem to be of commercial importance. 

Copper ore associated with lead and zinc is found in the 
Hooking Talley, about 9 miles west of Burnet, and has been 
partly developed. 

The marble has not been developed, although there are some 
localities from which a stone of good quality can be obtained. 

In many parts of the county and within easy reach of rail- 
road facilities, there are large deposits of limestone of varying 
composition and qualities. 

Many anal3'8es and tests have been made in our laboratory, 
and the following eleven are selected as representative of the 
localities sampled: 



Explanatloti. 
Widow Holland's rancb, about 1% miles southeast ot Burnet. 

East Btde ol Amazon creek and about % mile east oF the A. 

& N. W. Ry. Heavy eiposure. 
Backbone Ridge (Lacy'e pasture), about % mile east ot the 

A, & N. W. Ry., where the creek cuta through the ridge. 

About 1^ mtlea north of railroad station at Marble Falle. 

Heavy exposure. 



84 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

3. About a mile northeast of the A. & N. W. Ry. station at Marble 

Falls and % mile east of the High School Building. Heavj 
exposure. 

4. R. H. Hoover. About a mile south of Delaware water-tank, A. 

& N. W. Ry. Heavy exposure. 

5. Reed Yett. About Va mile north of the A. & N. W.. Ry. and 

about 1 % miles east of Falrland. Heavy exposure. 

6. A. H. Edwards. About a mile east of the A. & N. W. Ry and 

about IV^ miles southeast of Falrland. Heavy exposure. 

7. Hoover's Point. A. & N. W. Ry., about 1% miles east of Colo- 

rado river bridge. 

8. Ferguson place. Within half a mile of the A. & N. W. Ry., 

near Falrland. Heavy exposure. Said to be an excellent 
stone for bitulithic paving. 

9. Same as 8, but sampled at a different place on the hill. 

10. Near Wood's sandstone quarry. Left hand creek. Heavy ex- 

posure. About a third of a mile from end of railroad to 
quarry. 

11. From cut on A. & N. W. Ry., a mile south of Delaware water- 

tank. Exposure 4 feet. 

The dolomites of Burnet County are also well develope<l 
within easy distances of the A. & N. W. Ry. The following five 
analyses and tests show the composition and qualities at the 
several localities noted: 

1 

Silica 5.00 

Alumina 2.54 

Oxide of iron 1.96 

Lime 30.32 

Magnesia 15.14 

Carbonic acid 40.47 

Loss on ignition 4.49 



2 


3 


4 


5 


3.00 


3.33 


4.30 


3.32 




5.43 


8.48 


12.88 


1.80 


3.18 


1.82 


2.88 


28.98 


29.38 


27.03 


28.62 


20.40 


14.32 


14.99 


10.81 


43.70 


42.00 


41.70 


40.00 


2.46 


3.00 


2.60 


0.58 


100.34 


100.64 


100.92 


99.09 


175 


175 


175 


175 


0.59 


0.35 


1.03 


o.4e 


18,450 


25,000 


18.650 


26,000 



99.92 
Weight per cu. ft. lbs. . . . 175 
Lbs. water absorbed per 

cu. ft 0.29 

Crushed at lbs. persq. in. 26,250 

Explanation. 

1. Bryant ranch, about % mile down Hamilton creek below Hol- 

land spring, about 3 miles south of Burnet and % mile east 
of the A. & N. W. Ry. Heavy exposure. 

2. Dave Holland. About a mile south of the A. & N. W. Ry. and 

about 1% miles southeast of Falrland. Heavy exposure. 

3. R. H. Hoover. About V^ mile east of the A. & N. W. Ry. and 

about 6 miles east of Fairland. East side of Hamilton 
creek about % mile below pumping station. Heavy exposure. 

4. E. O. Wengren. About % miles east of the A. & N. W. Ry. 

and about 6 miles east of Fairland. About % mile up Hamil- 
ton creek from its junction with Delaware creek. Heavy ex- 
posure. 

5. Reed Yett. About % mile east of the A. & N. W. Ry. and 

about 5 miles east of Fairland, below bridge over Honey 
creek. Heavy exposure. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 85 

There is a deposit of lithographic stone in Burnet county 
about 4 miles north of the A. & N. W. Ky. bridge across the 
Colorado river. Some attempts have been made to develop this 
stone, but none of late. A good lithograph of the court house 
in Burnet was made on this stone. The locality is worth close 
attention as a good lithographic stone, large enough for the de- 
mands of the trade, is not abundant. 

A deposit of graphite, foliated and amorphous, also occurs 
in the county, but has not been developed. 

The largest bat guano cave in Texas is in the northwest part 
of the county, about 25 miles from Burnet, and about 14 miles 
from the railroad at Lake Victor. There are probably from 
1,500 to 2,000 tons of bat guano in this cave. Bat guano varies 
a good deal in its content of ammonia, but the best of it con- 
tains from 10 to 12 per cent, and it is worth from $20 to $24 
a ton, delivered at fertilizer factories. A hopeful man, with a 
turn for figures, once attempted to count the bats coming from 
this cave, but abandoned the attempt on the plea that his arith- 
metic had "gin out." For a description of the bat guano caves 
in Texas, reference is made to an article, by the writer, in 
** Mines and Minerals," Scranton, Pa., May, 1901. Near this 
cave, and on Silver creek, there is a sandstone containing galena 
(sulphide of lead), which has been worked to a small extent. 
Samples of this deposit gave 10 per cent of lead. Another out- 
crop of galena, in limestone, is found between Fairland and 
Marble Palls, a short distance east of the wagon road. A sample 
of this ore gave 12.5 per cent of lead. The lead ore in Burnet 
county carries but little silver and no gold. 

A sandstone of good quality has been developed near Sand- 
stone Spur, A. & N. W. Ry., at the Woods' quarry. The com- 
position of the gray rock from this quarry is as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 65.60 

Alumina 8.85 

Oxide of iron 3.90 

Lime 6.00 

Magnesi: 0.80 

Soda 1.50 

Potash 6.00 

Carbonic acid . 5.98 

98.63 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 154.75 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. f i 9.4 

Crushed at pounds per sq. inch 4,450 



86 BtUletin of the University of Texas 

A ledge of gray sandstone that occurs at Hoover's Point, A. 
& N. W. Ry., about a mile from the Colorado, river bridge, has 

the following composition r 

Per cent. 

Silica 66.28 

Alumina 7.12 

Oxide of iron 4.50 

Lime 8.61 

Magnesia 1.28 

Carbonic acid 12.10 

Sulphuric acid 9.21 

99.00 

This stone crushed at 15,775 pounds per square inch. It 
weighed 153 lbs. per cubic foot and absorbed 3.74 lbs. of water 
per cu. ft. 

CALDWELL COUNTY. 

Location: Southeast of center. 

County seat — ^Lockhart ; population, 2,945 ; elev. 518 ; lat 29° 
54'; long. 97° 40'; mag. dec. 8° 50' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 530. 

Population, 24,237. 

Bailroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 55.49. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $11,981,144. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; gravel. 

The clays have not been investitgated. Lignite occurs near 
Prairie Lea and at Burdett Wells. A sample from this latter 

place had the following composition: 

Per cent. 

Moisture 8.15 

Volatile combustible matter 29.06 

Fixed carbon 39.73 

Ash 23.08 

Sulphur 1.33 

On the West Fork there occurs a siliceous limestone of the fol- 
lowing composition: 

Per cent. 

Silica 52.80 

Alumina 5.87 

Oxide of iron 1.53 

Lime 18.19 

Magnesia 0.64 

Carbonic acid 12.10 

Loss on ignition 5.00 

96.13 



. The Mineral Resources of Texas 87 

CALLAHAN COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest of center. 

County seat — Baird; population, 1,710; elev. 1,708. 

Area, square miles, 882. 

Population, 12,973. . 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 39.84. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,073,539. 

Mineral resources — ^Limestone; sandstone; mineral waters; 
gravel. 

Prom 1 to 2 miles west of Baird there is a limestone of the 

following average composition: 

Per cent. 

Silica 1.77 

Alumina 0.85 

Oxide of iron 1.45 

Lime 50.77 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 39.38 

Lobs on ignition 8.63 

97.85 

Two miles west of Baird there is a sandstone of the following 
composition : 

Per cent. 

Silica 88.00 

Alumina 4.42 

Oxide of iron 1.22 

Lime 0.80 

Magnesia 0.72 

Carbonic acid 0.80 

Sulphuric acid 1.65 

Loss on ignition 1.90 

99.51 
. CALHOUN COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas ; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 
County seat — Port Lavaca; population, 1,699; elev. 22; lat. 
28^ 37' ; long. 96° 37' ; mag. dee. 8° 10'. 
Area, square miles, 592. 
Population, 3,635. 
Railroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 55. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,783,881. 
Mineral resources — Clays; salt; gravel. 



88 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

The clays have not been investigated. There are no known 
salt deposits and such salt as may be obtained is derived from 
sea water. 

CAMEBON COUNTY. 

Location — Extreme southern part; borders on the Qulf of 
Mexico and the ftio Grande. 

County seat — Brownsville; population, 10,517; elev. 33. 

Area, square miles, 671. 

Population, 27,158 (inclusive of the portion now in Willacy 
county). 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 146.30. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $15,923,148. 

Mineral resources — Clays; salt; gravel. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

CAMP COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Pittsburg; population, 1,916; elev. 392; lat. 33*^ 
0'; long. 94° 57'; mag. dec. 8° 7' (1911). 

Area, square miles, 217. 

Population, 9,551. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 28.80. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,283,045. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; gravel. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated, although it is known that good clays occur and also some 
deposits of lignite and iron ore. 

CARSON COUNTY. 
Location — About the center of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Panhandle; population, 521; elev. 3,451; lat. 
35° 21'; long. 101° 23'; mag. dec. 11° 1'. 
Area, square miles, 860. 
Population, 2,127. 
Railroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 66.04. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,858,933. 
Mineral rasources — T^nknown. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 89 

CASS COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texaa. 

County seat— Linden ; population, 675 ; elev. 270 ; lat. 32^ 59' ; 
long. 94° 22'; mag. dec. 7° 46' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 945. 

Population, 27,587. 

Railroads, 7. 

Miles of railroad, 107.87. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,783,135. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron .ore; lignite; sandstone; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. Some years ago an at- 
tempt was made to develop the lignite, but there are no mines 
in the county now. In the northeastern part of the county lignite 
occurs at Alamo and Stone Coal Bluff. At this latter place it 
was said to be 12 feet* thick and to have the following composi- 
tion: 

Per cent. 

Moisture 15.80 

Volatile combustible matter 39.42 

Fixed carbon 39.78 

Ash 5.00 

100.00 

In respect of iron ore, however, the situation is most encour- 
aging. During the last two or three years a great deal of pros- 
pecting and development work has been done and extensive 
deposits of good brown ore have been examined in such detail 
that the engineers were able to estimate probable tonnage. One 
company reports 30,000,000 tons, another a like amount, so that 
the question of available tonnage may now be regarded as set- 
tled within a reasonable degree of accuracy. 

The ore is limonite (hydrated sesquioxide of iron), and occurs 
as a blanket formation near the tops of the hills and ridges. 
The over-burden is light, seldom reaching 6 feet, and consists 
of soil, sandy clays, etc., which are easily removed, either by 
plow and scraper or by the steam shovel. The thickness of the 
ore-bearing stratum varies from 2 to 5 feet. At some localities 
there is a considerable admixture of siderite (carbonate of iron) 
with the limonite. 

Shipments H)f ore that had not been washed or calcined gave 
57 per cent of iron. Just how much of this grade of ore is pres- 



90 Bulletin of the Umversity of Texas 

ent remains to be seen, but it is probable that a large tonnage 
of ore that will carry 50 per cent of iron, without washing or 
calcining, can be depended on. 

If the entire **bank" of ore is mined, it will be necesjttry, for 
economical reasons, to treat it by one or another of the usual 
washing and jigging processes or by means of the Goltra pro- 
cess, which dispenses with the use of water. Plans for the erec- 
tion of a washing and jigging plant of a capacity of 1,000 tons 
a day have been made, but the matter has not proceeded farther 
at this writing. 

Preliminary estimates of the cost of mining and loading a 
ton of 50 per cent ore vary from 75 cents to 90 cents. The all- 
rail freight rate to tidewater, 300 miles, is $1, so that it is pos- 
sible to lay this ore down at Galveston Bay for $1.75 to $1.90 
a ton. 

The' Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe Railway has built at Port 
Bolivar an iron ore loading dock for handling from 3,000 to 
4,000 tons of ore a day, the only one on the Atlantic or Gulf 
Coast south of Baltimore. 

The iron ore area of Cass County appears to cover 350 square 
miles. 

CASTRO COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest Texas; south of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Dimmit ; population, 140 ; elev. — ; lat. 34° 33' ; 
long. 102° 19' ; mag. dec. 12° 33'. 
Area, square miles, 870. 
Population, 1,850. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 2.48. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,289,433. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

CHAMBERS COUNTY. 
Location — Southeast Texas ; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 
County seat — Anahuac; population, 300; elev. 23. 
Area, square miles, 648. 
Population, 4,234. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 18.06. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 91 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,206,115. 
Mineral resources — Clays ; salt, from evaporation of sea water. 
Near Cedar Bayou there is a sandy brick clay of the following 
comi)asition : 

Per cent 

SiUca 85.60 

Alumina 6.71 

Oxide of iron 1.44 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia 0.48 

Soda 0.65 

Potash 0.50 

Titanic acid 1.00 

Water 3.10 

99.48 
Total fluxes 3.02 

This clay does not bum steel hard at a temperature of 2,390 
deg. P. 

This clay is worked in yards around Cedar Bayou. 

CHEROKEE COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas; east of the Neches river. 

County seat — ^Rusk ; population, 1,558 ; elev. 489. 

Area, square miles, 990. 

Population, 29,038. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 154.31. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $11,891,855. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; sandstone; gravel. 

The brick manufactured are represented by a sample, several 
years old, from the Rusk Brick Company. The results of the 
examination were as follows: 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 111.9 

Per cent, of cells by volume 29.09 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . 16.24 

Pounds of water absorbed, per cu. ft. • . . 18.17 

Crushed, at pounds per square inch 1,498 

The buff-burning semi-refractory clays for common and 
pressed brick are represented by the following analysis of a sam- 
ple taken at Rusk : 



92 BtMetin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

SiUca 82.45 

Alumina 10.92 

Oxide of iron 1.08 

Lime 0.22 

Magnesia 0.96 

Soda None 

Potash None 

Titanic acid 1.00 

Water 2.47 

99.10 
Total fluxes 2.26 

At a temperature of 2,890 deg. F. this day showed a tendency 
to blister. 

The sandy brick clays of this county are represented by an 
analysis of a sample taken at Busk. The composition was as 
follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 72.76 

Alumina 14.46 

Oxide of iron 3.81 

Lime 0.08 

Magnesia 1.93 

Soda Trace 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 1.43 

Water 4.61 

99.08 
Total fluxes 5.82 

This clay becomes viscous at a temperature of 2,570 deg. F. 

There is a good deal of lignite in Cherokee county, especially 
around Alto, but the seams are somewhat thin and no mining 
operations are conducted now. The following analysis gives the 
average composition of the better quality of lignite. 

Per cent. 

Moisture 7.57 

Volatile combustible matter 48.62 

Fixed carbon 37.52 

Ash 6.29 

Sulphur 2.13 

The iron ores of Cherokee county have been utilized for more 
than 50 years in the manufacture of iron, but no pig iron has 
been produced in the county since 1909, when the State furnace 
at Busk was closed down. With respect to the iron ore situation 
it can be said that excellent ores are to be found in many parts 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 93 

of the county, especially on Gent Mountain, north of the rail- 
road between Palestine and Rusk. So far as can now be ascer- 
tained, the ores used in the State furnace at Rusk contained 
from 43 to 45 per cent of iron. 

What has been said with respect to the iron ores of Cass 
county applies also to the iron ores of Cherokee county, with 
the exception that no such close estimate of tonnage has been 
made in this county as was made in Cass county. 

The total iron ore area in this county is probably not less than 
350 to 400 square miles. 

The old Alcalde (State) furnace at Rusk was built in 1883, 
and put in blast February 27, 1884. It was a charcoal furnace, 
55x10 1-6 feet. It was rebuilt in 1896 and had an annual capac- 
ity of 10,000 tons of pig iron. It was changed to coke in 
1903-04, capacity 23,000 tons, and discontinued in 1909. There 
was a cast-iron pipe foundry connected with the furnace. For 
several years all of the operations, including the mining of the 
ore and charcoal burning, were conducted with convict labor. 
The Star and Crescent furnace, near Rusk, was built in 1890-91, 
and put in blast November 26, 1891. It was a charcoal furnace, 
65x11 feet, and had an annual capacity of 18,000 tons of pig 
iron. The charcoal was made at the furnace in large beehive 
ovens. This furnace has not been in operation for some years. 

The Tassie Belle furnace. New Birmingham, near Rusk, was 
built in 1889-90. It was also a charcoal furnace, 60x11 feet, and 
had an annual capacity of 13,500 tons of pig iron. It has been 
idle for a number of years. 

These three furnaces and the one at Jefferson, Marion county, 
are the only iron furnaces in Texas. It has been several years 
since any of them was operated. 

The combined annual capacity of the four furnaces was 72,500 
tons of pig iron. 

CHILDRESS COUNTY. 
Location — ^Northwest Texas; southeast of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Childress; population, 3,818; elev. 1,877; lat. 
34° 26' ; long. 100° 9' ; mag. dec. 10° 45'. 
Area, square miles, 660. 
Population, 9,538. 
Bailroads, 1. 



94 Bulletin of the Ur' - of Texas 

Miles of railroad, 28. 

AsBessed valnation of propertN b, $5,275,765. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

C!LAY COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas ; borders on the Red river. 

County seat — Henrietta; population, 2,104; elev. 886; lat. 
33^ 49'; long. 98^ 12'; mag. dec. 9° 19'. '' 

Area, square miles, 1,250. 

Population, 17,043. 

Railroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 95.35. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $14,483,375. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock; clays; natural gas; petro- 
leum; gravel. 

The asphalt rocks have not been investigated, but it is likely 
that they are bituminous sar Istones of the same character as are 
found around St. Jo and > mster, Montague county. 

The clays of this county Have not been investigated. 

The petroleum and natur 1 gas areas are in the northeast part 
of the county around Petrolia. Down to the close of the year 
1913 the total value of the crude petroleum produced in what is 
known as the Henrietta-Petrolia field was $996,741, representing 
1,312,612 barrels of 42 gallons each. 

The natural gas from Petrolia is piped to many north Texas 
cities and towns. Up to the 1st of November, 1913, the pipe line 
mileage of the Lone Star Gas Company from Clay county was 
366, not inclusive of gathering lines. The total valuef of the 
natural gas produced in the year 1913 was $2,073,823, the greater 
part of which is to be ^>' ^Ued to Clay county. The total quan- 
tity of gas produced i "Us in Texas in 1913 was 12,159,- 
755,000 cubic feet, of '^[^ ? price of 17.05 cents per thou- 
sand cubic feet. The of this gas was from Clay 
county. 

The natural gas fr< *xi Clay county has a heating value of 
700 British thermal units per cu. ft., due, almost entirely, to 
its content of marsh gas (methane). At the close of the year 
1913 there were 33 gas wells in Clay County operated by four 
companies, viz: Lone Star Gas Company, Wichita Falls Qaa. 



The '' .resources of Texas ^ , 95 

Company, Henrietta ip Company, and Developers' Oil 

and Oas Company. 

The geology of the oil and gas fields of Clay county have 
been investigated by J. A. Udden, geologist for the Bureau of 
Economic Geology. His report was issued in 1912 as Bulletin 
No. 246, *'The Oil and Gas Fields of Wichita and Clay Coun- 
ties," p'^d may be obtained on application to the Bureau. 

COCHRAN COUNTY (Unorganized). 

Location — ^Northwest Texas ; in Staked Plains ; borders on New 
Mexico. 

Area, square miles, 957. 

Population, 65. 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $527,936. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. ^^ 

;1. 
COKE COUf JTY. 

Location — ^Northwest of center, b 

County seat — Robert Lee; population, 582; elev. — ; lat. 31® 
54'; long. 100° 29'; mag. dec. 10° 7'. 

Area, square miles, 850. 

Population, 6,412. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 32.56. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,215,825. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock; clays; gypsum; limestone; 
gravel. 

The mineral resources have not beer ' ^^estigated. 

COLEMAN ST. 

Location — ^Northwest of ,; 

County seat — Coleman; i 046; elev. 1,690; lat. 

31° 50'; long. 99° 25'; mag. dec. 9° 3o . 
Area, square miles, 1,302. 
Population, 22,618. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 63.83. 
Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $13,119,970. 



96 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Mineral resources — Clays; coal; glass sand; limestone; nat- 
ural gas; petroleum; sandstone; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

The coal has been mined to a small extent, but there are no 
operations in the county at the present time. Analyses of the 
coal from near Rockwood, and from the old Silver Moon mine, 
northeast of Santa Anna, are as follows: 

Rockwood. Silver Moon. 

Moisture 3.07 2.36 

Volatile combustible matter 33.05 38.55 

Fixed carbon 39.10 43.88 

Ash 24.78 15.21 

100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 3.10 5.91 

The best analysis of the coal from near Rockwood gives, ash 
9.79 and sulphur 2.22. 

We have examined two samples of limestone from Coleman 
county, near Santa Anna, with the following results: 

Gray. Light red^ 

Silica 0.74 4.00 

Alumina 0.72 1.36 

Oxide of iron 0.58 1.30 

Lime 54.77 50.15 

Carbonic acid. . 41.60 39.40 

Loss on Ignition 2.40 3.10 



• • 



100.81 99.31 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 143.8 167.9 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 8.84 0.36 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 3,125 5,760 

An extensive deposit of excellent glass sand occurs at Santa 
Anna. This material contains about 98.5 per cent of silica. 

In the southeastern part of the county near Trickham both 
petroleum and natural gas have been found in commercial quan- 
tities, and it is thought that this field is of a promising charac- 
ter. The gas is now piped to Santa Anna. 

The quality of the sand-lime brick made of material from 
Coleman county is represented by tests on a sample received 
from J. W. Parker & Sons, Santa Anna, as follows: 

Weight of a cubic foot, lbs 108.5 

Per cent, of cells by volume 33.29 

Volume of cells In 100 parts by weight. . . 19.16 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 20.78 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 1,418 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 97 

COLLIN COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — ^McKinney; population, 4,714; dev. 592; lat. 
33^ 13' ; long. 96° 36' ; mag. dec. 8° 44'. 
Area, square miles, 828. 
Population, 49,021. 
Bailroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 160.01. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $27,829,119. 
Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; gravel. 
The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

COLLINaSWOETH COUNTY. 
Location^-^utheast comer of the Panhandle. 
County seat — ^Wellington; population, 576; elev. 1,980; lat. 
34** 51'; long. 100° 12'; mag. dec. 11° 6'. 
Area, square miles, 900. 
Population, 5,224. 
Bailroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 15.52. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,898,642. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

COLORADO COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; traversed by the Colorado river. 

County seat — Columbus; population, 1,824; elev. 201; lat. 
29*^ 41'; long. 96° 32'; mag. dec. 8° 58' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 948. 

Population, 18,897. 

Bailroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 114.40. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $13,579,737. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

For bleaching refined cotton seed oil a sample of fuller's earth 
from near Weimar gave J^ C. Blake (A. and M. College) a power 
of 53 as compared with English earth at 100. 

The mineral resources have not been fully investigated. 

7— MIn. 



98 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

COMAL COUNTY. 

Location — South of center. 

County seat — ^New Braunfels; population, 3,165; elev. 637. 

Area, square miles, 569. 

Population, 8,434. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 49.51. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,945,198. 

Mineral resources — Bat guano ; limestone; marble; gravel. 

The Dittlinger Lime Company, New Braunfels, has been en- 
gaged for several years in the development of the limestones of 
Comal county. It has a large plant on the I. & G. N. Ry. a 
few miles south of New Braunfels. The following analyses rep- 
resent the limestones from this locality : 

1 2 

Silica 0.21 0.16 

Alumina 0.16 0.33 

Oxide of iron trace 0.43 

Lime 55.35 50.50 

Magnesia 0.03 0.07 

Carbonic acid 43.17 39.68 

Loss on ignition 1.25 7.52 

100.05 98.69 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 155.42 163.7 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 5.33 1.01 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 12,077 5,000 

The composition of the white lime made by the Dittlinger Lime 
Company is as follows, average of three analyses: 

Per cent. 

Silica 0.33 

Alumina 0.22 

Oxide of iron 0.41 

Lime 93.83 

Carbonic acid 0.80 

Loss on ignition 3.50 

99.09 

COMANCHE COUNTY. 

Location — North of center. 

County seat — Comanche; population, 2,756; elev. 1,358; lat. 
Sr 53' ; long. 98° 36' ; mag. dec. 9° 20'. 
Area, square miles, 828. 
Population, 27,186. 
Railroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 91.86. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 99 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $11,789,449. 

Mineral resources — Clajrs; coal; limestone; glass sand; gravel. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. The glass-sand has been used in the glass works at Wich- 
ita Falls. 

The sand-lime brick made in Comanche county are repre- 
sented by the tests made on a sample from the Comanche Brick 
Company, Comanche, as follows: 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 104.88 

Per cent of cells by volume 38.20 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 22.70 
Pounds of water absorbed per cu.ft.... 23.80 
Crumbing strength, pounds per sq. in 2,618 

CONCHO COUNTY. 

Location — ^West of center. 

County seat — Paint Rock; population, 800; elev. 1,64D; 
Ist. 31° 30^; long. 99° 55'; mag. dec. 9° 58'. 
Area, square miles. 941. 
Population, 6,654. 
Bailroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 33.22. 

Aissessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,471,897. 
Mineral resources — Clays; pulverulent silica ; gravel. 
The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

COOKE COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas; borders on the Red river. 

County seat — Gainesville; population, 7,624; elev. 730; lat. 
33° 37'; long. 97° 9'; mag, dec. 9° 18'. 

Area, square miles, 1,000. 

Population, 26,603. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 59.62. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $16,471,897. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock ; clays ; limestone ; sandstone ; 
petroleum; gravel. 

The clays, limestones and sandstones of Cooke county have 
not been investigated. There are no producing oil wells in the 




vnv 



100 Bidletin of the University of Texas 

county, but it is thought that portions of the county lie well 
within the oil-bearing formations of this part of the State. 

The asphalt rocks occur in the western and southwestern part. 
They are bituminous sandstones of the following composition : 

Prom To 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Asphaltene trace 0.82 

Petrolene 5.31 14.17 

Carbonate of lime trace 0.66 

SlUca 87.86 98.68 

Sulphur 0.14 2.38 

Total bitumen 5.76 14.99 

The bricks manufactured are represented by a sample received 
from the Gainesville Pressed Brick Company, as follows : 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 115.40 

Per cent of cells by volume 27.11 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight 14.66 

• Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 16.91 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 2,784 

CORYELL COUNTY. 

Location — ^Near center. 

County seat — Gatesville; population, 1,929; elev. 774; lat. 
31° 27' ; long. 97° 45' ; mag. dec. 8° 51'. 

Area, square miles, 1,115. 

Population, 21,703. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 45.95. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,545,730. 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

The composition of the limestones which were used as a flux 
in the blast furnace at Rusk, Cherokee county, was as follows : 

Silica 0.10 

Oxide of iron 0.28 

Carbonate of lime 99.60 

Four samples of stone received from D. R. Boone, Lone Star 
Lime Works, Oglesby, had the following composition: 

12 3 4 

Silica 0.30 0.40 0.30 0.04 

Alumina 0.16 0.51 0.47 0.01 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 101 

12 3 4 

Oxide of iron (r.l2 0.43 0.29 0.29 

Lime 55.39 51.66 52.12 52.62 

Magnesia 0.11 Ol32 0.54 0.48 

Carbonic acid 42.61 42.40 40.95 41.50 

Salphuric acid n. d. 0.17 0.17 0.20 

Loss on ignition n. d. 2.18 4.05 4.00 

98.69 98.07 98.89 99.14 

Weight of cu. ft., lbs 154.80 150.60 124.60 144.70 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. 

ft. 6.51 4.59 13.75 6.51 

Crushed at, lbs. per square inch.. 3,811 8,778 444 2,356 

COTTLE COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest Texas; south of the Panhandle. 

Comity seat — ^Padueah; population, 1,350; elev. 1,886; lat. 
34° 2' ; long. 100° 16' ; mag. dec. 10° 22'. 

Area, square miles, 956. 

Population, 4,396. 

Bailroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 27.39. 

Assessed vahiation of property of all kinds, $4,581,538. 

Mineral resources — Unknown, with exception of copper ore 
and gypsum. 

CRANE COUNTY (Unorganized). 

Location — ^West Texas, east of the Pecos river. 

County seat — 

Area, square miles, 850. 

Population, 331. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 1.67. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $754,535. 

Mineral resources — Salt; sulphate of soda. 

CROCKETT COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas, cast of the Pecos river. 
County seat— Ozona; population, 427 ; elev. 2,500 ; lat. 30° 43' ; 
long. 101° 13' ; mag. dec. 9° 46'. 
Area, square miles, 3,004. 
Population, 1,296. 



102 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Eailroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 3.00. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,742,442. 

Mineral resources — Unknown, with exception of limestone. 

CROSBY COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas, east side of the Staked Plains. 

County seat — Crosbyton ; population, 120 ; elev. 3,058. 

Area, square miles, 984. 

Population, 1,765. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 20.43. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,530,920. 

Mineral resources — Unknown. 

CULBERSON COUNTY. 

Location — Trans-Pecos Texas ; south of New Mexico. 

County seat — ^VTan Horn ; population, 175 ; elev. 4,010. 

Area, square miles, 3,780. 

Population, 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 67.10. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,617,206. 

Mineral resources — Copper-silver ores; lead ores; limestone; 
marble; natural gas; petroleum; sandstone; sulphur; tungsten 
ores; turquois; zinc ores. 

Copper-silver ores are found in the Sierra Diablo, north of 
Van Horn. The Hazel mine is the best known property in this 
district, and has yielded excellent ores. Some prospecting for 
ores of lead and tungsten has been carried on near the Marble 
Canyon, thirty miles north of Van Horn. The marble at 
Marble Canyon has not been developed. The same may be said 
as to natural gas and petroleum, which, from geological consid- 
erations, should be found in this county. At one time there was 
considerable activity in the zinc fields northeast of Boracho, 
but no producing mines were opened. Turquois occurs near 
Van Horn, and this locality has yielded some handsome stones. 

The sulphur deposits of Culberson county occur in the eastern 
and central portions and are from ten to fifteen miles west of 



The Mineral Kesources of Texas 103 

the Pecos Biver BAilroad. In this district native sulphur is found 
in a gypseous limestone and workable deposits often begin prac- 
tically at the surface. Some years ago a plant for the extraction 
of sulphur was operated in this district, and it is reported that 
two carloads of pure sulphtir were obtained and sent to St. Louis, 
but the plant was soon closed down. The sulphur deposits occur 
in Blocks 60, 61, 62, in Township 2, and in Blocks 108, 110, 111, 
113, and 114 in Township 3. They are underlaid by gypsum and 
gypseous limestones which, in turn, are above oil and sulphur- 
bearing shales resting on sandstones. 

In Section 13, Block 113, Township 3, near Maverick Spring, 
a pit 41 feet deep gave the following : 

Feet. Inches 

Earth 1 

Gypseous sand 1 

White gypsum 3 

Gypsum, with 4 per cent, sulphur 1 6 

Hard gypseous shale and grrayel with 31 per cent, sul- 
phur 4 6 

Material carrying 44 per cent, sulphur 1 

Light brown gypseous material, with 30 per cent, sul- 
phur 4 

Soft white material with 12.7 per cent sulphur 6 

Black gravel and gypsum with 26.3 per cent, sulphur. 8 

Blue ore with 46 per cent, sulphur, streaky 11 

41 ft. 

The pit left oflf in the so-called **blue ore.'' Prom 614 feef 
below the surface to 41 feet there were 34^4 feet of material car- 
rying from 12.7 per cent to 46 per cent of sulphur. Of this 
34% feet, there were 28% feet that carried from 26 to 46 pel 
cent. 

The total thickness of the sulphur-bearing formation is no^ 
known. 

No serious attempts to develop this sulphur district have bee> 
made during the last fifteen years, although the situation is sue' 
as to merit a much closer examination than has yet been madf 
There are several localities where excellent sulphur sets in at th*- 
surface, and many of the old pits now show good material from 
the surface to a depth of 10 to 15 feet. The overburden generally 
is light, and there would be no serious difficulty in handling this 
and the sulphur ore by means of a steam (or gasoline) shovel. 

There is no solid fuel in the district, and good drinking wato*- 



104 Bulletin of the UniversUy of Texas 

is not plentiful But a crade oil that conld be used in a Diesel 
engine is found at shallow depths a few miles from the sulphur 
area. 

DALLAM COUNTY. 

Location — Extreme northwest comer of Panhandle. 
County seat — ^Dalhart; i>opulation, 2,580; dev. 3,985; lat. 
36° 4' ; long. 102° 31' ; mag. dec. 12° 2'. 
Area, square miles, 1,463. 
Population, 4,001. 
Bailroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 63.47. 

Asessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,763,300. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

DALLAS COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — Dallas; population (1913-14), 111,986; elev. 
425; lat 32° 45'; long. 96° 45'; mag. dec. 8° 44' (1911). 

Area, square miles, 900. 

Population, 135,748. 

Bailroads, 10. 

Miles of railroad, 301.29 (not including electric lines). 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $129,550,350. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel; limestone ; eemoit mate- 
rials. The clays, limestones and shales are ixaed in the manufac- 
ture of Portland cement on a large scale in two establishments 
near Dallas, viz. : the Trinity Portland Cement Company and the 
Texas Portland C^nent Company. 

The red and brown burning days are represented by the aver- 
age of four analyses of samples from west Dallas, as follows : 

Per cent. 
Silica 55.20 

Alnmtfi^ ' 22.90 

Oxide of iron 4.62 

Lime 1.95 

Magnesia 1.41 

Soda 0.61 

Potash 0.67 

Titanic acid 1.33 

Water 6.24 

Carbonic acid 1.88 



The Mineral Resovrces of Texas . 105 

Per cent. 

Organie matter 2.79 

Sulphuric acid 0.90 

100.50 

These clays became steel hard at temperatures ranging from 
1,922 to 2,102 degrees P. 

The composition of the shale which is used near Dallas for 
making Portland cement is represented in the following analysis : 

Per cent. 

SlUca 57.26 

Alumina 18.45 

Oxide of iron 8.25 

Lime 1.52 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 1.20 

Sulphuric acid None 

Loss on Ignition 13.00 

99.68 

DAWSON COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas, south of Staked Plains. 

CJounty seat — ^Lamesa ; population, 500 ; elev. 3,200. 

Area, square miles, 900. 

Population, 2,320. 

£ailroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 17.83. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,838,026. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

DEAF SMITH COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest part of Panhandle; borders on New 
Mexico. 

County seat — Hereford; population, 1,750; elev. 3,806; lat. 
34*^ 49' ; long. 102° 24' ; mag. dec. 11° 42'. 

Area, square miles, 1,477. 

Population, 3,942. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 24.38. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,992,272. 

Mineral resources — Unknown. 



i.06 BuUetin of the Umversity of Texas 

DELTA COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Cooper ; population, 1,513 ; elev. 495 ; lat. 
33^ 21'; long. 95^ 41'; mag. dec. 8° 17'. 

Area, square miles, 266. 

Population, 14,566. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 30.19. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,833,480. 

Mineral resources — Clays. 

The red and brown burning clays are represented by the fol- 
lowing analysis of a sample from Cooper: 

Per cent. 

SiUca 53.48 

Alumina 14.76 

Oxide of iron 6.24 

Lime 8.08 

Magrnesia 1.44 

Soda 1.60 

Potash 0.85 

Titanic acid 1.00 

Water 6.90 

Carbonic acid 4.66 

99.01 
Total fluxes 18. .21 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,174 degrees P. 
and was steel hard at 2,102 degrees F. 

DENTON COUNTY. 

Location — North Texas. 

County seat — Denton; population, 4,732; elev. 620; lat. 
83° 12'; long. 97° 8'; mag, dec. 9° 18' (1911). 

Area, square miles, 865. 

Population, 31,258. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 99.14. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $19,398,170. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron gravel for road-making; min- 
eral waters; limestone. 

The pottery clays are represented by two anlyses of samples 
from near Denton and Lloyd, as follows: 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 



107 



Near Denton. Near Lloyd. 

Silica 69.56 70.00 

Alumina 15.69 18.70 

Oxide of iron 2.37 1.20 

Lime 2.38 0.50 

Magnesia 2.00 1.20 

Soda 0.87 1.50 

Potash 0.77 Trace 

Titanic acid . , 1.20 1.00 

Water 5.00 6.10 

99.84 100.20 

Total fluxes 8.29 3.40 

These clays bum steel hard at a temperature of 1,994 degrees 
P. and vitrify at 2498 degrees F. 

The buff-burning semi-refractory clays are represented by 
three analyses of samples taken at Denton, as follows : 

Top layer. Middle layer. Bottom layer. 

Silica 57.00 51.50 56.20 

Alumina 25.59 17.60 23.70 

Oxide of iron 3.44 16.60 1.50 

Lime 0.96 1.00 0.60 

Magnesia 0.72 1.10 1.50 

Soda 0.82 Trace 2.20 

Potesh 0.94 1.50 1.4/0 

Titanic acid 1.87 1.60 1.60 

Water 10.00 7.70 11.10 

100.34 98.60 99.80 

Total fluxes 6.98 20.20 7.20 



The day from the top layer showed signs of becoming viscous 
at a temperature of 2,498 deg. F. The clay from the middle layer 
became steel hard at 2,246 degress F., and the clay from the 
bottom layer vitrified at 2,498 degrees F. 

The quality of the brick made is shown by the results of test- 
ing two samples, several years old, from the Denton Brick & Tile 
Company, as follows: 

1 2 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 121.40 107.30 

Per cent, of cells by volume 25.50 29.66 

Volume of cells In 100 parts by weight 13.16 17.26 
Pounds of water absorbed per cu. 

foot 15.97 18.51 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. in 2,518 1,792 

The brick made at Denton by the Acme Pressed Brick Com- 
pany of Port Worth are represented as follows : 



108 BtMetin of the University of Texas 

Volume of Pounds of 

Weight. Per cent. cells in water ab- Cmslied 

per cu. ft. of cells by 100 parts sorbed per at pounds 

lbs. Vol. by weight. cu. ft. per sq. In. 

1 149.50 5.39 2.25 3.36 6,644 

2 150.70 3.67 1.52 2.29 5,926 

3 128.90 4.41 1.98 2.55 7,696 

4 151.60 3.40 1.40 2.12 7,242 

5 130.80 9.86 4.71 6.16 7,442 

6 122.60 16.25 8.27 10.18 5,860 

7 120.40 21.30 11.04 18.29 4,282 

Explanation: 

1. Smooth vitrified. 

2. Aztec A. 

3. Aztec B. 

4. Aztec B A. 

5. Denton, light Blemish, grade 1. 

6. Denton, dark bronze, grade 1. 

7. Denton, dark fire flashed, grade 1. 

Composition of water from Brock's mineral well, Denton, 

Texas : 

Grains per 
U. S. Gal. 

Calcium sulphate 130.31 

Calcium carbonate 87.50 

Calcium chloride 13.86 

Magnesium sulphate 45.00 

Magnesium carbonate 16.80 

Magnesium chloride 11.86 

Sodium sulphate 24.85 

Sodium, carbonate 5.09 

Sodium' chloride 449.54 

Oxide of iron Trace 

Alumina Trace 

Organic and volatile matter 57.02 

Silica 2.09 



793.72 
Analysis by P. S. Tilson, Houston. 

DE WITT COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas: traversed by Quadalupe river. 
County seat^— Cuero; population, 3,109; elev. 177; lat. 29° 6'; 
long. 97"* 17' ; mag. dec. 8^ 24'. 
Area, square miles, 880. 
Population, 23,501. 
Railroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 72.61. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $18,563,040. 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 
The mineral resources have not been investigated. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas lOd 

DICKENS COUNTY. 
Location — ^West Texas; south of the Panhandle. 
CSonnty seat — Dickens population, 375; elev. 2,200; lat. 
33*^ 37' ; long. 100° 50' ; mag. dec. 10° U\ 
Area, square miles, 918. 
Population, 8,092. 
Bailroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 11.53. 

ft 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,973,744. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. Heavj' salt brines containini? 
chloride of potash are found at Spur. The deepest boring in 
the State, 4,489 feet, is at Spur. 

DIMMIT COUNTY. 
Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Carrizo Springs; population, 350; elev. 600^ 
lat. 28° 30' ; long. 99° 51' ; mag. dec. 9° 53'. 
Area, square miles, 1,164. 
Population, 3,460. 
Bailroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 58.38. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,453,344. 
Mineral resources — Clays; coal; gravel. 
The clays and coal have not been developed. 

DONLEY COUNTY. 
Location — Southeast part of Panhandle. 
County seat — Clarendon; population, 1,946; elev. 2,727; lat. 
34° 57'; long. 100° 53'; mag. dec. 10° 36'. 
Area, square miles, 878. 
Population, 5,284. 
Bailroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 49.37. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,688,943. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

DUVAL COUNTY. 
Location — South Texas. 

County seat — San Diego; population, 1,897; elev. 312; lat. 
27° 45'; long. 98° 14'; mag. dec. 8° 36'. 



110 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 950. 

Population, 8,964. (This includes portions cut oflf for Jim 
Hogg and Dunn). 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 60.36. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,908,626. (In- 
cludes 888 square miles now in Dunn County). 

Mineral resources — Petroleum; sandstone; limestone. 

There are no producing oil wells in Duval county, but around 
Benavides certain wells that were bored showed both oil and gas. 

One sample of limestone from the Gault quarry has been tested 
with the following results : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 149.09 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.04 

Crushed at pounds per sq. inch 6,303 

The composition of the sandstone quarried at Noleda, is as 

follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 92.14 

Alumina 1.07 

Oxide of iron 2.89 

Lime 1.52 

Carbonic acid 1.20 

Loss on ignition 1.42 

100.24 



CHAPTER III. 

DISCUSSION OP COUNTIES— Continued. 

Eastland-Lee. 

EASTLAND COUNTY. 
Location — ^North of center. 

County seat — Eastland; population, 855; elev. 1,421. 
Area, square miles, 947. 
Population, 23,421. 
Railroads, 2. 
Wlea of railroad, 82.85. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,816,415. 
Mineral resources — Clays; coal; sandstone; mineral water; 
gravel; natural gas. 

The buff -burning semi-refractory clays are represaited by an 

analysis of a sample from Cisco, as follows : 

Per cent. 

SUlca 62.26 

Alumina 23.78 

Oxide of iron 3.02 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia 0.10 

Soda 1.59 

PoUsh 1.16 

Titanic acid 1.40 

Water 7.12 

100.43 

Total fluxes 5.87 

This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 1,992 degrees 
P. and showed signs of fusion at 2,498 degrees P. The compo- 
sition of the upper shale, at Cisco is closely similar to the above. 

The coal is represented by an analysis of a sample from the 

old Smith-Lee mines, Cisco, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Moisture 13.44 

Volatile combustible matter 34.86 

Fixed carbon 36.37 

Ash 15.33 

100.00 

Sulphur 2.54 

British thermal units per pound 9,609 



86.92 


118.40 


25.76 


34.76 


95.71 


74.26 


2.67 


31.15 


65.38 


65.63 


0.41 


2.91 


1.39 


1.86 



112 BtiUetin of the University of Texas 

The composition of water from Mangum Mineral Well Wate'* 
Company : 

Grains per U. S. Gal. 
WeU No. 1. Well No. 2. 

Sodium chloride 

Magnesium chloride 

Magnesium sulphate 

Calcium sulphate 

Calcium bicarbonate 

Oxide of iron and alumina. 
SiUca 

278.24 828.96 

AnalysiB by D. L. Glasscock, Uniyersity of Texas. 

ECTOR COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas, southeast of New Mexico. 
Comity seat — Odessa ; population, 400 ; elev. 2,890 ; lat. 
31* 52' ; long. 102° 23' ; mag. dec. 10° 54'. 
Area, square miles, 976. 
Population, 1,178. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 31.50. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,268,005. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

EDWARDS COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest Texas. 

County seat — Rock Springs ; population, 389 ; elev. 2,400 ; lat. 
30° 1' ; long. 100° 12' ; mag. dec. 9° 40'. 

Area, square miles, 1,387. 

Population, 3,768 (includes portion taken from Real County). 

Railroads, none (K. C., M. & 0. projected). 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,518,458 (in- 
cludes 471 sq. mi. now in Real County). 

Mineral resources — ^Limestone; gravel; petroleum. 

The kaolin deposits which occur near Leakey are described 
under Real county, as this new county embraces this locality. 

A sample of limestone from Barksdale, used in the construc- 
tion of the public school building there, had the following com- 
position and qualities: 



The Mineral Besources of Texas 113 

Per cent. 

SiUca 0.70 

Oxide of iron and alumina 0.70 

Lime 63.12 

Magnesia 0.54 

Carbonic acid 43.30 

Organic matter 0.60 

98.86 

CnuiUng strain in lbs. per square inch. . .6,293 

Lubricating oil of good quality has been found by drilling in 
the western and northwestern parts of the county, but no pro- 
ducing wells have been brought in. 

ELLIS COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast of center. 

County seat — ^Waxahachie; population, 6,205; dev. 530; lat, 
32^ 25' ; long. 96° 52' ; mag. dec. 8° 25'. 

Area, square miles, 1,066. 

Population, 5,629. 

Bailroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 160.06. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $35,980,190. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; limestone ; gravel. 

The composition of the red and brown-burning clays, for com- 
mon and pressed brick, is represented by the following average 
analysis of two samples from Ferris: 

Per cent. 

Silica 48. 7G 

Alumina 15.23 

Oxide of iron 4.60 

Lime 11.18 

Magnesia 1.61 

Soda 1.13 

Potash 1.29 

Titanic acid 0.96 

Water 4.93 

Carbonic acid 8.22 

Sulphuric acid 1.28 

Organic matter 0.67 

99.86 

These clays became steel hard at about 2,150 deg. F. 
The brick manufactured in Ellis county are represented by 
the following analyses : 

S-HlD. 



Bviletin of th« University of Texas 



DiBinond Press Brick Works, Ferris. 

Ferris Press Brick Company. Ferris. "FerrlB." 

Globe Preased Brick Compa&r. Ferris. Codudod Uln run. 

Lotie Star Press Brick Company, Ferris. "Red Star." common 

building brick. 
Palmer Pressttd Brick Works, Palmer. 
Standard Brick Company, Palmer. Top, or llgbt burned. 
Standard Brick Company, Palmer. Arch, or bard burned. 
Texas Press Brick Company, Ferris. 

EL PASO COUNTY. 

Location — Extreme western part. 

Comity seat^El Paso; population, 39,279; elev. 3,711; lat. 
31° 45'; long. 106° 30'; mag. dec. 12= 3'. 

Area, aquare miles, 5,573. 

Population, 52,599. 

Railroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 258.24. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $45,693,385. 

Mineral resources — Clays; copper ores; granite; lead ores 
limestone; msrble; sandstone; silver ores; tin ores; zinc ores 
mineral waters; dolomite; materials for cement making; gravel 
syenite; syenite-porphyry. 

The mineral resources are of a diversified character, but 
development has been retarded. The cement-making mate- 
rials are utilized by the Southwestern Portland Cement 
Company on a considerable scale near El Paso. The tin ore 
in the Franklin Mountains has been partly developed, but opera- 
tions have been suspended. The copper, lead, zinc and silver 
ores of the Quitman Mountains are certainly worthy of close 
investigation. The lead-zinc ores on the eastern side of the Quit- 
man Mountains have been partly developed and of late opera- 
tions for lead have been successfully conducted. The copper- 
lead-silver ores on the western side of this range have also been 
partly developed. Shipments of copper ore carrying 18 per cent 
of copper have been made from the north end of the range. 



Tlte Mineral Resources of Texas 115 

Shipments of silver-lead ore have also been made from the west- 
ern side. The proximity of this district to the El Paso smelter, 
from 80 to 90 miles, and the short distance from rail, 4 to 6 
miles, are much in its favor. The granite of the Franklin Moun- 
tains is nsed locally. The blue limestone (Carboniferous?) at 
the base of the Quitman Mountains, east side, has the following 
composition : 

Per cent. 

SUica 0.30 

Alumina 0.09 

Oxide of Iron 0.61 

Lime 62.27 

Hagnesla 0.25 

Carbonic acid 40.80 

Sulphuric acid 0.S9 

Loss on ignition 2.48 

87.69 

Two samples of limestone received from A. Courschesne, El 
Paso, bad the following composition and qualities: 

Per cent. 
No. 3. No. 4. 

SUica 4.20 2.10 

Alatnina 

Oxide o( Iron 2.16 0.40 

Lime 52.00 53.17 

Masncsla Trace 1.11 

Carbonic acid 40.86 42.20 

Loaa on Ignition 1.70 

99.32 99. 6S 

Weight of a cubic foot, lbs 169.04 1S5.36 

Pounds of water absorbed per 

cubic foot O.IOI None 

Crushing strength, pounds per 

square Inch 22,400 8,564 

Three samples of dolomite received from A. Courschesne, El 
Faflo, had the following composition and qualities: 

Per cent. 






0.42 
28.99 
20.21 
45.20 

2.10 

98.35 
























99.43 


99.96 



116 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 177.21 177.84 177.21 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft None None None 

Crushing stroigth, lbs. per sq. inch 18,920 5,966 11,675 

The mica deposits near Dahlberg have been opened and worked 
to some extent, affording a good quality of mica. 

A gray granite received from A. Courschesne had the follow- 
ing qualities : 

Weight for cubic foot, pounds 162.06 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.65 

Crushing strength, pounds per sq. Inch. . . . 28,000 

The composition of the limestone used in making cement in 

El Paso county is aa follows: 

Per c^it. 

SlUca 22.76 

Alumina • 4.70 

Oxide of Iron 8.40 

Lime 86.40 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 28.60 

Sulphuric acid None 

Loss on Ignition 4.70 

100.56 

The comi>osition of the water from the Hot Wells is as fol- 
lows, analysis by Willis W Waite: 

Grains per 
U. S. Gal. 

Calcium bicarbonate 1.74 

Magnesium bicarbonate 0.96 

SlUca 1.10 

Sodium chloride 2.97 

Sodium nitrate 0.43 

Sodium bicarbonate 16.62 

Sodium sulphate 11.02 

Iron None 

Alumina None 

34.84 

The depth of these weUs Is 1000 feet and the temperature of the 
water Is 110 deg. F. 

The clays of the county have not been fully investigated, but 
are used by the International Brick Company on an extensive 
scale. 

The value of the pig tin produced from the tin ore in the 
Franklin Mountains is about $5,000. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 117 

ERATH COUNTY. 

Location — ^north of center. 

County seat — Stephenville; population, 2,561; elev. 1,283; lat. 
32^ 13'; long. 98° 12'; mag. dec. 8° 57'. 

Area, square miles, 1,110. 

Population, 32,095. 

Bailroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 96.74. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $12,071,575. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; coal ; limestone ; natural gas ; gravel. 

A number of years ago the Green & Hunter Brick Company, 
Thurber, made a stiff mud repressed brick that crushed at 8,300 
lbs. per sq. inch. 

We have recently examined a sample of Vertical Fiber Paving 
Brick, made at Thurber, with the following results : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 153.00 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 3.42 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. in 17,660 

Cross bending test, modulus of rupture. . . 3,174 lbs. 

The coal industry which centers around Thurber (Texas & 
Pacific Coal Company) is considerably larger than in any other 
county. More than half of the bituminous coal produced in the 
State comes from this county. 

The average of 8 analyses of Thurber coal is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 3.30 

Volatile combustible matter 34.11 

Fixed carbon 49.88 

Ash 12.71 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.81 

(5) British thermal units per pound. .. .11,871 

By far the greater part of the coal mined in this county is 
taken by the railroads for use under locomotive boilers, only a 
small part going into domestic use. 

An excellent quality of natural gas is obtained in Erath 
county, carrying 932 B. t. p. per cubic foot. It is used locally. 

The oomjKwition of the red and brown-burning clays is repre- 
sented by an analysis of a sample from Thurber, as follows : 



118 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Silica 68.75 

Alumina 15.81 

Oxide of Iron 4.05 

Lime 0.60 

Magnesia 1.64 

Soda 0.08 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 0.60 

Water 4.07 

Organic matter 2.10 

97.70 
Total fluxes 6.37 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,174 deg. P. 

A sample of limestone from Dublin had the following com- 
position : 

Per cent. 

Silica 6.60 

Alumina 5.92 

Oxide of iron 1.18 

Lime 44.77 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 35.65 

Sulphuric acid None 

Loss an ignition 5.67 

99.79 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 168.00 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.64 

The composition of Southland mineral water, owned by the 
Duffau Mineral Wells Development Company, Duffau, is as 

follows : 

Per cent. 

Magnesium chloride 92.90 

Calcium sulphate 181.72 

Calcium chloride 15.68 

Sodium chloride 208.91 

Calcium carbonate 22.75 

Sodium nitrate 0.35 

Iron carbonate (ferrous) 0.01 

522.32 
Analysis by G. S. Fraps, A. and M. College. 

FALLS COUNTY. 

Location — East of center. 

County seat — Marlin ; population, 3,878 ; elev. 383. 

Area, square miles, 844. 



Ths Mineral Resources of Texas 119 

Population, 35,649. 
Bailroads, 4. 
Miles of railroad, 96.79. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $18,701,520. 
Mineral resources — Clays; mineral water. 
The composition of the pottery clay is represented by an analy- 
sis of a sample from near Denny, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 68.60 

Alumina 20.47 

Oxid© of iron 0.72 

Lilme Trace 

Magnesia 0.40 

Soda 0,25 

Potash 1.33 

Titanic acid 1.13 

Water i 6.26 

99.16 

Total fluxes 2.70 

Temperature of fusion 3,074 deg. F. 

This clay has been used in making common stoneware by the 
Denny Pottery Company. 

The composition of the water from the Marlin Hot Wells is 

as follows: 

Grains per 
U. S. Gal. 

Calcium sulphate 3.95 

Sodium chloride 112.39 

Sulphate of potash 0.80 

Sulphate of soda 312.32 

Sulphate of iron 3.02 

Sulphate of alumina 12.20 

Sulphate of magnesia 16.15 

Sulphate of lime 34.10 

Bicarbonate of soda 11.66 

Silica 1.88 

508.47 

Free carbonic acid, per gallon 3.60 cu. in. 

Depth of well 3,350 feet 

Analysis by E. Everhart, University of Texas. 

FANNIN COUNTY. 
Location — North Texas ; borders on Red river. 
County seat — ^Bonham; population, 4,844; elev. 568; lat. 
33^ 35'; long. 96° 11'; mag. dec. 8° 42' (1912). 



120 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 940. 
Population, 44,801. 
Railroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 102.49. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $22,646,893. 
Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; gravel. 
The quality of the sand-lime "brick which were formerly made 
at Bonham is represented by a test made on a sample as follows : 

Weight of a cubic foot, lbs 109.90 

Per cent, of cells by volume 32.18 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 18.27 
Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. 20.06 
Crushed at, lbs. per square inch 1,919 

FAYETTE COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; traversed by the Colorado river. 

County seat — LaGrange; population, 1,850; elev. 272; lat. 
29° 52'; long. 96° 49'; mag. dee. 8° 14'. 

Area, square miles, 992. 

Population, 29,796. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 106.31. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $19,618,293. 

Mineral resources — Clays; fuller's earth; lignite; limestone; 
phosphate rock (reported) ; sandstone. 

Some of the clays have recently come into use by a pottery 
company in Ohio and shipments have been made. 

A sample of so-called ** Kaolin," but not a kaolin at all, from 
near Lytenburg, had the following composition: 

Per cent. 

Silica 73.00 

Alumina 15.79 

Oxide of iron 0.63 

Lime 1.29 

Magnesia 1.53 

Soda • 0.16 

Potash 0.10 

Titanic acid 0.43 

Water 5.76 

98.69 

Total fluxes 3.71 

This clay burned steel hard at a temperature of 2,390 deg. P. 



The Mtneral Resources of Texas 121 

It is whitish in color, but stained with oxide of iron on the 
joints and fractures. It bums to a whitish color, but has small 
black specks through it. It is not a fire clay, for it fuses to a 
clear glass at a temperature of 3,000 deg. F. 

The so-called ** pumice dust" is a gritty, sandy whitish clay 
of closely similar composition to the above. 

In 1908 Professor J. C. Blake of the A. and M. College inves- 
tigated the bleaching qualities of some earths from Fayette 
county. Five samples were submitted by J. C. Melcher, 'Quinn. 
The results were as follows, all of the samples being from near 
O 'Quinn. The figures given are based upon 100 for the English 

standard : 

Bleaching 

Owner. power. 

J. C. Melcher. No. 1 M. B 224 

' J. C. Melcher No. 1 M 207 

J. C. Melcher,'No. 2 L 81 

P. Klcner, No. 3 K 81 

J. Lance, No. 4 X 81 

These results were from refined cotton seed oil. Professor 
Blake said: **None of the bleached oils, after standing for two 
weeks, exposed to the air, showed any increased odour, rancidity, 
or reversion of color.'' 

Dr. F. C. Thiele, chemist for the Cudahy Refining Company, 
Coffeyville, Kansas, reported on a sample of earth from H. S. 
Tumage, Muldoon, November 13, 1911, as follows: Specific 
gravity, 0.850; weight per cubic foot, 53.1 lbs. The earth was 
ground to a fineness of 40-60 mesh and 510 grams were used in 
treating 1,000 cubic centimeters of mineral oil of specific grav- 
ity 0.9014 and color No. 5. The amount of filtered oil obtained 
was 79 per cent, the earth absorbing 21 per cent. The filtered 
oil was bright and had specific gravity 0.8991, color No. 3. 

The same earth was then washed with light gasoline, dried and 
burned. It was then ground to a fineness of 100 mesh and used 
again. The amount of filtered oil obtained was 80 per cent, 
the earth absorbing 20 per cent. The filtered oil was brilliant, 
had a specific gravity of 0.8917 and color No. 1%. 

Dr. Thiele remarked (private communication) : 

"These results show that the tested earth is an excellent mate- 
rial for bleaching mineral oils, comparing in this respect with 
the best grades on the market. The reduction of a No. 5 color 



122 BuUeiin of the University of Texas 

(N. P. A.) to a No. iy2 (N. P. A.) hy two filtrations through the 
same body of earth is remarkable. ... In comparison with 
fuller's earth from Quincy, Florida, it exceeds the latter in 
bleaching qualities, while it stands incineration to an equal de- 
gree; this latter point being important, as fuller's earths are 
used over as many as six times, in practice, in order to cheapen 
their initial cost." 

There is a possibility of discovering phosphate rock in Payette 
county. Several years ago we received a communication from 
a reliable prospector that he had found a piece of ** float" phos- 
phate in Buckner's creek, about 8 miles west of Muldoon, that 
carried on analysis 82 per cent of bone phosphate. He found 
also in a railroad cut 3V^ miles south of Flatonia a phosphate 
rock that carried 72 per cent of bone phosphate. 

Either one of these samples represents a high grade phosphate, 
especially the sample from Buckner's creek. Nothing further 
has been done in the effort to locate a workable bed of phosphate 
rock in Fayette county. The attention of a number of persons, 
directly and intimately concerned in the phosphate industry, 
has been called to this matter, but they were not disposed to 
expend the necessary means for further and protracted inquiry. 
The Bureau of Economic Geology has not had the means to 
pursue the matter, and it stands today as it did several years 
ago. Much field work would have to be done and a great 
many samples would have to be analyzed. The importance of 
the subject merits the expenditure of considerable time and 
money. 

The lignite has not been developed. The average of five 
analyses of the lignite from this county is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 25.70 

Volatile combustible matter 33.31 

Fixed carbon 24.62 

Ash 16.37 

100.00 

Sulphur 2.07 

With 25 per cent of moisture in this lignite there would be 
7,797 British thermal units per pound. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 123 

At Chalk Bluff, on the Colorado river, about 12 miles above 
LaGrange, there is an exposure of 5 feet of lignite. At Manton's 
Bluff the thickness of the seam is 15 feet, but it is of varjdng 
quality. On O'Quinn creek the seams run to 8 feet in thickness 
and appear to be of good quality. 

The quality of the limestone on Buckner's creek, from 3 to 
4 miles west of LaQrange, is represented by the following sam- 
ples received from J. C. Melcher, 'Quinn : 

1 2 

Silica 8.50 28.70 

Alumina 0.60 0.59 

Oxide of iron 2.26 0.93 

Ldme 46.87 37.39 

Magnesia 0.39 0.30 

Carbonic acid 37.10 29.38 

Sulphuric acid 0.54 0.41 

Loss on ignition 2.96 3.02 

99.22 100.72 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds. . . 156 140 
Pounds of water absorbed per 

cu. ft 3.81 4.08 

Crushed at, pounds per square in. 5,615 15,325 

Near Lena there are exposures of a fine-grained sandstone 
which has a crushing strength of 7,090 to 14,075 pounds per 
square inch. This stone has been used to a considerable extent. 

At Muldoon, A. B. Eerr & Sons have had a good sandstone 
quarry for some years. The average quality of this stone is 
shown by the following tests ; 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 130.00 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 10.00 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 4,369 

The absorption of water, in pounds per cubic foot, varied 
from 5.60 to 14.42. The crushing strength, in pounds per square 
inch, varied from 1,822 to 9,150, according to the quality of the 
material. 

FISHER COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest of center. 

County seat— Roby ; population, 712 ; elev. 1,800 ; lat. 32° 45' ; 
long. 100° 22' ; mag. dec. 10° 26'. 
Area, square miles, 836. 



124 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Population, 12,596. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 69.38. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,124,199. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

FLOYD COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas; south of Panhandle. 
County seat — Floydada; population, 664; elev. 3,137; lat. 
33^ 59' ; long. 101^ 15' ; mag. dec. 10° 28'. 
Area, square miles, 1,036. 
Population, 4,638. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 18.90. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,544,336. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

FOARD COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — Crowell; population, 1,341; elev. 1,463; lat. 
34° 10' ; long. 99° 42' ; mag. dec. 10° 43'. 

Area, square miles, 636. 

Population, 5,726. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 21.76. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,254,831. 

Mineral resources — Copper ores; gypsum. 

The copper ores of Foard county are Permian and have not 
been developed. 

FORT BEND COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; traversed by the Brazos river. 
County seat — Richmond; population, 1,371; elev. 104; lat. 
29° 35'; long. 95° 45'; mag. dec. 8° 29'. 
Area, square miles, 897. 
Population, 18,168. 
Railroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 141.65. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $14,903,443. 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 



The Mineral Resources of Team 125 

The sandy brick clays are represented by an analysis of a 
sample from Fulshear (Wilson plantation), as follows: 

Per cent. 

SlUca 83.80 

Alumina 9.2^ 

Oxide of iron 2.30 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia Trace 

Soda 0.54 

Potash 0.56 

Titanic acid 0.87 

Water 3.1» 

100.40 
Total fluxes 3.40 

It does not bum steel hard at a temperature of 2,390 deg. F.. 
bnt at 1,922 deg. it bums hard enough to make a good brick. 

At Bosenberg the Brazos Tile & Brick Company makes brick 
and hollow building tile, as also sand-lime brick. Samples of 
the brick were tested with the following results : 

No. 1. Common. Sand-Ume. 

Weight per cubic foot 117.70 112.20 

Per cent, of cells by volume 26.98 30.06 

Volume of cells in. 100 parts by weight. . 14.34 16.77 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 16.87 18.81 

CruBhed at, pounds per sq. inch 4,813 1,575 

FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Mt. Vernon; population, 1,200; elev. -476; lat. 
83° 12'; long. 95° 12'; mag. dec. 8° 8' (1911). 

Area, square miles, 325. 

Population, 9,331. 

Bailroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 14.87. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,945,975. 

Mineral resources — Clays. 

The mineral resources of Franklin county have not been in- 
vestigated. 

FREESTONE COUNTY. 

Location — Bast of center; borders on the Trinity river. 
County seat — Fairfield; population, 629; elev. — ; lat. 31 
43'; long. 96° 9'; mag. deg. 8° 26' (1911). 



o 



126 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 947. 

Population, 20,557. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 46.63. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,859,305. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; lignite ; limestone. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

In the southern part of the county, near Donie, there is a 
very good quality of lignite and one of the principal seams runs 
to 12 feet in thickness. The average quality of this lignite is 

given in the following analysis: 

Per cent. 

Moisture 26.37 

Volatile combustible matter 32.72 

Fixed carbon 30.93 

Ash 9.98 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.34 

British thermal units per pound 7,984 

FRIO COUNTY. 

Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Pearsall; population, 1,799; elev. 646; lat. 
28° 55'; long. 99° 9'; mag. dec. 8° 26'. 

Area, square miles, 1,064. 

Population, 8,895. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 34.55. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,132,208. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

GAINES COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas; borders on New Mexico. 

County seat — Seminole ; population, 325. 

Area, square miles, 1,590. 

Population, 1,255. 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,803,880. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown, with exception of salt lakes. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 127 

GALVESTON COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 
County seat — Galveston; population, 36,981; elev. 6; lat. 
29° 18'; long. 94° 47'; mag. dec. 7° 28'. 
Area, square miles, 438. 
Population, 44,479. 
Railroads, 11. 
Miles of railroad, 440.63. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $41,320,509. 
Mineral resources — Clays ; shell for road making. 

GARZA COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas; south of Staked Plains. 

County seat — ^Post City; population, 350; elev. 2,543. 

Area, square miles, 821. 

Population, 1,995. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 40.91. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,004,174. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

GILLESPIE COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest of center. 

County seat — ^Fredericksburg; population, 2,100; elev. 1,721; 
lat. 30^ 15' ; long. 98° 50' ; mag. dec. 9° 9'. 

Area, square miles, 1,140. 

Population, 9,447. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 12. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,807,690. 

Mineral resources — ^Bat guano; granite; limestone; marble; 
sandstone; serpentine; gravel. 

Bat guano occurs in limestone caves. 

The granites of this county are of excellent quality and are 
ntiUzed by Nagel Bros., Fredericksburg. The stone placed on 
the market by this firm comes from Bear Mountain. It is of a 
fine red color, close grained and takes an excellent polish. 

There is excellent white marble in this county, but it has not 
been developed. Gold has been found, but there are no produc- 



128 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

ing mines. Serpentine exists in considerable deposits and of 
great and varied beauty, but it has not been placed on the mar- 
ket. 

Limestones and dolomites are abundant. 

The following average of eight analyses represents the com- 
position and quality of some of the limestones from this county : 

Per cent. 

SlUca 2.36 

Alumina 0.64 

Oxide of iron 0.91 

Lime 51.08 

Magnesia 0.91 

Carbonic acid 40.82 

Loss on ignition 2.65 

99.34 

A magnesian limestone of odd and beautiful markings occurs 
near Willow City. It takes a fine polish and would doubtless 
find favor as an ornamental stone for interior work. Its com- 
position and qualities are as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 3.80 

Alumina 7.59 

Oxide of Iron 2.67 

Lime 30.20 

Magnesia , 8.93 

Carbonic acid 40.73 

Sulphuric acid 1.72 

Loss on Ignition 4.82 

100.51 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 176.8 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.19 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 8,000 

The dolomites are well developed in Gillespie county. The 
following average of 5 analyses represents the composition of 
some of the dolomites: 

Per cent. 

Silica 4.68 

Alumina 5.28 

Oxide of iron 1.05 

Lime 29.55 

Magnesia 14.66 

Carbonic acid 40.56 

Lose on ignition 4.29 

100.07 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 129^^ 

GLASSCOCK COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas. 

County seat— Garden City; population, 200; lat. 31° 52'; 
long. 101° 29'; mag. dec. 10° 44'. 
Area, square miles, 952. 
Population, 1,143. 
Bailroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,926,038. 
AGneral resources — ^Unknown. 

GOLIAD COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 
County seat — Goliad; population, 1,261; elev. 167. 
Area, square miles, 817. 
Population, 9,909. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 30.24. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,652,755. 
Mineral resources — Clays ; limestone ; natural gas. 
The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

GONZALES COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Gonzales; population, 3,139; elev. 300; lat. 
29° 30'; long. 97° 26'; mag. dec. 8° 21'. 

Area, square miles, 1,079. 

Population, 28,055. 

Bailroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 85.70. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $15,946,265. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; natural gas; pe^ 
troleum; sandstone. 

The calcareous brick clays are represented by the average of 

two analyses of samples taken at the works of the Sunset Brick 

& Tile Company, Gonzales, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 39.12 

Alumina 7.31 

Oxide of iron 1.89 

»-Mlii. 



130 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Lime 24.85 

Magnesia 1.92 

Soda 0.11 

Potash 0.04 

Titanic acid 0.45 

Water 2.46 

Carbonic acid 21.37 

99.52 

Total fluxes 28.82 

These clays become viscous at a temperature of 2,318 deg. F. 

Another kind of clay occurs in Gonzales county, on the Har- 
wood property. It has been termed a fire-clay, but is not a 
fire-clay. Its composition and qualities are as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 73.16 

Alumina 13.86 

Oxide of iron 1.44 

. Lime ! . . . 3.14 

Magnesia 1.61 

Soda 0.23 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 0.70 

Water 5.15 

99.20 
Total fluxes 6.42 

It began to become viscous at a temperature of 2,390 deg. F. 

There also exist in this county extensive deposits of a fine- 
grained milk white clay, stained with oxide of iron. No special 
uses for this clay have been found, but it is reported that it is 
an excellent material for refining certain animal oils and 
greases. Its composition and qualities are sho^vn in the follow- 
ing average of two analyses of samples from the Harwood prop- 
erty, 6 miles southeast of Gonzales : 

Per cent. 

Silica 75.41 

Alumina 12.49 

Oxide of iron 0.72 

Lime 1.82 

Magnesia 1.80 

Soda 0.56 

Potash 0.29 

Titanic acid 0.19 

Water 5.93 

99.21 
Total fluxes 5.20 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 



131 



These days fused to a clear glass at a temperature of 3,038 
deg. F. 

The brick manufactured are represented by the following tests 
on samples received from the Sunset Brick & Tile Company, 
Gonzales: 



Face 
590 



Weight per ca. ft., pounds 

Per cent of cells by volume 

Volnnia of cells in 100 parts 

by weight 

Pounds of water absorbed per 

cubic foot 

Omshlngr strength, pounds per 

square inch 



Common 
No. 1 


Face 
510 


Gonzales 
No. 3 


Gonzales 
No. 1 


S8.82 
46.21 


92.76 
47.05 


80.60 
48.30 


91.70 
47.67 


80.75 


31.67 


83.70 


32.87 


28.64 


28.17 


80.19 


29.68 


1.425 


2,818 


2,192 


2,000 



91.00 
47.58 

82.67 

29.63 

3,602 



The lignite has not been developed. Brown iron ore (limonite) 
exists as large boulders and as gravel in the hills south of Har- 
wood. Analyses have shown it to carry 52 per cent of iron. 

The petroleum and natural gas have not been developed. Gas 
from a well 9 miles west of Gonzales gave 862 B. t. u. per cubic 
foot. Near Ottine a well bpred to a depth of about 3,400 feet 
showed a little oil and gas, but not sufficient for commercial 
purposes. 

There are heavy outcrops of a close-grained iron-bearing sand- 
stone near the tops of hills southeast of Ottine which would yield 
St good stone for ballasting railroad tracks. 

GRAY COUNTY. 

Location — Eastern part of Panhandle. 

County seat — ^Lefors; population, — ; elevation, 2900. 

Area, square miles, 860. 

Population, 3,405. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 41.90. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,564,083. 

Mineral resources — Unknown. 



GRAYSON COUNTY. 

Location — North Texas; borders on the Red river. 
County seat — Sherman; population, 12,412; elev. 720; lat. 
33° 36' ; long. 96° 36' ; mag. dec. 8° 35'. 
Area, square miles, 1,012. 



132 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Population, 65,996. 

Railroads, 10. 

Miles of railroad, 250.85. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $45,521,022. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; limestone; mineral waters; 
gravel. 

The red and brown-burning days are represented by an analy- 
sis of a sample from near Sherman, as follows : 

Per cent. 

SUica 59.34 

Alumina 15.71 

Oxide t.f iron 5.76 

Lime 3.00 

Magnesia 2.00 

Soda 1.44 

Potash 0.56 

Titanic acid 1.83 

Water 7.02 

Carbonic acid 1.07 

Sulphuric acid 0.31 

Organic matter 2.00 

100.13 
Total fluxes 12.85 

This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 2,102 deg. P. 
•and viscous at 2,382 deg. F. 

Composition of water from Tioga Sanitarium & Water Com- 
pany, Tioga: 

Well Well Well Well 

No. 1 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 

Grains per U. S. Gal. 

Sodium sulphate 130.86 15.43 

Sodium bicarbonate 10.30 

Sodium chloride 80.02 76.85 67.75 206.23 

Magnesium chloride 40.50 

Calcium chloride 54.50 

Calcium sulphate 43.84 95.68 103.97 88.32 

Calcium carbonate 7.59 5.74 6.17 

Magnesium sulphate 64.78 175.45 44.62 

Silica 1.57 2.92 2.54 5.59 

Alumina 2.90 2.54 1.82 

238.32 248.87 488.67 368.18 

GREGG COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Longview; population, 5,155; dev. 339; lat. 
32° 29'; long. 94° 41'; mag. dee. 7° 27'. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 133 

Area, square miles, 287. 

Population, 14,140. 

Bailroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 53.71. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,723,655. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; sandstone; min- 
eral waters; gravel. 

The sandy brick clays are represented by two analyses of 
samples from Longview, as follows : 

Per cent. 

1 2 

Silica 73.06 68.50 

Alumina 9.88 18.41 

Oxide of Iron.' 6.92 3.02 

Lime 1.50 0.70 

Magnesia 0.25 1.05 

Soda 0.12 0.91 

Potash trace 0.47 

Titanic acid 1.00 1.31 

Water 6.64 6.20 

99.37 100.57 

Total fluxes 8.81 6.15 

These clays became viscous at a temperature of 2,570 deg. F. * 
The quality of the brick that have been made in this county 

is shown by the results of a test on a sample from Longview, as 

follows : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 109.8 

Per cent, of cells by volume 32.22 

Volume of cells In 100 parts by weight. . 18.31 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 20.10 

Crushed at, pounds per square Inch 1,223 

So far as known, there are but few deposits of iron ore in 
Gregg county that are of commercial importance. Most of the 
deposits carry too little iron and too much sand to be worked. 
On the Isaac Skillern headright, in the northeastern part of the 
county and south of the I'exas & Pacific Railway, a brown ore 
(limonite) occurs, carrying 10.10 per cent of silica and 52.79 
per cent of iron. An ore of a 11.60 per cent silica and 46.88 
per cent iron is found on the W. Robinson headright. The field 
to which these ores belong is thought to comprise about 14 square 
miles. 

In 1899 there was built at Longview, by the Longview Kelly 



134 BiMetin of the University of Texas 

Plow Manufacturing Company, one l-groas ton Tropenas Steel 
Converter. 

The first steel was made in December, 1899. This was the 
first steel converter built in Texas and made the first steel pro- 
duced in the State. 

The steel plant was abandoned some years ago, but the manu- 
facture of plows is still continued. 

The iron ore area in this county may be taken at 22 square 
miles. 

GRIMES COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas ; east of the Navasota river. 

County seat — ^Anderson; population', 572; elev. 368; lat. 
30° 29' ; long. 95° 59' ; mag. dec. 7° 45'. 

Area, square miles, 770. 

Population, 21,205. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 155.93. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $12,825,088. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; lignite ; sandstone ; gravel. 

Grimes county clays of easy fusibility are represented by an 
analysis of a sample from a locality 13 miles northeast of Nava- 
sota, as follows: 

Per cent. 

SUica 68.56 

Alumina 18.53 

Oxide of iron 0.72 

Lime 0.60 

Magnesia 0.12 

Soda 2.72 

Potash 2.27 

Titanic acid 0.43 

Water 7.00 

100.95 
Total fluxes 6.43 

This clay began to become viscous at a temperature of 2,174 
deg. P. 

The deposit from which this sample was taken extends also 
into Brazos county. 

Two other analyses of clays from this county may be given, 
as follows: 



The Mineral Besources of Texas 135 

Piedmont 
Springs. Courtney. 
Per cent. 

Silica 58.50 40.69 

Alumina 18.39 12.68 

Oxide of iron 3.21 3.90 

Lime 2.34 18.12 

Magnesia 1.61 0.92 

Soda 4.93 ) . ^ . 

Potash 2.70 ] ^'^^ 

Loss on ignition 8.20 

Carbonic acid and water. . 21.45 

99.88 100.00 

For the lignite in this county, see under Brazos county. 

GUADALUPE COUNTY. 

Location — South of center. 

County seat — Seguin; population, 3,116; elev. 553; lat. 
29° 34'; long. 97° 57'; mag. dec. 8° 52' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 717. 

Population, 24,913. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 36.61. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $14,119,587. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

The calcareous brick clays are represented by an analysis of 
a sample from Seguin, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 18.62 

Alumina 3.23 

Oxide of iron 1.26 

Lime 41.30 

Magnesia 0.42 

Water 2.42 

Carbonic acid 32.50 

99.75 

Total fluxes 42.98 

Temperature of fusion above 2,246 deg. F. 

The quality of the brick made in this county is shown by the 
Mowmg tests of two samples from the Seguin Vitrified & 
Pace Brick Company : 



i;)(i BuUi'^n II,' 'he University of Texas 

Segnin 

diT preas. Stiff mud 

WolRht of a cubtc foot, pounds 112.9 119.1 

P«r c*nt. of wlU by volame 28.81 20,63 

Volume of celtn in 100 parts by weight. . . . 16.93 10.79 

Pounds of water absorbod per cb. ft 17.98 12.88 

Crushed at. [Ktunds per sq. inch 2,271 3,765 

HALE COUNTY. 
fAVAtion — Northwest Texas : aoDth of the Panhandle. 
OmiiKv se«t — Plainriew ; poptilation. 2,829 ; elev. 3,325 ; lat. 
84-~ li": loni:. U'l" 4.'/: m*?. dec. 10= 55'. 
.\i>w square miles. 1.036. 
PopnliitKin. T.566. 
Rwln>kds. 1. 
Miles of RtilnMil. 46.70. 

.\ss<'ss<\i v3i)»ji;tt>n v^f property of all kinds. |S.547,561. 
Min«-ral rn^s^.-niives — rnknown. 

HAtX OOrNTT. 
lAV3iti>>n -X^^^Ihtt-^¥:^ Texas: »:i:h of ih* Pmhandle. 
t>.;:i:y »\i: -Momr-w; p(>p;i:»rion. 1.936; der. 1.980; lat. 

Arw>, sk^iuire raU«v. $^ 
lVjv«U:}on, S-ST?. 

K*r.T\>«.K 1- 

H.\>m.TV»X OC»rXTT- 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 137 

represented by an analysis of a sample from a mile east of Hico, 

on the Texas Central Railway, as follows: 

Per cent. 

SlHca 3.44 

Alumina 0.43 

Oxide ol Iron 1.09 

Lime 63.33 

Carbonic acid 41.90 

99.S9 

This stone had the following physical properties: 

Welgbt per cubic foot, pounds 127.2 

PoundB ot water absorbed per lu. ft 1.05 

Crusbed at, pounds per square inch 5,200 

HAXSFORD COUNTY. 
Location — North line of the Panhandle. 

County scat — Hansford; population, 180; clev. — -; lat, 36' 
13' i long. 101° 16'; mag. dec. 11° 17'. 
Area, square miles, 860. 
Popnlation, 935. 
Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,489,777. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

HARDEMAN COUNTY. 
Location — Northwest Texas; southeast of Panhandle. 
County seat — Quanah; population, 3,127; elev. 1,568; lat. 
34° 17' J long. 99" 04': mag. dee. 10° 12'. 
Area, square miles, 532. 
Popolation, 11,213. 
Railroads, 4. 

1.98. 

f property of all kinds, $8,973,320. 
Dopper ores; gypsum; petroleum'?) 
longs to the Penniau formation. Rich 
and malachite, the latter as pseudo- 
[ound, but there are no mining operations. 
' gypsum cement is made from the gypsite 
9. There are no producing oil wells in the 
ices, the geological conditions for the existence 
ivorable. 



138 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

HARDIN COUNTY. 

« 

Location — Southeast Texas; west of the Neches river. 

County seat — Kountze; population, 342; elev. 85; lat. SO'^ 22'; 
long. 94° 18'; mag. dee. V 47' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 844. 

Population, 12,947. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 106.70. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,514,721. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock; clays; natural gas; petro- 
leum. 

Asphaltic materials have been found near Saratoga and Sour 
Lake, but they have not been utilized. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

Natural gas occurs with the petroleum and is used locally. 

Hardin is one of the most important oil-producing counties 
in the State. The Saratoga and Sour Lake fields came into pro- 
duction in 1902. The statistics for the years 1902 and 1903 are 
combined, and show a small production. From 1902 to and in- 
cluding 1913 the Saratoga field yielded 15,000,097 barrels, 
valued at $8,942,291 ; and the Sour Lake field 23,020,152 barrels, 
valued at $13,254,496. The Batson field came into production 
in 1903, and yielded, to the close of 1913, 25,661,013 barrels, 
valued at $12,437,274. The total oil production of Hardin 
county, to the close of 1913, was 63,681,262 barrels, valued at 
$34,635,061. To the close of the year 1913, Hardin had yielded 
considerably more oil than any other county. 

HARRIS COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; borders on Galveston Bay. 
County seat — Houston;^ population, 93,112 (1913-14); elev. 
53; lat. 29° 47'; long. 95° 21'; mag. dec. 7° 53'. 
Area, square miles, 1,761. 
Population, 115,693. 
Railroads, 13. 
Miles of railroad, 394.38. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $129,504,485. 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel; natural gas; petroleum. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 139 

The red and brown-burning clay are represented by two analy- 
ses of samples from Houston, as follows : 

1 2 

SUica 72.45 49.40 

Alumina 11.72 17.90 

Oxide of Iron 3.38 4.50 

Lime 3.66 9.50 

Magnesia 1.34 1.88 

Soda 0.19 Trace 

Potash Trace None 

Titanic acid 0.87 1.05 

Water 3.44 4.58 

Carbonic acid 9.55 

97.05 a8.36 

Total fluxes 8.57 15.88 

These clays became viscous at a temperature of 2,246 deg. F. 
The sandy brick clays are represented by the average of three 

analyses : 

Per cent. 

SiUca 83.41 

Alumina 7.20 

Oxide of iron .' 2.26 

Lime 0.78 

Magnesia 0.45 

Soda 0.12 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 0.66 

Water 3.58 

98.46 

Total fluxes 3.97 

These clays became steel hard at about 2,300 deg. P. 

The clay at Cedar Bayou is similar to the above. 

The natural gas has not been developed commercially, although 
good rock pressure has been observed in a well, near Houston. 
The gas in the Humble field is used locally. 

Harris is a very important oil county. The Humble field came 
into production in 1905 and yielded, to the close of 1913, 37,- 
370,510 barrels, valued at $18,864,112. The Goose Creek field 
came into production in 1912, and has yielded 293,539 barrels, 
valued at $234,102. 

The total oil production of Harris county has been 37,664,049 
barrels, valued at $19,098,214. 



140 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

HAERISON COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas; borders on Louisiana. 
County seat — ^Marshall; population, 11,452; elev. 375; lat. 
32° 32'; long. 94° 21'; mag. dec. 7° 44' (1910). 
Area, square miles, 873. 
» Population, 37,243. 
Railroads, 5. 
Miles of railroad, 111.14. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $12,901,680. 
Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; sandstone; gravel. 
The sandy brick clays are represented by an analysis of a 
samiple from' Marshall, as follows : 

Per cent. 

SUica 83.90 

Alumina 5.52 

Oxide of iron 4.75 

Lime 0.40 

Magnesia 1.32 

Soda 0.45 

Potash 0.15 

Titanic acid , 1.57 

Water 2.44 

100.50 
Total fluxes 7.07 

This clay does not burn steel hard at a temperature of 2,570 
deg. P. 

A clay classed as pottery clay occurs on the road between Mar- 
shall and Jefferson. Analysis as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 68.90 

Alumina 21.83 

Oxide oC iron 1.57 

Alkalies 2.00 

Water 5.60 

99.90 
Total fluxes 3.57 

Other analyses of clays from this county do not show essential 
variations from the average of the two above given. 

The quality of the brick is shown by the tests on a sample from 
the Marshall Brick Company, as follows: 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 141 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 127.0 

Per cent of cells by volume 22.99 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 11.30 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 14.35 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 1,755 

The iron ore resources appear to warrant further investigatioD- 
The laminated brown ores carry from 42.85 to 48.75 per cent of* 
iron, with silica from 11.60 to 26.70 per cent, and alumina from- 
2.05 to 10.77 per cent. 

The nodular concretionary ores appear to have the following' 
average composition: 

Per cent 

Metallic iron 47.81 

Silica 11.67 

Alumina : 9.26 

The conglomerate ores seldom carry more than 44 per cent 
of iron. The iron ore area in the county may be taken at 245 
square miles. 

In many parts of the county are extensive deposits of an iron- 
gravel which, while not carrying enough iron to make them val- 
uable as iron ores, would make an excellent road material. 

There are no lignite mines in operation in the county. The* 
quality of the lignite, which varies from 2 to 6 feet in thick- 
ness, is shown by the following average of five analyses : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 8.41 

Volatile combustible matter 38.41 

Fixed carbon 28.65 

Ash 24.53 

100.00 
Sulphur 0.74 

HARTLEY COUNTY. 

Location — West line of the Panhandle ; borders on New Mex- 
ico. 

County seat — Channing; population, 300; elev. 3,817; lat. 
35° 41'; long. 102° 17'; mag. dec. 11° 57'. 

Area, square miles, 1,460. 

Population, 1,298. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 81.92. 



142 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,376,036. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

HASKELL COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest Texas. 

County seat — Haskell; population, 2,436; <jlev. 4,013; lat. 
33° 10'; long. 99° 43'; mag. dec. 9° 56'. 

Area, square miles, 843. 

Population, 16,249. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 74.93. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,643,079. 

Mineral Besources — Copper ores ; gypsum. 

Mineral resources — Copper ores; gypsum. 

The copper ores are Permian. Many rich pockets of chalcocite 
have been found, but no mining operations are conducted. 

HAYS COUNTY. 

Location — South of center. 

County seat — San Marcos; population, 4,071; elev. 581; lat. 
29° 54'; long. 97° 56'; mag. dec. 8° 29'. 

Area, square miles, 647. 

Population, 15,518. 

Eailroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 36.00. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,269,670. 

Mineral resources — Bat guano; clays; limestone; gravel. 

Hays county is rich in gravel for road making. The average 

composition of some of the limestones of the county along the 

line of the International & Great Northern Railway and the 

Austin-San Antonio Post-Road is as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 1.89 

Alumina 1.04 

Oxide of iron 1.45 

Lime 52.48 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 40.19 

Sulphuric ac id 1.96 

Loss on ignition 0.91 

99.82 

The crushing strength, in pounds per sq. in. varies from 8,000 to 
16.000. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 143 

HEMPHILL COUNTY. 

Location — East line of the Panhandle; borders on Oklahoma. 
County seat — Canadian; population, 1,648; elev. 2,340; lat. 
35^ 55'; long. 100° 24'; mag. dec. 11° 6'. 
Area, square miles, 860. 
Population, 3,170. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 31.83. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,870,481. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

HENDERSON COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas; between the Trinity and the 
Neches rivers. 

County seat — Athens; population, 2,261; elev. 492; lat. 
32° 13'; long. 95° 51'; mag. dec. 8° 7'. 

Area, square miles, 940. 

Population, 20,131. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 80.91. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,912,145. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; iron ore ; lignite ; sandstone ; gravel. 

The pottery clays ore represented by the average of two analy- 
ses of samples taken at Athens, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 71.11 

Alumina 17.85 

Oxide of Iron 0.28 

Lime 0.05 

Magnesia 0.41 

Soda 0.68 

Potash 0.36 

Titanic add 1.45 

Water 6.31 

98.50 
Total fluxes 1.80 

Point of fusion, 3,074 to 3,146 deg. F. 

An analysis of a fire clay from Athens is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 68.55 

Alumina 26.00 



144 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Magnesia 0.11 

Water 6.00 

100.66 
Total fluxes 0.11 

A stoneware clay from Athens had the following composition : 

Per cent 

Silica 69.20 

Alumina 21.03 

Oilde of iron 1.37 

Magmeela 0.94 

Loss on ignition 5.16 

97.70 
Total fluxes 2.31 

The quality of tht; briek is shown by the results of tests on 
samples from the museum several years old, and marked "Mala- 
koflf Pressed Brick Company, Malakoflf," as follows: 



1. Shade D. Golden Orange. Standard shape. 

2. Shade A. Old Ivory. Standard shape. 

3. Shade E. Russian Black. Standard shape. 

4. Shade C. Mottled Face, Standard shape. 

In the southeastern part of the county there is a considerable 
area of brown iron ore (limonite). The ore from this field 
appears to have the following average com[>osition : 

Per cent. 

Metallic iron 47.26 

Silica 12.13 

Alumina 8.86 

Towards the central part of the county, around Brownsboro, 
there is an iron ore field of about two square miles in area, which 
has a somewhat better ore, as by the following analysis : 

Per cent. 

MetailUc iron 51.52 

SlUca 10.06 

Alumina 9,89 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 145 

None of these ores has been developed. The iron ore area in 
the county may be taken at 19 square miles. 

HIDALGO COUNTY. 

Location — Extreme southern part ; borders on the Rio Grande. 
County seat — Edinburg; population, 200; elev. 422. 
Area, square miles, 1,583. 
Population, 13,728. 
Bailroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 71.97. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $13,202,734. 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

HILL COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast of center. 

County seat — Hillsboro; population, 6,115; elev. 621; lat. 
32° 1'; long. 97° 8'; mag. dec. 9° 5' (1910). 

Area, square miles, 1,006. 

Population, 46,760. 

Bailroads, 8. 

Miles of railroad, 236.12. 

Assessed valuation of "property of all kinds, $30,593,260. 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; mineral waters; gravel 

The mineral resources of Hill county have not been investi- 
gated. 

The composition of the mineral water from Hubbard, as com- 
municated to us by the management of the Hot Wells Sanita- 
rium, is as follows; 

Grains per U. S. Gal. 

Sodium chloride 292.0 

Sodium sulphate 195.0 

Calcium sulphate 49.3 

Iron sulphato 20.2 

Potassium sulphate 10.0 

Magnesium sulphate 6.8 

Sodium carbonate 110.4 

683.7 

This well is 3,300 feet deep: the temperature of the water 
^s 137 deg. F., and the flow is 200,000 gallons per 24 hours. 

. TQ-MIn. 



146 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

HOCKLEY COUNTY (Unorganized) 
Location — Northwest Texas ; in Staked Plains. 
Area, square miles, 977. 
Population, 137. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 7.22. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,129,904. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

HOOD COUNTY. 

Location — ^North of the center. 

County seat — Granbury; population, 1,336; elev. 698; lat. 
32° 27'; long. 97° 46'; mag. dec. 8° 55' (1910). 

Area, square miles, 436. 

Population, 10,008. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 35.05. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,038,337. 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Hood county have not been investi- 
gated. 

HOPKINS COUNTY. 

• 

Location — Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Sulphur Springs; population, 5,151; elev. 494; 
lat. 33° 9'; long. 95° 36'; mag. dec. 7° 51'. 

Area, square miles, 666. 

Population; 31,038, 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 69.96. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,513,830. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; lignite ; mineral waters ; petroleum ; 
natural gas; gravel. 

The lignite mined is represented by analyses of samples from 
the Como Coal Company, the Como Lignite Company and the 
Lone Star Lignite Mining Company, all at or near Como. The 
average of these analyses is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Mol&ture 32.67 

Volatile combustible matter 36.47 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 147 

Per cent. 

Fixed carbon 23.85 

Ash 7.01 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.61 

British thermal units per pound 6,740 

The red and brown-burning clays are represented by an analy 
sis of a sample from Sulphur Springs, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 69.36 

Alumina 14.67 

Oxide of Iron 4.46 

Lime 0.28 

Magntela .• • 1.74 

Soda 2.09 

Potash '. 1.65 

Titanic acid 1.13 

Water 3.64 

Organic matter 0.96 

99.88 
Total fluxes 10.12 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,246 deg. P., 
and did not become steel hard at 2,102 deg. F. 

Several years ago G. H. Wilson made, at Sulphur Springs, a 
whitish colored brick of the following qualities: 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 115.8 

Per cent, of cells by volume 29.24 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 15.76 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 18.24 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. Inch 2,750 

HOUSTON COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas; east of the Trinity river. 

County seat — Crocl^ett; population, 3,947; elev. 350; lat 
31° 19'; long. 95° 27'; mag. dec. 8° 0' (1911). 

Area, square miles, 1,192. 

Population, 29,564. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 53. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,079,375. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; iron ore ; lignite ; sandstone ; natural 
gas; gravel. 



148 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

The sandy brick clays are represented by an anidysis of a sam- 
ple from Hurricane Bayou, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 77.70 

Alumina • 10.37 

Oxide of iron 9.33 

Lime 1.70 

Magnesia Trace 

Soda 0.54 

Potash 0.24 

99.78 
Total fluxes 11.81 

The iron ores of this county, so far as known, are too siliceous 
to come into use as a source of iron. 

The lignite mined in this county is represented by analyses 
of samples from the Houston County Coal Company, Lovelady, 
and the Houston County Coal and Manufacturing Company, 
Crockett. The average of these analyses is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 30.87 

Volatile combustible matter 36.26 

Fixed carbon 22.61 

Ash 10.26 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.50 

British thermal units, per lb 7,625 

Natural gas from a locality 14 miles west of Crockett gave 
913 B. t. u. per cubic foot. 

HOWARD COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas. 

County seat — ^Big Springs ; population, 4,102 ; elev. 2,397 ; lat. 
32° 15' ; long. 101° 28' : mag. dec. 10° 25'. 
Area, square miles, 888. 
Population, 8,881. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 32.80. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,842,805. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 149 

HUNT COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Greenville; population, 8,850; elev. 552; lat. 
33° T; long. 96° 5'; mag. dee. 8° 46' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 888. 

Population, 48,116. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of raUroad, 162.32. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $25,429,256. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The red and brown-burning clays are represented by an analy 
sis of a sample from Greenville, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 79.00 

Alumina 11.38 

Oxide of Iron. 2.44 

Lime 0.50 

Magnesia 0.20 

Soda 0.65 

Potash 0.35 

Titanic acid 0.78 

Water 3.80 

99.00 
Total fluxes 4.14 

This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 2,246 deg. F. 

HUTCHINSON COUNTY. 

Location — About the center of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Plemons; population, 100; elev. 2,800; lat. 
35° 48'; long. 101° 18.'; mag. dec. 11° 24'. 
Area, square miles, 850. 
Population, 892. 
Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,313,980. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

IRION COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas. 

County seat — Sherwood; population, 339; elev. 2,145; lat. 
31° 17'; long. 100° 48'; mag. dec. 9° 46'. 



150 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 800. 

Population, 1,283. 

Railroads, 1. 

MUes of railroad, 41.73. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,312,611. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

JACK COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — Jaeksboro; population, 1,480; elev. 1,074; lat. 
33° 13'; long. 98° 9'; mag. dec. 9° 18'. 

Area, square miles, 858. 

Population, 1,480. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 69.46. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,058,130. 

Mineral resources — Coal; limestone; days; gravel; petroleum. 

The coal resources of Jack county are well developed, but no 
mining operations are conducted there. The quality of the coal 
may be judged from analyses of samples from the Stewart Creek 
Coal Co., Jermyn, and from Lost Valley, as follows : 

Stewart Creek Lost Valley 
Por cent. 

Molfirture 10.24 ' 10.28 

Volatile combustible matter. ... 34.28 25.49 

Fixed carbon 35.02 55.10 

Ash 20.46 9.13 

100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 1.66 n. d. 

British thermal units per lb. . 9,434 n. d. 

There are excellent limestones in Jack county suitable for 
building purposes, for road making, etc. The quality of the 
stone quarried by Risley Bros., Jacksboro, is shown by an aver- 
age of a number of analyses and tests : 

Per cent. 

Silica 2.08 

Alumina 

Oxide of iron 1.54 

Lime 51.81 

Magnesia 0.48 

Carbonic acid 40.83 

Loss on ignition 3.00 

99.74 



The Mineral Resources of Texds 151 

A gray limestone from Risley Bros, had a crushing strength 
of 8,377 lbs. per square inch and a blue-gray stone 7,247 lbs. 
The gray stone weighed 162.29 lbs. per cu. ft. and absorbed 4.43 
lbs. of water per cu. ft. The blue-gray stone weighed 162.91 
lbs. per cu. ft. and absorbed 2.68 lbs. of water per cu. ft. 

Another sample from the quarry had a weight of 165.4 lbs. 
per cu. ft., absorbed 0.94 lbs. of water per cu. ft. and crushed at 
4,613 lbs. per sq. in. 

A sample of limestone from J. W. Pox, Stewarton, had the 
following composition: 

Per cent. 

Silica 3.62 

Alumina 

Oxide of iron 3.46 

Lime 51.40 

Magnesia • None 

Carbonic acid 40.10 

98.58 

This stone weighed 165.54 lbs. per cu. ft., absorbed 0.96 
lbs. of water per cu. ft., and crushed at 9,500 lbs. per sq. in. 

A sample of limestone from this county was tested as road 
material by the United States Office of Public Roads, Washing- 
ton, with the following results : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 165 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 1.63 

This stone had the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Silica 0.40 

Alumina 0.05 

Oxide of iron 2.57 

Lime 51.06 

Magnesia 0.23 

Carbonic acid 40.66 

Loss on ignition 2.78 

97.75 

There are asphaltic sandstones in Jack county, but they have 
not been investigated. 

A number of shallow oil wells 12 miles north of Jacksboro 
afford a fine lubricating oil. A refinery is to be built. 



152 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

JACKSON COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; borders on Lavaca Bay. 

County seat — Edna; population, 1,144; elev. 72; lat. 28° 58'; 
long. 96" 40'; mag. dec. 8° 22'.. 

Area, square miles, SS8. 

Population, 6,471. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 47.75. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,773,120. 

Mineral resources — Clays. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

JASPER COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; east of the Neches river. 

County seat — Jasper; population, 473; elev. — ; lat. 30° 55'; 
long. 93° 59'; mag. dec. 7° 19'. 

Area, square miles, 977. 

Population, 14,000. 

Railroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 146.20. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,852,720. 

Mineral Resources — Asphalt rock; lignite; sandstone; gravel. 

The asphaltic sandstone is found at the old tar well, 4^2 miles 
northeast of Rockland. Its composition is as follows: 

Per cent. 

Asphaltene 7.12 

Petrolene 20.14 

Silica 72.24 

Sulphur 0.24 

100.74 
Total bitumen 27.26 

Another deposit of similar character is found at Boykin's 
Spring, 31/2 miles northeast of the tar well. 

There is said to be some lignite in this county, but it has not 
been investigated. 

The sandstones are used for rip-rap, etc., on a considerable 
scale. They occur in the northern part of the county and are 
quarried by D. M. Picton & Co., Beaumont. The crushing 
strength of these stones varies from 2,000 to .7,000 lbs. per sq. in. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 153 

JEFF DAVIS COUNTY. 

Location — Trans-Pecos Texas. 

County seat — Fort Davis; population, 1,061; elev. 4,927 
(highest town in the State). 

Area, square miles, 1,922. 

Population, 1,678 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 30.51. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,193,766. 

Mineral resources — Agate; copper ores; limestone; granite; 
trap rock. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been thoroughly 
investigated, but copper ores are reported. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. 

Location — Extreme southeast; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 

County seat — ^Beaumont; population, 20,640; elev. 21; lat. 
30° 5'; long. 94° 5'; mag. dec. 7° 24'. 

Area, square miles, 1,109. 

Population, 38,182. 

Railroads, 6. 

Miles of raih-oad, 139.53. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $49,276,544. 

Mineral resources — Clays; natural gas; petroleum; gravel. 

The red and brown-burning clays are represented by an analy- 
sis of a sample from near Beaumont, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Snica 77.97 

Alumina • 11.04 

Oxide of iron 3.19 

Lime 0.84 

Magnesia 0.38 

Soda None 

Potash None 

Titanic acid 1.23 

Water 3.24 

Sulphuric acid 0.51 

98.40 
Total fluxes 4.41 

This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 2,102 deg. P. 
The quality of the brick made is shown by the following tests 



t 



154 BvlUtin of the University of Texas 

on samples from the Gulf States Brick Co. and the Beaumont 
Brick Co., several years old : 



Guir States Biicb Co., Style D. P. No. 2, Red face. 
Gulf SUtes Brick Co., Style D. P. No. 3, Red face. 
Gulf States Bricb Co., Style No. 1, stiff mud, red. 
Gulf States Brick Co., Style No. I, stiff mud, red. 
Gulf States Brick Co., Style speckle face, "Diana." 
Gulf States Brick Co., Style D. P. No. 1, brown face. 
Gulf States Brick Co., Style D. P. No. 5, red face. 
Beaumont Brick Company. 

Jefferson is one of the important oil producing counties. The 
bringing in of the grent Lucas sushcr, on Spindle Top, in Jan- 
uary, 1901, was the beginning of the development of the oil 
fields of the Gulf Coastal Plain. Since that time the county 
produced, to the close of 1913, 40,709,220 barrels of oil, valued 
at $15,043,553. The natural gas, found in association with the 
oil, is used locally. 

JIM HOGG COUNTY. 
Location — South Texas, 

County seat — Hebbronville ; population, 190; elev. 680. 
Area, square miles, 1,099. 

Population, (included in Brooks and Duval Counties). 

Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 16. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,459,564. 
Mineral resources— Clays. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

JIM WELLS COUNTY. 
Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Alice; population, 2,136; elev. 205, 
Area, square miles, 868. 
Population, 5,500 (estimated). 
Railroads, 2. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 155 

MUes of railroad, 81.69. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,929,645. 
Mineral resources — Clays. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

JOHNSON COUNTY.* 

Location — North of center. 

County seat — Cleburne; population, 10,364; elev. 764; lat. 
32** 20^; long. 97° 23'; mag. dec. 9° 11' (1910). 

Area, square miles, 744. 

Population, 34,460. 

Bailroads, 7. 

Miles of railroad, 144.61. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $22,356,735. 

Mineral resources — Clays. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated. 

JONES COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest of center. 

County seat — ^Anson; population, 1,842; elev. 1,716; lat. 
32° 45'; long. 99° 54'; mag. dec. 10° 25'. 

Area, square miles, 900. 

Population, 24,299. 

Railroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 105.42. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $12,191,525. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; limestone ; copper ores.. 

The quality of the brick made is shown by the following tests 
on a sample from the Pioneer Brick Works, Stamford : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 120.4 

Per cent of cells by volume 27.23 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 14.12 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 17.00 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 1,770 

The limestone industry centers around Lueders, where A. C. 
Fox has oi>erated a quarry for some years. The quality of the 
stone obtained here is shown by the following average of a 
number of analyses and tests : 



156 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Silica 2.33 

Alumina 1.19 

Oxide of iron 1.39 

Lime 52.02 

Magnesia Trace 

Carbonic acid 40.59 

Lobs on ignition ; . . 3.00 

100.52 

The weight per cubic foot varies from 141.3 to 164.1 pounds, 
with an average of 154.2. The pounds of water absorbed per 
cubic foot varies from 1.60 to 7.87, with an average of 4.71. 
The crushing strength, in pounds per square inch, varies from 
2,487 to 7,822, with an average of 4,258. 

The copper ores of this county are Permian and have not been 
developed. 

KAENES COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 

C!ounty seat — Karnes City; population, 635; elev. 404; lat. 
28° 55'; long. 97° 54'; mag. dec. 8° 35'. 

Area, square miles, 740. 

Population, 14,942. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 44.02. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,658,244. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite. 

The mineral resources of this county have not been investi- 
gated 

KAUFMAN COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Kaufman; population, 1,959; elev. 439; lat- 
32° 35'; long. 96° 20'; mag. dec. 8° 12'. 
Area, square miles, 932. 
Population, 35,323. 
Eailroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 97.58. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $19,188,184. 
Mineral resources — Clays; mineral waters; limestone; natural 



gas. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 157 

The mineral resources have not been thoroughly investigated. 
A sample of siliceous limestone from near Chief was examined in 
the laboratory of the Office of Public Roads, Washington, with 
the following results: 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 162 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 1.63 

Its chemical composition was as follows, analysis by J. E. 
Stullken, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas : 

Per cent. 

Silica 28.60 

Alumina 11.48 

Oxide of iron 2.42 

Lime 28.39 

Carbonic acid 24.30 

Loss on ignition 4.90 

100.09 
KENDALL COUNTY. 

Location — South of center. 

County seat — Boerne ; population, 886 ; elev. 1,405. 

Area, square miles, 613. 

Population, 4,517. 

fiailroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 40. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,709,981. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; limestone ; gravel. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

KENT COUNTY. 
Location — ^Northwest Texas. 

County seat — Clairemont; population, 150; elev. 2.127; lat. 
33° 10' ; long. lOO*' 45' ; mag. dec. 10° 21'. 
Area, square miles, 777. 
Population, 2,655. 
Bailroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 17.21. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,375,317. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

KERR COUNTY. 
Location — Southwest of the center. 

Cotinty seat — ^Kerrville; population, 1,834; elev. 1,645; lat. 
30» V ; long. 99° 8' ; mag. dec. 8" 39'. 



^ ,^ xj«i^e.«ity of T^ 






i\cc. 






oii- • 






a-"-? -. 






The Mineral Besources of Texas 159 

Population, 3,401. 

Railroads, 1. ' 

Miles of railroad, 50.57. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,592,800. 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

KLEBERG COUNTY. 

Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Kingsville ; population, 975 ; elev. 66. 

Area, square miles, 1,012. 

Population (included in that for Nueces county). 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railrod, 21. 

^Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,578,394. 

Mineral resources — Clays. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

KNOX COUNTY. 

Xocation — Northwest Texas. 

•County seat — Benjamin; population, 400; elev. 1,456. 
^rea, square miles, 947. 
Population, 9,625. 
Bailroads, 2. 

3Iiles of railroad (1913), 43.89. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,259,477. 
Mineral resources — Clays ; copper ores ; gypsum ; sandstone. 
The mineral resources have not been thoroughly investigated. 
rile copper ores are Permian and have not been developed. 

LAMAR COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas; borders on the Red river. 
County seat — Paris; population, 11,269; elev. 565; lat. 33° 41'; 
oxxg. 95° 35'; mag. dec. 8° 4'. 
-Area, square miles, 903. 

^Population, 46,544. 

Railroads, 5. 

Idiles of railroad (1913), 97. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $26,815,985. 



160 Bvlletin of the University of Texas 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone, mineral waters; gravel. 
The red and brown-burning clays are represented by the 
average of two analyses of samples from Paris, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 65.60 

Alumina 18.87 

Oxide of iron 2.77 

Lime 0.17 

Magnesia 1.47 

Soda 1.67 

Potash 0.68 

Titanic acid 2.05 

Sulphuric acid 1.16 

Water 5.26 

99.70 
Total fluxes 6.77 

These clays became viscous at a temperature of about 2,300 
deg. F. 

The quality of the brick made in this county is given by the 
following tests on a sample from Paris, several years old: 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds. 120.6 

Per cent, of cells by volume 22.97 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 11.88 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 14.32 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. Inch 3,156 

The composition of the mineral water from the Blossom Min- 
eral Water Company, Blossom, is as follows: 

Grains per 
U. S. Gal. 

Silica 2.45 

Iron 0.023 

Calcium 28.69 

Magnesium 6.65 

Sodium and Potassium 55.99 

Carbonate radicle (CO,) None 

Bicarbonate radicle (HCO,) 6.18 

Sulphate radicle (SO4) 189.01 

Chlorine . , 5.19 

Total solids 296.78 

This analysis was marked, ** Government Analysis.'' 

LAMB COUNTY. 

Location — Northwest Texas ; south of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Olton; population, 150; elev. 3,615. 



The Mineral Besources of Texas 161 

Area, square miles, 1,021. 

Population, 540. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 32.81. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,187,014. 

Mineral resources — Unknown. 

LAMPASAS COUNTY. 

Location — Center of the State. 

County seat — Lampasas; population, 2,119; elev. 1,025; lat. 
31^ 1'; long. 98° 10'; mag. dec. 8° 36'. 

Area, square miles, 755. 

Populat'^n, 9,532. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 57.98. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,975,710. 

Mineral resources — Celestite (sulphate of strontium); clays; 
limestone; sandstone; petroleum. 

The mineral resources have not been fully investigated. Pine 
samples of celestite are found near Lampasas and Lometa. Many 
varieties of limestone occur. At any near Chaddick's Mill, on 
the Colorado river, west of Lometa, there are heavy exposures 
of a medium and fine grained gray sandstone of the following 

composition and qualities: 

Per cent. 

SlUca 85.20 

Alumina 7.82 

Oxide of iron 4.68 

Lime 1.09 

Aarbonlc acid 1.10 

Loss on ignition 0.30 

100.19 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 137.30 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 9.94 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 3,111 

In the southwestern part of the county a little petroleum 
has been found at shallow depths. 

LA SALLE COUNTY. 
Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Cotulla ; population, 1,880; elev. 442; lat. 
28** 27'; long. 99° 14'; mag. dec. 8° 51'. 

U-llin. 



162 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 1,770. 
Population, 4,747. 
Railroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 91.50. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,854,480 (unof- 
ficial). 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

LAVACA COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Hallettsville ; population, 1,379; elev. 232; lat. 
29° 27'; long. 96° 57'; mag. dec. 8° 35'. 

Area, square miles, 992. > 

Population, 26,418. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 60.40. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $17,229,373. 

Mineral resources — Clays; sandstone; mineral waters; gravel. 

At Moulton, the Moulton Sandstone Company has operated 
a good sandstone quarry for a number of years. The composi- 
tion of this stone is given by the average of two analyses, as fol- 
lows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 86.10 

Alumina 2.29 

Oxide of iron 0.93 

Lime 0.44 

Magnesia 1.03 

Soda 4.67 

Potash 2.04 

Carbonic acid 0.35 

Sulphuric acid 0.75 

Loss on ignition 1.03 

99.63 

The average quality of this stone, as determined by several 
tests, is as follows: 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 137.80 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 10.48 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. Inch 4,311 

The absorption of water, in pounds per cubic foot, varied from 
3.28 to 14.89. The crushing strength, in pounds per square 
inch, varied from 2,400 to 8,791. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 163 

Composition of water from St. Mary's Mineral Well, Halletts- 
viUe: 

Grains per 
U. S. Gal. 

Calcium sulphate 37.30 

Calcium bicarbonate 31.13 

Calcium chloride 190.20 

Magnesium chloride 40.40 

Sodium chloride 133.70 

Sodium bicarbonate 78.70 

511.40 

LEE COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast of center. 

County seat — Giddings; population, 1,375; elev. 512; lat. 
30° 10'; long. 96° 57'; mag. dec. 8° 34' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 666. 

Population, 13,132. 

Bailroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 55.15. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,631,660. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; gravel. 

The sandy brick clays are represented by an analysis of a 
sample from near Giddings, as follows : 

Per cent. 

SiUca 81.50 

Alumina 5.43 

Oxide of iron 3.60 

Lime 1.30 

Magnesia 0.25 

Soda 1.56 

Potash 0.49 

Titanic acid 0.87 

Water 4.00 

99.00 
Total fluxes 7.20 

This clay did not bum steel hard at a temperature of 2,246 
deg. P. 

The lignite from this county is represented by analyses of sam- 
ples from Hicks and from Blue Branch, as follows : 



164 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Hicks. Blue Branch. 

Moisture 12.60 16.50 

Volatile combustible matter. .44.75 36.07 

Fixed carbon 33.90 37.17 

Ash 8.75 10.26 

100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.63 1.66 

British thermal units per pound 9,774 

These analyses do not represent the freshly mined lignite as 
it is probable that the moisture content would be about 30 per 
cent. 



CHAPTER IV. 
DISCUSSION OF COUNTIE&— Continued. 

Leon — Rusk, 

LEON COUNTY. 

Location — Bast of center; west of the Trinity river. 

County seat — Centerville; population, 400; lat. 31° 15'; long. 
95« 59'; mag. dec. 8° 31' (1911). 

Area, square miles, 1,066. 

Population, 16,583. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 110.99. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,110,567. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite, gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. The lignite industry is 
well conducted at and near Jewett by the Bear Qrass Coal Co. 
and the Houston County Coal & Manufacturing Co. The average 
composition of the lignites of this county is given in the following 
analysis : 

Per Cent. 

Moisture 27.91 

Volatile combustible matter 35.81 

Fixed carbon 25.89 

Ash 10.39 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.82 

British thermal units, per pound 7,136 

LIBERTY COUNTY. 

Locution — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — ^Liberty ; population, 980 ; elev. 30 ; lat. 30° 4' ; 
long. 94^ 48' ; mag. dec. 7° 42'. 
Area, square miles, 1,162. 
Population, 10,686. 
Bailroads, 5. 
Miles of railroad, 120.37. 



166 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Aisessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,181^455. 

Mineral resources — Clays; petroleum; natural gas; gravd. 

The clays have not been investigated. The natural gas from 
oil wells is used locally. The oil fields came into production in 
1905 and yielded, to the close of 1913, 328,136 barrels of oil, 
valued at $199,235. 

LIMESTONE COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast of center. 

County seat — Qroesbeck; population, 1,454; elev. 477; lat. 
31^ 31'; long. 96^ 31'; mag. dec. 8^ 36'. 

Area, square miles, 987. 

Population, 34,621. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 82.75. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $15,438,450. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; limestone; natural gas; 
gravel. 

The pottery clays are represented by an analysis of a sample 
from near Headsville, as follows : 



• • 



Per Cent. 

Silica 70.82 

Alumina 18.90 

Oxide of Iron 0.40 

Soda 0.50 

Titanic acid 2.10 

Water 6.80 

99.52 
Total flaxes 0.90 

This clay became steel hard at a teinperature of 2,246 deg. F. 
The fire-clay is represented by an analysis of a sample from 
near Headsville, as follows: 

Per Cent 

Silica 77.4 

Alumina 15.7 

Oxide of iron 0.7 

Titanic acid : 0.7 

WsLter 5.7 

100.2 
Total fluxes 0.70 



Tke Mineral Resources of Texas 167 

The lignite from Head's Prairie gave: 

Per Cent. 

Moisture 12.00 

Volatile combustible matter 42.00 

Fixed carbon 32.00 

Ash 14.00 

100.00 

The limestones are worked at Tehuacana by the Mexia Quarry 
Company. Several analyses and tests of this stone have been 

made, as follows : 

Per Cent 
Gray. Soft Yellow. 

Silica 4.80 5.50 

Alumina 1.29 1.67 

Oxide of iron 1.35 1.53 

Lime 50.02 48.69 

Carbonic acid 39.40 37.00 

Loss on ignition 2.70 5.00 

99.56 99.39 

Weight per cu. ft. pounds 158.1 127.0 

Pounds of water absorbed per 

cu. ft. 2.76 13.4 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch. 6,222 5,555 

Another sample g^ve: 

Weight per cu. ft pounds 168.48 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.59 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 10,140 

Stone from Tehuacana has been tested by the United States 
Office of Public Roads, Washington, with the following results : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 169 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 2.28 

The composition of this sample, as determined in the labora- 
tory of the Bureau of Economic Geology and Technology by 
J. E. Stullken, is as follows : 

Per Cent. 

Silica 5.40 

Alumina 7.33 

Oxide of iron 1.67 

Lime 44.79 

Carbonic acid 36.60 

Loss on ignition 4.96 

100.75 



168 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

A good quality of natural gaa occurs in large Tolumes near 
Mexia, and it is piped to Teague, Corsicana and Waco, the total 
mileage being 85. 

LIPSCOMB COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast comer of the Panhandle; borders on 
Oklahoma. 

County seat — ^Lipscomb; population, 110; lat 36° 15'; long. 
100° 15'; mag. dec. 11° 9'. 

Area, square miles. 850. 

Population, 2,634. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 10.84. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,616,250. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

LIVE OAK COUNTY. 
Location — South Texas ; traversed by the Nueces river. 
County seat — Oakville ; population, 431 ; elev. 90. 
Area, square miles, 1,123. 
Population, 3,442. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 50. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,393,860. 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

LLANO COUNTY 

Location — ^Near center ; traversed by the Llano river ; west of 
the Colorado river. 

County seat — Llano; population, 1,687; elev. 1,029; lat. 
30° 44' ; long. 98° 41' ; mag. dec. 9° 24'. 

Area, square miles, 977. 

Population, 6,520. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 20.36. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,604,840. 

Mineral resources — Amethyst; bat guano; dolomite; gold; 
granite; graphite; iron ores; pearls; serpentine; rare minerals, 
such as f ergusonite, gadolinite, gummite, madkintoshite, nivenite, 
rolandite, thorogummite ; limestone ; marble ; sandstone, granite, 
gravel. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 169 



• 



While the mineral resources of Llano county are of a diversi- 
fied character, very little is being done towards their develop- 
ment. The only mineral product now marketed is granite. Many 
attempts have been made to mine gold ore, but no returns are 
now available as to the success attained. The same remark ap- 
plies to the copper ores. A' good quality of graptite occurs 
along the line of the Austin & Northwestern By., near Graphite 
Station, but it has not been developed. 

Excellent iron ores occur at Iron Mountain, about 12 miles 
northwest of Llano, at the old Olive mine, and elsewhere, but it 
has been many years since any shipment was made. 

Some Llano county iron ore was used by the Sloss Steel & 
Iron Company, Birmingham, Alabama, and a little by the State 
Furnace at Eusk, Cherokee County. The ores are high grade 
hematites, magnetites and limonites, the two former occurring 
among the granites and gneisses and the latter in limestone. 
The hematites and magnetites carry from 60 to 65 per cent of 
iron and appear to be lenticular in form. With the exception of 
the old Olive mine, these deposits lie from 10 to 15 miles away 
from transportation. 

The deposit of rare minerals at Barringer Hill has not been 
worked for several years. 

Llano county has many excellent deposits of limestone and 
sandstone and some of the marble appears to be of fine texture 
and quality, but no quarries are in operation. 

This county has long been famous for the excellent quality of 
its gray granite and several quarries are in commission. The 
Federal Building in Kansas City, Missouri, was partly con- 
structed of a gray granite which occurs alamost within the lim- 
its of the town of Llano. 

The composition of a sample of gray granite from Bradshaw's 
quarry was as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 70.20 

Alumina 17.36 

Peroxide of iron 1.32 

Proibxlde of iron 1.90 

Lime 1.46 

Magnesia 0.20 

Soda 4.30 

Potash 2.90 



170 BvJletin of ihe University of Texas 

« 

Per cent. 

Phosphoric acid 0.06 

Water 0.70 

100.40 

Weight per cuhic foot» pounds 167.23 

Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . 0.35 
crushed at, pounds per square inch 10,060 

A samiple of gray granite from Teich's quarry had th€ 
lowing composition : 

Per Cent. 

Silica 72.80 

Alumina 15.40 

Peroxide of iron 2.15 

Protoxide of iron 0.40 

Lime 1.60 

Magnesia 1.00 

Soda 2.70 

Potash 2.30 

Phosphoric acid 0.05 

Water 0.45 

98.85 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 165.98 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.47 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 11,950 

A sample of medium grained red granite from Teieh's qi 
had the following composition : 

Per Cent. 

Silica 78.00 

Alumina 1.23 

Peroxide of iron 1.30 

Lime 0.15 

Magnesia 0.60 

Soda 3.40 

Potash 4.34 

Phosphoric acid 0.04 

Water 0.20 

100.38 
Weight per cubic foot, pounds 163.49 

Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . . 0.4 8 
Crushed at, pounds per square inch 11,990 

Beginning about 3 miles northeast of Llano £«id contii 
for several miles in a northeasterly direction, there is a i 
exposure of a fine-grained, dense and extremely hard felc 
porphyry which has been termed **opal granite*' from the nr 
ous inclusions of a bluish quartz in small oval pieces. It is 



The Mineral Resources of Texds 171 

ficult to cut and polish, but makes a very handsome and durable 
stone. Its composition is as follows: 

Per Cent. 

Silica 74.90 

Alumina 11.10 

Peroxide of iron 1.60 

Protoxide of iron 1.50 

Manganese dioxide 1.90 

Lime 0.20 

Soda 8.50 

Titanic acid 0.50 

Water 0.30 

100.50 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 164.73 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.59 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 15,300 

Among .petrographers this stone is known as Uanite. 

A medium grain red granite proposed to be crushed and used 
as road material and concrete had a crushing strength of 11,800 
pounds per square inch. A sample of granite from Kramer's 
quarry had a crushing strength of 8,888 pounds per square inch. 

LOVING COUNTY (UNORGANIZED). 
Location — West Texas ; south of New Mexico ; east of the Pecos 
river. 
County seat — 
Area, square miles, 873. 
Population, 249. 
Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $384,887. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

LUBBOCK COUNTY. 
Location — Northwest Texas. 

County seat — Lubbock; population, 1,938; elev. 3,148; lat. 
33^ 36'; long. 101° 52'; mag. dec. 10° 36'. 
Area, square miles, 982. 
Population, 3,624. 
Railroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 59.79. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,971,301. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 



172 BuUetin of the University of Texas, 

LYNN COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest Texas. 

County seat — Tahoka; population, 575; elev. 3,043. 

Area, square miles ,821. 

Population, 1,713. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 35.48. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,082,007. 

Mineral resources-— Unknown. 

Mcculloch county. 

Location — ^West of center; south of the Colorado river. 

County seat — Brady; population, 2,669; elev. 1,670; lat. 
31^ 8'; long. 99° 21'; mag. dec. 9° 42'. 

Area, square miles, 1,100. 

Population, 13,405. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 70.98. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,529,916. 

Mineral resources — Coal; natural gas; limestone; petroleum; 
sandstone; gravel. 

The mineral resources have not been fully investigated. The 
Central Coal Fields cross the Colorado river and come into 
this county, but no mines are in operation. Petroleum and nat- 
ural gas occur in the county, but have not been developed to much 
extent. 

Good lubricating oil occurs in comparatively shallow wells 
near Lohn, northwest of Brady. 

Mclennan county. 

Location — ^Northeast of center. 

County seat— Waco; population, 26,425 ; elev. 414; lat. 31° 36'; 
long. 97° 8' ; mag. dec. 8° 24'. 
Area, square miles, 1,080. 
Population, 73,250. 
Railroads, 8. 

Miles of railroad, 224.84. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $54,701,370. 
Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; petroleum; gmvel. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 173 

The red and brown-burning clays are represented by an analy* 

sis of a sample from Waco, as follows : 

Per Cent. 

Silica 72.36 

Alumina 7.84 

Oxide of Iron 1.72 

Lime 6.48 

Magnesia 2.23 

Soda 1.70 

Potash 1.20 

TlUnlc acid 0.12 

Water 3.72 

Carbonic acid 3.30 

100.67 
Total fluxes 13.33 

This clay became steel hard somewhat above 2,102 deg. F. 
The calcareous brick clays are represented by an analysis of 

a sample from East Waco, as follows: 

Per Cent. 

Silica 71.40 

Alumina 8.20 

Oxide of Iron 2.30 

Lime 6.34 

Magnesia 2.44 

Soda 1.60 

Potash 1.22 

TlUnic acid 0.14 

Water 3.70 

Carbonic acid 3.25 

100.50 

Totel fluxes 14.90 

Point of fusion 2,138 Deg. F. 

The brick made are represented by tests made on samples re- 
ceived from P. A. Harris, Waco, as follows: 

stiff mud. No marks. 

Weight per cu. ft. pounds 122.8 131.7 

Per cent, of cells by volume 13.94 17.69 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight.. 7.08 8.38 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft.... 8.69 11.00 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 1,898 6,000 

The oil resources have not been developed, although a high 
parafim oil was found by Wm. L. Prather, of Waco, in 1890, 
on the Bosque, at a depth of 265 feet. This was the first dis- 
covery of oil in the central part of the State, antedating the 
Navarro (Corsicana) field by nearly four years. The existence 
of a paraffin oil 54 miles west of south from Corsicana, although 



174 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

at a shallow depth, is a noteworthy fact, and one that shoulJ 
long since have induced systematic drilling. 

A sample p£ limestone from Crawford had the following com- 
position : 

Per cent. 

Silica Trace 

Alumina 0.60 

Oxide of iron - Trace 

Lime 55.60 

Carbonic acid 43.68 

100.08 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 158.49 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 9.1 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 3,180 

This is the purest limestone that has been found in the State. 

Mcmullen county. 

Location — South Texas; traversed by the Nueces river. 

County seat — Tilden ; population, 506. 

Area, square miles, 1,180. 

Population, 1,091. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 16. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,331,997. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; natural gas; petroleum; 
gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. On the R. S. Franklin 
ranch, along the San Miguel river, southwest of Christine, there 
is a large deposit of a fine white day closely resembling the 
white clay found near Gonzales, Gonzales county. 

Lignite occurs on and near the San Miguel river, in the 
vicinity of the iron bridge on the road from Pleasanton to Tilden. 
Some* prospecting work has been done here, but no mines have 
been operated. The seam, as exposed, runs to about five feet in 
thickness and appears to be of fair quality. 

Natural gas bubbles up through the San Miguel river on the 
Franklin ranch, southwest of Christine. 

In the northeast part of the county, at Crowther, there is an 
oil and gas field of considerable promise. Several wells have 
been sunk and storage tanks provided. A sample of natural gas 
from Crowther carried 947 British thermal units per cubic foot. 
It is used locally. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 175 

MADISON COUNTY. 

Location — East of the center; between the Navasota and the 
Trinity rivers. 

County seat — Madisonville; population, 1,000; lat. 30° 57'; 
long. 95^ 55' ; mag. dec. 8° 11'. 

Area, square miles, 488. 

Population, 10,318. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 34.17. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,694,670. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

MARION COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas; borders on Louisiana. 

County seat — Jeflferson; population, 2,515; elev. 191; lat. 
32° 46'; long. 94° 21'; mag. dec. 7° 31'. 

Area, square miles, 384. 

Population, 10,472. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 48.35. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,962,294. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; iron ore ; lignite ; limestone ; natural 
gas; petroleum; sandstone; pearls; gravel. 

The clays are represented by three analyses, as follows : 

12 3 

Silica 62.40 58.20 76.00 

Alumina 20.66 23.97 9.45 

Oxide of iron 8.54 4.43 4.75 

Lime 0.40 None Trace 

Magnesia Trace None None 

Soda 7.77 5.02 4.00 

Potash 1.12 2.09 2.00 

Water 5.36 4.70 

Total 100.89 99.07 100.90 

Total fluxes 17.83 11.54 10.75 

1. Thomas Ferrell's bank, A. Richardson headright. 

2. W. C. Hill, on Daingerfield road. 

3. J. Higgins' yard, near Jefferson. 

Lignite occurs on Big Cypress creek and on the north side 
of Caddo Lake, but the seams, as exposed, are thin. No analysis 



176 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

can be quoted. It is said that in a deep well at Jefferson three 
beds of brown coal were penetrated. 

Petroleum and natural gas occur in and around Caddo Lake, 
and these fields appear to be the westward continuation of the 
Caddo and Oil City fields in Louisiana. To the close of 1913 
Marion county had produced 553,366 barrels of oil, valued at 
$494,744. 

Some good pearls have been found in Caddo Lake. 

Aside from the possibilities in oil and gas, the principal min- 
eral resource of Marion county is the large deposits of brown iron 
ore (limonite) that occur in the northwestern part of the county, 
at Lasater, Orr's Switch, near Ore City, etc. 

During the last eighteen months considerable shipments have 
been made to Philadelphia, the ore, as per cargo sampling, carry- 
ing about 55 per cent in iron, without washing or calcining. A 
standard-gauge railroad, more than thirty miles in length, has 
been constructed from Longview to and beyond Ore City. An 
iron ore dock, capable of handling 3,500 to 4,000 tons of ore per 
day, has been built by the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Pe Railway, at 
Port Bolivar, Galveston Bay, and coastwise shipments have been 
made from the deposits near Ore City. 

In common with practically all of the brown ores in this part 
of the State, the deposits in Marion county appear to be of 
blanket form. They occur on and near the tops of the hills 
and ridges, the topography of the region being extremely favor- 
able to the construction of railroad lines for opening and working 
the beds. For the most part the cover (over-burden) is light and 
consists of soil, earth and sandy, friable clays. Ores carrying 
from 50 to 55 per cent in iron can be mined and loaded for 75 
to 85 cents a ton. The all-rail rate to tidewater is $1.00 a ton. 

The iron furnace at Jefferson was built in 1889-90. It was 
60x12 feet and was blown in March, 1891. It was a charcoal 
furnace and had an annual capacity of 13,500 tons. It has not 
been in operation for some years. The car wheel iron produced 
had a good reputation, being made from local ores. The roUin? 
mill, built in 1891, has long since been dismantled. The iron 
ore area in the county may be taken at 27 square miles. 



The l^ineral Resources of Texas 177 

MAllTIN COUNTY. 

Location — West Texas. 

County seat — Stanton ; population, 650 ; elev. 2,654. 

Area, square miles, 900. 

Population, 1,549. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 12.58. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,603,143. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

MASON COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest of center; traversed by the Llano river. 

County Seat — ^Mason; population, 1,137; elev., 1450; lat. 
30^ 45'; long. 99° 14'; mag. dec. 9° 58'. 

Area, square miles, 968. 

Population, 5,683. 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,522,020. 

Mineral resources — Clays; granite; graphite; iron ore; man- 
ganese ore; mica; tin ore (reported) ; topaz; gravel. 

Owing to the fact that there is no railroad in this county, the 
mineral resources have not received much attention. There has 
been no development in the county. Good manganese ore is 
found at the old Spiller mine, east of the town of Mason. 

Some good iron ore is known to occur in the county, and it is 
of the same general character as that of Llano county. A va- 
riety of iron ore new to the State has recently been found in 
Mason. It is of a deep purple color, somewhat greasy to the 
feel, and is a typical hematite. It is comparatively soft and 
would make a high-grade and permanent iron paint when prop- 
erly ground in oil. The composition of this ore is as follows : 

Per cent. 

SUica 10.68 

Alumina 5.67 

Metallic iron 54.60 

Lime 0.59 

Sulphuric acid 0.58 

Loss on Ignition 2.92 

In the northeast part of the county, near Pontotoc, prospecting 
for mica has been carried on of late, and some good material 

12-MIn. 



178 BuUetin of the Ufiiversity of Texas 



. I 



has been found. The occurrence of tin ore on Herman and Wil- 
low creeks was reported several years ago, but no vein or other 
deposit has been located. 

The granites of the county are similar to those of Llano and 
Burnet counties. 

Near Streeter, a little south of west from Mason, a beautiful 
variety of white and faintly bluish topaz is found, which has been 
cut and placed on the market. No typical straw-colored topaz 
has been found. It is reported that a few good pearls have been 
found in the Llano River, but the industry is of a sporadic char- 
acter. Such pearls as have been obtained came from Unios (fresh 
water mussels). 

MATAGORDA COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas ; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 

County seat — Bay City; population, 3,156; elev. 55 lat. 
28° 59' ; long. 95° 55' ; mag. dec. 8° 7'. 

Area, square miles, 1,135. 

Population, 13,594. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 156.96. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $16,172,645. 

Mineral resources — Clays; natural gas; petroleum; salt. 

The clays have not been investigated. The natural gas, found 
in association with petroleum, is used locally. 

The oil fields came into production in 1904 and to the close of 
1913 yielded 2,219,995 barrels of oil, valued at $1,403,862. 

As this countv borders on the Gulf of Mexico and lies well 
within the coastal plain, it is probable that other oil fields will 
be discovered, together with commercial supplies of natural gas. 

The quality of the brick made in this county is shown by tests 
on samples received from the Bay City Brick & Tile Co., Bay 
City, as follows : 

Graham Gulf Coast 

Face. Common. 

Weight per cu. ft., lbs 11 5.80 1 16.90 

Per cent, of cells by volume 26.60 27.90 

Volume of cells in 100 parts, by weight. . 14.34 14.90 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 16.60 17.41 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 2,424 1,431 



Tke Mineral Resources of Teooas 179 

MAVERICK COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest Texas; borders on the Eio Grande. 

County seat — Eagle Pass; population, 3536; elev. 735; lat. 
28° 44'; long. 100° 30'; mag, dee. 9° 28'. 

Area, square miles, 1,332. 

Population, 5,151. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 28.47. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,132,661. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; coal ; natural gas ; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

From the Fleming and Davidson well, at depth of 712 feet, 
a good flow of natural gas was encountered. The sample ex- 
amined gave 300 B. t. u. per cubic foot, and contameJ an jinusual 
amount of nitrogen. 

Much coal has been mined in this county by the International 
Coal Mines Co. and the Olmos Coal Co. This latter cojipany 
operates the only coal washing plant in the State. The average 
composition of the coal mined in this county is given by the fol- 
lowing analyses : 

International Olmos Coal 

Coal Mines Co. Company. Lump. 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Moisture 4.85 8.83 

Volatile combustible matter 38.30 32.68 

Fixed carbon 46.30 44.89 

Ash 10.55 13.60 

100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 2.04 0.90 

B. t. u. per pound 11,128 10.941 

During the months of September and October, 1911, 800 tons 
of International coal were sold to Fort Sam Houston, San An- 
tonio. It had the following average composition : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 2.15 

Volatile combustible matter 33.10 

Fixed carbon 57.25 

Ash 7.50 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.25 

B. t. u., per pound 13,591 



180 BuUeiin of the IJniversity of Texas 

MEDINA COUNTY. 

Location — South of center. 

County seat— Hondo; population, 1,325 ; elev. 887 ; lat. 29° 19' ; 
long. 99° 5' ; mag. dec. 8° 43'. 

Area, square miles, 1,284. 

Population, 13,415. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 55.87. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $11,251,455. 

Mineral resourcesr— Clays ; lignite; natural gas; petroleum; 
gravel. 

The calcareous brick clays are represented by an analysis of 

a sample from near D'Hanis, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 51.12 

Alumina 11.04 

Oxide of iron 4.10 

Ldme 14.24 

Magnesia 0.90 

Soda 1.59 

Potash 0.40 

Titanic acid 0.95 

Water 4.00 

Carbonic acid 10.62 

98.97 
Total flaxes 21.23 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,102 degrees P. 
The quality of the brick made in this county is shown by the fol- 
lowing tests on a sample received from the D'Hanis Brick & 

Tile Co. : 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 122.6 

Per cent, of cells by volume 11.58 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 5.89 
Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . 7.22 
Crushed at, pounds per square inch 3,340 

A considerable amount of lignite is mined in Medina county, 
near Lytic. The following average analyses give the qualitj' : 

Carr Mine. Bertetti Mine. 

. Per cent. Per cent. 

Moisture 27.39 28.34 

Volatile combustible matter 35.07 41.49 

Fixed carbon 28.16 21.63 

Ash 9.38 8.54 

100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.88 0.87 

B. t. u. per pound 7,485 7.846 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 181 

Some natural gas and petroleum have been found in wells 
drilled near Dunlay, but no production is credited. 

MENARD COUNTY. 

Location — ^West of center. 

County seat — Menard; population, 450; dev. 1,870; lat. 
30° 54'; long. 99° 51^ mag. dec. 8° 40'. 
Area, square miles, 888. 
Population, 2,707. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 15.85. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,584,055. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

MIDLAND COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas. 

County seat — ^Midland; population, 2,192; elev. 2,769. 

Area, square miles, 972. 

Population, 3,464. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 26.51. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,734,287. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

MILAM COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast of center. 

County seat — Cameron; population, 3,263; dev. 390; lal 
30° 52' ; long. 96° 58' ; mag. dec. 8° 18'. 

Area, square miles, 1,044. 

Population, 36,780. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 107.10. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $19,574,487. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; gravel; petroleum. 

The buff-burning semi-refractory clays are represented by the 
following average of three analyses of samples from near Rock- 
dale: 



182 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Silica 69.33 

Alumina 19.38 

Oxide of Iron 1.07 

Lime 0.87 

Magnesia 0.86 

Soda • 0.12 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 1.40 

Water 5.46 

98.49 
Total fluxes 2.87 

The red and brown-burning clays are represented by an analysis 
of a sample from near Rockdale, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 72.90 

Alumina 14.70 

Oxide of iron 4.50 

Lime 0.60 

Magnesia 0.30 

Soda 0.70 

Potash 1.50 

Titanic acid 1.00 

Water 4.20 

99.50 
Total fluxes 7.60 

This clay burned steel hard at a temperature of 2,174 degrees F. 
The fire clay is represented by an analysis of a sample from 
near Milano Junction, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 57.40 

Alumina 28.84 

Oxide of iron 0.72 

Lime 0.10 

Magnesia • 0.10 

Soda 0.47 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 1.48 

Water 10.44 

99.55 
Total fluxes 1.39 

This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 2,102 degrees 
F. It is one of the best fire clays in the State, but is not used. 

Milam county has long been a heavy producer of lignite. The 
industry centers around Rockdale. The average composition of 
the lignites from this county is as follows : 



The Mineral Resources of Texcts 188 

Per cent. 

Moisture 31.22 

Volatile combustible matter 33.99 

Fixed carbon 26.83 

Ash 8.96 

100.00 

Sulphur 1.18 

B. t. u. per pound 7,268 

MILLS COUNTY. 

Location — Near center. 

County seat — Gk)ldthwaite ; population, 1,129 ; elev. 1,518 ; lat. 
Sr 27'; long. 98° 34'; mag. dec. 9° 3'. 

Area, square miles, 700. 

Population, 9,694. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 34.87. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,205,140. 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone; sandstone; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Mills coimty have not been investi- 
gated. 

MITCHELL COUNTY. 

Location — West Texas. 

County seat — Colorado; population, 1,840; elev. 2,067. 
Area, square miles, 807. 
Population, 8,956. 
Bailroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 30.86. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,366,848. 
Mineral resources — Salt; gravel, limestone. 
Mitchell county has been a steady producer of salt, obtained 
by evaporating the deep-seated brines at Colorado City. 

MONTAGUE COUNTY. 

Location — North Texas; borders on the Red river. 

County seat — Montague ; population, 284 ; elev. 1,075. 

Area, square miles, 976. 

Population, 25,123. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 85.17. 



184 Bulletin of the Umversity of Texas 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $12,806,465. 

Mineral resources — ^Asphalt rock; coal; sandstone. 

The asphalt rocks are bituminous sandstones. Th^ are best 
developed around St. Jo, on Sampson Bidge, Devil's Backbone, 
etc. Their average composition is as follows : 

Per cent. 

SiUca .' 88.00 

Asphaltene 1.84 

Petrolene 8.68 

Sulphur 0.22 

These deposits seldom exceed 3 feet in thickness. The over- 
burden may be as much as 27 feet and consists of thinly-bedded 
sandstones, days, sand and Cretaceous limestones. Interbedded 
with the bituminous sandstone and forming a *' horse" in it, 
there is often a hard bluish limestone carrying a little bitumen. 
This limestone has the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Silica 63.18 

Alumina • • 2.04 

Oxide of iron Trace 

Lime 20.52 

Carbonic acid 11.50 

Organic matter 3.08 

100.32 

Bituminous coal is found at and near Bowie, but no coal has 
been pi'oduced in this coimty for some years. The composition 
of this coal was stated to be as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 2.30 

Volatile combustible matter 34.48 

Fixed carbon 61.28 

Ash 0.60 

100.00 
Sulphur 1.14 

In spite of the fact that this sample carried less than 1 per 
cent of ash, it is not at all probable that coal of this composi- 
tion can be obtained in commercial quantities. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 
Location — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Conroe; i)opulation, 1,374; elev. 213; lat. 
30° 19' ; long. 95° 26' ; 7° 56'. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 185 

Area, square miles, 1,066. 

Population, 15,679. 

Railroads, 5. 

MOes of railroad, 100.72. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,889,510. 

Mineral resources — Clays; petroleum ( ?) ; gravel; natural gas. 

The clays have not been investigated. Inasmuch as this county 
lies immediately north of and adjacent to the Humble oil field 
in EDarris County, it is likely to become an oil producing county. 

At Benn natural gas carrying 822 B. t. u. per cubic foot was 
struck in February, 1915. 

MOORE COUNTY. 
Location — ^Near center of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Dumas; population, 200; elev. 3,638; lat. 
35*» 52'; long. 101° 59'; mag. dec. 11° 54'. 
Area, square miles, 885. 
Population, 561. 
Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,204,116. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

MORRIS COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas. 

County seat — ^Daingerfield ; population, 1,100; elev. 397; lat. 
33° 1'; long. 94° 43'; mag. dec. 7° 53' (1910). 

Area, square miles, 278. 

Population, 10,439. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 35.52. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,558,149. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; iron ore ; lignite ; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

The iron ores (limonites) are found in the southeastern part 
of the county and are probably an extension of the ore fields 
of Marion and Cass counties. The quality of the ore is excel- 
lent, if one may judge from such analyses as have been pub- 
lished, the average metallic iron running to 54 per cent. The 
iron ore area may be taken at 15 square miles. 

The average of two analyses of the lignite found in Morris 



186 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

county (Pruitt place), with a thickneas of less than 2 feet, is 

as follows: 

Per cent. 

Mioisture , 6.50 

Volatile combustible matter. 46.64 

. Fixed carbon 28.02 

Aflh 18.84 

100.00 
Sulphur 2.22 

MOTLEY COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest Texas; south of the Panhandle. 

County seat — Matador; population, 600; elev. ; lat. 

34° 0' ; long. 100° 42' ; mag. dec. 10° 13'. 
Area, square miles, 984. 
Population, 2,396. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 20. 

Assessed valuation of property pf all kinds, $3,934,941. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

NACOGDOCHES COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas; between the Angelina and the Attoyac 
rivers. 

County seat — Nacogdoches; population, 3,369; elev. 283; lat. 
31° 37'; long. 94° 38'; mag. dec, 8° 0' (1911). 

Area, square miles, 962. 

Population, 27,406. 

Railroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 106.18. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,528,490. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock; clays; iron ore; natural 
gas; petroleum; mineral waters; gravel. 

The asphalt rock resembles that found in Jasper county. 

The pottery clays of this county are represented by an analysis 
of a sample from Nacogdoches, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 75.33 

Alumina 14.73 

Oxide of Iron 1.10 

Lime 0.05 

Magnesia ...» • . . 1.61 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 187 

Per cent. 

Soda 0.10 

Potash 0.64 

Titanic acid 1.27 

Water 4.50 



99.33 
Total fluxes 3.50 

This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 2,390 deg. F. 

The iron ores have not been fully investigated, but such analy- 
ses as are available show that they do not carry above 46 per cent 
in iron, with about 20 per cent in silica. 

The first oil wells in Texas to assume even a moderate com- 
mercial importance and the first oil pipe line were in Nacog- 
doches county. The oil was first noticed in 1867, but little or 
nothing was done until about 1887. Between this year and 1890 
one company alone drilled forty wells, all of them shallow. In 
1890 thirty oil wells were in operation. The center of the indus- 
try was near Oil Spring and Chireno and a 3-inch pipe line was 
built to Aaron's Hill, near Nacogdoches, a distance of 14^ 
miles. 

Pour miles northeast of Oil Spring a well drilled to a depth 
of 70 feet flowed from 250 to 300 barrels a day, but soon after- 
wards became a ** pumper.'* 

No oil has been produced in Nacogdoches county for many 
years, but it would appear that systematic drilling could be 
undertaken with strong probability of success. 

The oil found in 1887-1890 was excellent for lubricating pur- 
poses. It had an asphalt base, did not lose its mobility at a tem- 
perature below zero P., and did not gum on exposure to the air. 

NAVARRO COUNTY. 
Location — ^Northeast of center. 

County seat — Corsicana; population, 9,749; elev. 418; lat. 
32° 5'; long. 96° 29'; mag. dec. 8° 26' (1910). 
Area, square miles, 1,136. 
Population, 47,070. 
Railroads, 4. 
Miles of railroad, 132.57. 
Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $26,818,845. 



188 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Mineral resources— Clays ; natural gas ; petroleum ; limestone ; 
gravel. 

The red and brown-burning clays are represented by an analy- 
sis of a sample from near Oorsicana, as follows : 

Per cent. 

SlUca 55.28 

Alumina 21.27 

Oxide of iron 8.37 

Ldme 8.90 

Magnesia 0.28 

Soda Trace 

Potash None 

Titanic acid 1.05 

Water 4.26 

Carbonic acid 3.30 

Organic matter 1.43 

99.14 
Total fluxes 12.55 

This day became steel hard at a temperature of 1,922 deg. F. 
The quality of the brick made is shown by tests on a sample 
fi<om the Corsicana Brick Co.^ as follows: 

Liight red. 

Weight per cu. ft.» pounds 117.10 

Per cent, of cells by volume 26.01 

Volume of cells in 100 parts, by weight. .13.87 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft . 16.24 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 4,400 

The Corsicana oil field came into production in 1896, and to 
the close of 1913 had yielded 6,151,034 barrels of oil, valued at 
$4,734,762. 

The Powell oil field came into production in 1900, and to the 
close of 1913 yielded 3,884,623 barrels of oil, valued at $2,- 
287,825. 

The total oil production of Navarro county, to the close of 
1913, was 10,035,657 barrels, valued at $7,022,587. 

The natural gas is used locally. 

The limestones have not been fully investigated. About 10 
miles southeast of Corsicana, near Richland, there is a bluish 
limestone of the following composition and qualities : 

Per cent. 

SUica 2.90 

Alumina 1.41 - 

Oxide of iron 0.31 

Idme s 51.36 



Th£ Mhveral Resources of Texas 189 

Per cent. 

Carbonic acid 39.40 

Lobs on ignition 3.90 

99.28 

Weight per cu. ft., ponnds 164.7 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.95 

Crashed at, pounds per square inch 9,424 

NEWTON COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas ; borders on Louisiana. 

County seat — ^Newton ; population, 575 ; elev. 172 ; lat 30' 51° ; 
long. 93° 44'; mag. dec. 7° 33' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 903. 

Population, 10,850. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 92.97. 

AJBsessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,068,308. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Newton county have not been inves- 
tigated. 

NOLAN COUNTY. 

Location — Northwest of center. 

County seat — Sweetwater; population, 4,176; elev. 2,164; lat. 
32*^ 28'; long. 100^ 24'; mag. dec. lO*' 25' (1910). 

Area, square miles, 828. 

Population, 11,999. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 91.29. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,267,676. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gypsum; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Nolan county have not been inves- 
tigated. 

NUECES COUNTY. 

Location — South Texas; borders on the Gulf of Mexico. 

County seat — Corpus Christi ; population, 8,222 ; elev. 35 ; lat. 
27*^ 47' ; long. 97° 24' ; mag. dec. 8° 21'. 

Area, square miles, 1,108. 

Population, 21,955 (includes Jim Wells and Kleberg coun- 
ticB). 

Bailroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 74.21. 



190 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $17,886,190. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; natural gas ; petroleum ; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Nueces county have not heea fully 
investitgated, but it is probable that both oil and gas exist there. 
The bringing in of the grej^t gas well at White Point, in San 
Patricio County, 7 miles across the bay from Corpus Christi, 
has aroused additional interest in the possibilities of this county. 

OCHILTREE COUNTY. 
Location — North line of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Ochiltree; population, 450; elev. 2J00; lat. 
36° 17'; long. 100° 48'; mag. dec. 11° 10'. 
Area, square miles, 864. 
Population, 1,602. 
Railroads, none. 

AJssessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,515,291. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

OLDHAM COUNTY. 

Location — ^West line of the Panhandle ; borders on New Mex- 
ico. 

County seat — Tascosa; population, 192; elev. 3,176; lat. 
35° 33' ; long. 102° 14' ; mag. dec. 11° 53'. 

Area, square miles, 1,470. 

Population, 812. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 66.61 (1913). 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,616,758. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

ORANGE COUNTY. 
Location — Extreme southeast Texas ; borders on Louisiana. 
County seat — Orange; population, 5,527; elev. 10; lat. 30° 3'; 
long. 101° 13' ; mag. dec. 9° 46'. 
Population, 9,528. 
Railroads, 4. 
Miles of railroad, 67.29. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,283,548. 
Mineral resources — Natural gas ; petroleum ; clays ; gravel. 
The clays have not been investiprated. 



The MinertU Resources of Texas 191 

This county entered the list of oil producing counties in 1913, 
and produced during that year 17,706 barrels of oil, valued at 
^19,123. 

PALO PINTO COUNTY. 

Location — ^North of center. 

County seat — ^Palo Pinto ; population, 482; elev. 1,000; lat. 
32° 46'; long. 98° 17'; mag. dec. 9° 9'. 

Area, square miles, 971. 

Population, 19,506. 

Railroads, 2. 

MUes of railroad, 58.59. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,865,370. 

Mineral resources — Clays; coal; limestone; sandstone; natural 
gas; mineral waters; gravel; petroleum. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

The average composition of the coal mined at Strawn by the 
Strawn Coal Mining Company is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 2.51 

Volatile combustible matter 35.68 

Fixed carbon 46.34 

Ash 15.47 



100.00 



Sulphur 3.08 

B. t. u. per pound 11,778 

This is also about the composition of the coal mined at Mt. 
Marion by the Mt. Marion Coal Mining Co. 

The Mineral Wells Crushed Stone Company operates a lime- 
stone quarry at Mineral Wells, furnishing stone for ballast, road 
making, bitulithic paving, etc. Several analyses and tests have 
been made, as follows: 

Silica 0.60 

Alumina 0.44 

Oxide of iron 0.76 

Lime 51.25 

Magnesia 

Carbonic acid 40.25 

Sulphuric acid 

Loss on ignition 4.45 



0.80 


3.14 


5.18 


none 


none 


0.50 


1.05 


1.95 


1.80 


52.50 


48.93 


48.25 


0.59 


0.33 


1.38 


40.10 


38.96 


37.90 


0.88 


0.35 


1.72 


4.00 


4.04 


3.52 



97.75 99.92 97.70 100.25 



192 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

The weight per en. ft. varied from 165.1 to 169 pounds, 
amount of water absorbed per en. ft. varied from 0.06 to O.IS 
The emshing strain, in pounds per square inch, varied fi 
14,000 to 16,000. 

The composition of the water from the Indian Wells Wi 
Company, Mineral Wells, is as follows: 

Grains per U. S. Gal. 
Fresh from the Condensed 

well. (52-1) 

Potassium chloride 5.50 378.28 

Sodium nitrate 0.88 15.19 

Sodium carbonate 1.85 138.24 

Sodium sulphate 252.28 11,442.88 

Magnesium sulphate 8.05 310.53 

Calcium sulphate 17.82 

Magnesium bicarbonate 14.97 

Calcium bicarbonate 23.43 

Silica 0.99 9.91 

Alumina 5.65 18.07 

Iron oxide Trace Trace 

342.04 14,072.27 

Analysis by W. T. Read, University of Texas. 

Analyses of the Lamar Well waters, from Mineral Wells 
fnmished by the company, are as follows: 

Grains per U. S. Gal. 

Bicarbonate of iron 0.50 

Bicarbonate of lime 25.90 

Chloride of potassium 2.50 

Chloride of sodium 33.90 

Carbonate of sodium None 

Sulphate of magnesia 155.00 

Sulphate of soda 210.50 

Bicarbonate of soda 44.70 

473.00 
Analysis by F. B. Porter. 

O. K., or Sleepy Water. 

Carbonate of lime 8.96 

Chloride of magnesia Tkuce 

Sulphate of magnesia 16.21 

Carbonate of magnesia 1.08 

Chloride of potassium Trace 

Sulphate of soda 7.72 

Chloride of sodium 13.45 

Carbonate of soda 6.35 

Silica 0.58 

Alumina and iron Trace 

• Volatile matter 6.12 

59.47 
Analysis by P. S. Tilson. 



The Mineral Sesoutxes of Texan 193 

lOiwna Wrtla Spllta. (Concentrated Water). 

¥a of Iron 11.60 

of lime 1.40 

te(TM'>ff:«7* 11.40 

Sodium TT5}i'!jfl|ia 137.60 

Sodium ,.,.'. 2.70 

5a 1004.40 

phate 2919.10 

Calcium cblorlde 82.50 

4,070.70 

The oompoBition of Sangcura water, the Gibson Well Water 
Co., Mineral Wells: 

Oralns per U. S. Gal. 

PotBBBlum chloride 0.43 

Sodium chloride 22.96 

-"■'dium sulphate 21G.30 

SCilllim bicarbonate 9.57 

Magnealum bicarbonate 21.19 

Calcium bicarbonate 20.88 

Alumina 0.50 

Oxide of iron 0.02 

SUlca 1.63 

292.46 
Analysis by J. R. Bailey, Univereltr of Texas. 

The compoedtion of Sangcura Water No. 3, or BB water: 

Oralns per U. S. Gal. 

Potassium chloride 4.26 

Sodium chloride 83.87 

Sodlnm nitrate 0.02 

Sodium carbonate 1.02 

Sodium sulphate 202,95 

Magnesiu 107.55 

Calcium '. . . . 28.17 

Calcium 45.72 

Oxide of Iron 0.03 

Alumina 0.64 

Silica 0.46 

474.39 
Analysis by W. T, Read, University of Texas. 

The composition of Gibson water: 

Grains perU. S. Gal. 

Sodlnm chloride 20.08 

Sodium sulphate 256.59 

Sodium carbonate 29.06 

Calcium carbonate 16.65 

Magnesium carbonate 6.18 

U~lilln. 



194 BuOetin of ths TJmveniiy of Texos 

Grains per U. S. Oal. 

Oxide of Iron and alumina ' 0.87 

SiUca 1.19 



829.62 



Carbonic acid gas, cu. in. per U. S. 

gal 4.26 

Analysis by E. T. Dumble. 

The composition of what is known as Lamar White Snlphnr 
Water is as follows, according to P. S. Tilson : 

Grains per U. S. Gal. 

Calcium sulphate 12.14 

Calcium carbonate 21.48 

Magnesium chloride Trace 

Magnesium sulphate 64.60 

Magnesium carbonate Trace 

Potassium chloride Trace 

Sodium Bulphate 176.72 

Sodium chloride 18.43 

Sodium carbonate 9.10 

. Alumina and iron Trace 

Silica 1.66 

Volatile matter 16.30 



813.28 



The composition of American Vichy Water, from Mineral 
Wells, is as follows: 

1 2 

Sodium sulphate 196.791 226.976 

Sodium chloride 18.426 24.808 

Potassium sulphate 8.170 17.810 

Calcium 6.860 

Calcium bicarbonate 18.261 .... 

Magnesium . . . . » 4.648 

Magnesium carbonate 6.388 .... 

Silica 10.221 1.600 

Magnesium sulphate 11.623 .... 

Carbonic acid 13.998 86.960 

Alumina 8.600 



271.727 326.662 

Analysis furnished by the company. 

Composition of Crazy Well Water, Mineral Wells : 

Grains per U. S. Gallon. 
1 

Potassium chloride 4.66 

Sodium chloride 43.43 

Sodium nitrate 3.36 

Sodium carbonate 0.74 

;Sodium sulphate 69.36 



2 


3 


4 


16.32 


3.90 


6.19 


49.60 


11.12 


24.21 


20.48 


0.82 


0.86 


1.28 


3.21 


2.89 


110.36 


194.48 


267.44 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 195' 

I, 
Grains per U. S. Gallon. 
Magnesium sulphate. ... 89.94 
Magnesium bicarbonate. 9.63 
Calcium bicarbonate. ... 36.30 

Oxide of iron Trace 

Alumina 5.41 

SiUca 1.40 



88.89 


43.98 


7.78 


12.20 


0.63 


13.04 


30.62 


35.08 


19.24 


Trace 


Trace 


Trace 


5.35 


3.43 


0.22 


1.34 


1.34 


i.ie 



204.21 285.23 297.49 341.27 
Analysis by W. T. Read, University of Texas. 

The composition of Min-Ala Water, from Mineral Wells, is as 

follows : 

Grains per U. S. Gallon. 



Sodium sulphate 


196.640 


273.202 


Sodium chloride 


19.360 


23.070 


Calcium sulphate 


32.309 


16.832 


Potassium sulphate. . . . 


21.772 


1.108 


Mlagnesium sulphate . . . . 


8.329 


8.648 


Silica 


11.500 


11.500 


Carbonic acid 


30.005 


30.080 



319.915 364.440 
Analysis furnished by the company. 

The composition of Star Well Water, Mineral Wells, is as. 

follows : 

Grains per U. S. GaL 

Hydrous magnesium sulphate 18.833 

Hydrous sodium sulphate 150.053 

Hydrous calcium sulphate 6.547 

Calcium carbonate 2.084 

Magrnesium carbonate 4.663 

Sodium chloride 23.982 

Calcium chloride 5.574 

Potassium chloride 1.281 

Alumina and iron 1.644 

Silica 1.853 

Organic matter, volatile matter and 

loss 9.805 



226.319 



Traces of iodine and ammonia. 
Analysis byA. Merrill, St Louis. 

The opening of a promising oil field a few miles west of 
Strawn, announced in January, 1915, has aroused considerable 
interest. The oil is of high grade. 

PANOLA COUNTY. 
Location — East Texas; borders on Louisiana. 
County seat — Carthage; populaticm, 1,350; elev. 292; lat. 
32° 10'; long. 94° 20'; mag. dec. 7° 40' (1911). 



196 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 814. 

Population, 20,424. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 49. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,701,200. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock; iron ore; lignite; limestone; 
sandstone. 

The asphalt rocks are similar to those found in Jasper county 
(q. V.) 

While the iron ores of the county have not beoi fully investi- 
gated, yet the analyses to hand show that their content in metallic 
iron is comparatively low. Out of six analyses of samples from 
different localities, two gave 50 and over in iron, and four 
ranged from 42 to 48 per cent. 

Near Beckville there is a 4% foot seam of lignite of the fol- 
lowing composition: 

Per cent. 

Moisture 20.80 

Volatile combustible matter 52.08 

Fixed carbon 22.67 

Ash 4.45 

100.00 
Sulphur 0.48 

The clays have not been fully investigated. The average com- 
position of clays found near Carthage is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 75.40 

Alumina 9.78 

Oxide of iron 4.38 

Soda • . . 5.01 

Potash 1.56 

Water 4.00 

100.18 
Total fluxes 10.95 

PARKER COUNTY. 
Location — North of center. 

County seat — Weatherford; population, 5,074; dev. 1,000; 
lat. 32° 45'; long. 97° 49'; mag. dec. 9° 4'. 
Area, square miles, 888. 
Population, 26,331. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 197 

Railroads, 4. 

exiles of railroad, 71.95. 

-A^ssessed valuation of property of all kinds,$13,486,760. 

Mineral Resources — Clays; coal; limestone; gravel. 

The pottery clays are represented by average analyses of 

sara5)les from Rock Creek, about 15 miles west of Weatlierford, 

^ follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 55.25 

Alumina 19.80 

Oxide of iron 4.60 

Lime 0.73 

Magnesia 4.51 

Soda 1.73 

Potash 2.21 

Titanic acid 1.81 

Water 4.78 

Carbonic acid 4.17 

Organic matter 0.91 



100.00 
Total fluxes 13.80 

There is a considerable variation in the content of carbonic 
^^^^, viz.: from 0.30 to 8.04 per cent. These clays have a low 
f^i^ixig point, but become steel hard at a temperature of 1,994 
d^S. P. 

Tile quality of the brick is shown by the follo\ving tests on 
®^^"^ples received from the Acme Pressed Brick Co., Fort Worth, 
NVoi-ks at Millsap : 

Volume of Pounds of 

Weight Percent of cells in water ab- Crushed 

per cu. ft. cells by 100 parts sorbed per at lbs. per 

lbs. Vol. by weight. cu. ft. sq. inch. 

\ • 149.50 5.39 2.25 3.36 7,517 

% ' 134.50 23.90 11.88 15.97 6,717 

^ 137.70 9.92 4.50 6.20 4,204 

^ 135.10 17.49 8.08 10.91 5,997 

^ 152.00 3.89 1.60 2.43 3,161 

^ 146.30 3.85 1.64 2.39 4,661 

'7 151.40 2.43 1.00 1.51 5,135 

8 147.40 7.55 2.99 4.42 5,056 

Explanation. 

1. Millsap red. 5. Acme No. 102. 

2. Acme No. 1. G. Acme No. 104. 

3. Acme No. 100. 7. Acme No. 106. 

4. Acme No. 27. 8. Acme No. 113. 

The composition of the coal that has been mined in Parker 
county is «riven by the following avera^re of four analyses : 



198 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent 

Moisture 6.10 

Volatile combustible matter 82.49 

Fixed carbon 45.88 

Ash M 6 . 6 8 

100.00 

Sulphur 2.10 

B. t. u. per, pound 11,858 

No coal is now mined in this county. 

PARMER COUNTY. 

Location — Northwest Texas, on west line of State. 

County seat — ^Parwell ; population, 200 ; elev. 4,095. 

Area, square miles, 873. 

Population, 1,555. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 50.74. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $ 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

PECOS COUNTY. 

Location — Trans-Pecos Texas; west of the Pecos river. 

County seat — ^Port Stockton; population, 439; elev. 2,948; lat. 
30^ 54'; long. 102^ 50'; mag. dec. 10° 54'. 

Area, square miles, 5,536. 

Population, 2,071. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 78.41. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,072,010. 

Mineral resources — ^Asphalt rock; limestone; natural gas; pe- 
troleum; sulphur; gravel. 

The mineral resources of Pecos County have not been fully 

investigated. A bituminous limestone occurs at what is known 

as the "Oil Seep," 15 miles northeast of Port Stockton. It had 

the following composition: 

Per cent. 

Silica 12.68 

Alumina 2.80 

Oxide of iron 0.76 

Lime . • 44.74 

Carbonic acid 85.89 

Bitumen 8.20 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 199 

The oil that exuded at this locality was of a very dark brown 
color. It wad. viscous and had a specific gravity of 0.920 
(22.2 B.) at 60 deg. P. On distillation it yielded 11.77 per cent 
of pale amber oil up to 496 deg. F. It gave 45.54 per cent of 
an asphaltic mass. A well drilled at this locality to a depth 
of 1,200 feet reported ''almost pure sulphur*' as follows: 



Depth, feet 


Thickness, feet. 


200-260 


50 


400-626 


126 



The log of this well mentions ** quartz rock with oil" from a 
depth of 40 ft. to 200 ft.; ** quartz rock with oil and sulphur" 
from 250 ft. to 400 ft. ; " quartz rock with crystallized sulphur ' ' 
from 540 ft. to 600 ft. As no examination of the drillings was 
made it is impossible to say what was meant by these various 
terms, but it is probable that the so-called ** sulphur" was in 
the form of pyrite. 

Another well, close by, did not confirm the sulphur record 
of this well, although it was drilled to a depth of 423 feet. A 
little gas was found in these wells, but no oil in commercial 
amounts. 

This locality is in Section 19, Block 140. In Section 114, 
Block 8, 5 miles south of the place once known as Santa Lucia, 
and on the INK Ranch, a heavy black oil was found at a depth 
of 62 feet. This place is about 10 miles northwest of the *'Oil 
Seep." 

Two or three comparatively deep wells have been drilled in 
this part of Pecos county, but no oil or gas in commercial 
amounts was found. It is likely that if any commercial oil or 
gas is found it will be at depths not yet reached by any drilling 
operations in the county, possibly not above the 2,500 to 3,000- 
foot level. 

POLK COUNTY. 
Location — Southeast Texas; west of the Trinity River. 
County seat — Livingston; population, 1,024; elev. 236; lat. 
30° 43' ; long. 94° 56' ; mag. dec. 7° 40'. 
Area, square miles, 1,100. 
Population, 17,459. 
Railroads, 6. 
Miles of railroad, 90.66. 



200 Bulhtin of the Umversity of Texas 

Assessed valuatioa of property of all kinds, $8,436,144. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The sandy brick clays are represented by an analysis o 
sample from near Hortense, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 70.00 

Alumina ■ 18.60 

Oxide of iron 4.60 

Ltme Trace 

MaKoesla Trace 

Soda 0.90 

Pot&Bb Trace 

Titanic atlil 0.60 

Water 6.10 

100.70 
ToUl fluiea 6.40 

This cla,v t)e<'aiue steel hard at a temperBtare of 2,102 degreef 
The clnj-s of easy fusibility are represented by an analysis 
a sample from near Carmona, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Sllloa 68.34 

Alumina 15.28 

Osi,lf of iron 3.44 

Lime 1.M 

MaiED^a 0,88 

Soda S.55 

Potash J.47 

Tttunlc a<-id 0.5S 

WMfT 4.70 

100.38 
Total fluXM 11.54 

Tki$ riay b«-<-«)uo vi-jarrius at a t«mp«ratQre of 2,174 d^rrees 

POTTKE OOrNTT. 
Ixvation — Nif«r oientw of Ih* Panhandle- 
CV^nJy SMI— AmariUo; pofxalatmi. 9,957: «lw. 3,67S ; 
S.'i" IS; J.wi: l(tl- Al'iiMfL **- IV *V, 



The Mineral Resaiirces of Texas 201 

The mineral resources of Potter county have not been in- 
vestigated. Drilling for oil and gas was carried on during the 
year 1914 under conditions that appeared to be encouraging. 
Heavy beds of rock salt have been found in a deep well 23 miles 
northwest of Amarillo, with decided indications of beds of 
potash salts. 

A Bulletin on this subject entitled ** Potash in the Texas Per- 
mian'* has been prepared by Dr. Udden, of this Bureau. 

PEESIDIO COUNTY. 

Location — Trans-Pecos Texas; west of the Pecos river; bor- 
ders on the Rio Grande. 

County seat— Marfa; population, 494; elev. 4,688: lat. 30° 19'; 
long. 104° 1' ; mag, dec. 10° 53'. 

Area, square miles, 2,652. 

Population, 5,218. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 44.35. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,762,793. 

Mineral resources — Agate ; coal ; gi'anitc ; lead ores ; limestone ; 
natural gas ; onyx ; silver ores ; zinc ores ; mineral waters ; gravel. 

The coal in Presidio county is in the southwestern part, ad- 
joining the Rio Grande. The district is known as the San Carlos, 
and it is about 25 miles south of the Southern Pacific Railway at 
Chispa. In 1893-95 some hopes were entertained that this dis- 
trict could be developed, and a railroad was built from Chispa. 

It was stated that there were two benches of coal, separated by 
6 to 18 inches of slate. The lower bench was said to be 30 to 40 
inches in thickness, the upper bench 32 inches. The following 
analyses were given : 

Vol. combuBt. 

Moisture. matter. Fixed carbon. Ash. Sulphur. 

1.00 39.05 49.05 10.00 Trace 

0.94 34.48 58.96 5.62 0.64 

It was stated that coking tests made on this coal at Connells- 
ville, Pennsylvania, showed that 48-hour beehive coke gave 93.7 
per cent fixed carbon and 6.3 per cent of ash. 

Later investigations and analyses have not confirmed the earlier 
reports. No work has been done in this district for some years. 



202 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

It is possible that better and thicker coal is to be found nearer 
the Rio Grande than at the former localities, but faults and other 
disturbances of a more or less local character will have to be 
considered. A 600-foot well drilled north of this coal field gave 
a good pressure of natural gas, but the matter has not been fol- 
lowed up. 

Below Alamito, on Alamito Creek and close to the projected 
line of the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient Railway, from Alpine 
to Presidio del Norte, there is a large deposit of a granitic 
flagstone. It occurs in slabs of varying thickness, %-mch to 3 
inches, is of a beautiful grayish black color, and takes a fine 
polish. The quality of this stone is shown by the following 

analyses and tests: 

Per Cent. 

SlUca 74.00 

Alumina 14.00 

Oxide of Iron 1.00 

Soda 6.20 

Potash 3.90 

99.10 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 163.49 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 1.22 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 15,970 

South of Marfa, from 12 to 15 miles, there is a deposit of a 
black onyx (carbonate of lime), which takes a fine polish and 
makes a beautiful stone for interior ornamental purposes. 

The lead ores of Presidio county are worked at Shafter in 
connection with the silver mining operations there, but the output 
is not large. An excellent lead ore (galena) occurs on the west 
slope of the Chinati Mountains, and has been developed to some 
extent, shipments having been made to the smelter at El Paso. 
A fine galena also occurs in the Solitario, a wild and extremely 
rugged part of the county east of Fresno Canyon, and some miles 
north of Lajitas, a small settlement on the Rio Grande. 

Ziac ores (chiefly carbonate) are found near Shafter, but have 
not been developed. 

Silver mining has been carried on at Shafter for nearly 30 
years, and practically all of the silver credited to the state since 
1882, more than $7,000,000, was from this place. The ore is silver 
chloride for the most part, although some galena rich in silver 
also occurs. The average silver content of the Shafter ore is 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 203 

from $15.00 to $20.00 a ton, but ** pockets" of much higher value 
are found. The underground workings now comprise more than 
40 miles of shafts, drifts, levels, upraises, winzes, etc. The 
country rock is carboniferous limestone, and the silver (and lead) 
ore occurrs in more or less isolated ** chambers" of varying dimen- 
sions, some of them very large. 

RAINS COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas ; north of the Sabine river. 

County seat — Emory; population, 426; elev. 564; lat. 32° 51'; 
long. 95° 44'; mag. dec. 8° 16' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 252. 

Population, 6,787. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 25.51. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,807,490. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite. 

Excellent brick and hollow building tile are made at Ginger 
by the Fraser Brick Company, but no analyses or tests can be 
given. 

At Emory and seven miles east there is lignite, but it is not 

now worked. The composition is given by the following average 

of two analyses : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 10.17 

Volatile combustible matter 39.52 

Fixed carbon. 36.60 

Ash 13.71 

100.00 
Sulphur 0.95 

RANDALL COUNTY. 

Location — South line of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Canyon; population, 1,400; elev. 3,566; lat 
35° 0'; long. 102° 0'; mag. dec. 11° 35'. 
Area, square miles, 872. 
Population, 3,312. 
Railroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 46.78. 
Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,617,764. 



204 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown, with the possible exception of 
potash salts. See under Potter county for Bulletin on this sub- 
ject. 

REAGAN COUNTY. 

Location — West Texas. 

County seat — Stiles ; population, 150. 

Area, square miles, 1,190. 

Population, 392. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 31.92. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,279,430. 

Mineral resources— Unknown. 

REAL COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest Texas. 

County seat — Leakey; population, 318; elev. 1,600. 

Area, square miles, 700.8. 

Population — (No official statistics. Created in 1913). 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, no official statistics. 

Mineral resources — Kaolin ; limestone ; gravel. 

Li Real county, about six miles west of Leakey, there is a large 
deposit of the only kaolin known' to exist in the State. It has 
been mentioned under the name of the Edwards county kaolin, 
but the locality is now in Real, created from some adjoining 
counties in 1913. 

While it is not probable that all of the deposit consists of high 
grade material, yet the quality of the better grades is so excellent 
that well known potters, after considerable experience with it, 
have said there was no better kaolin produced in the United 
States or imported from abroad. 

The distance o^ the deposit from rail — 45 miles — ^has been 
one of the reasons why there has been so little development of 
this material, but a railroad has been surveyed from Uvalde, a 
town on the Southern Pacific Railway, 90 miles west of San 
Antonio, and partly constructed. 

The deposit occurs in Cretaceous limestone, and has been ex- 
ploited, by auger-drilling, pitting, etc., to a depth of 80 feet in 
places. The composition of this kaolin is given by the following 
anaylsis : 



The Mineral Resources of Texds 205 

Per cent. 

Silica 45.50 

Alumina 33.23 

Oxide of iron 0.61 

Hygroscopic water 6.42 

Combined water 12.50 



98.26 



RED RIVER COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas; borders on the Red River. 

County seat — Clarksville; population, 2,065; elev. 442; lat- 
33° 36'; long. 95° 3'; mag. dee. T 49' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 1,061. 

Population, 28,564. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 41.06. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $12,408,328. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The sandy brick clays are represented by an analysis of a 
sample from Detroit, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 78.50 

Alumina 10.50 

Oxide of iron 3.60 

Lime 0.45 

Magnesia 0.23 

Soda 0.40 

Potash 0.90 

Titanic acid- 0.32 

Water 4.22 

99.12 
Total fluxes 5.58 

This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 2,246 degrees F. 
A sample of natural gas bubbling up in Red River, near the 
month of Cash Creek, gave 463 B. t. u. per cubic foot. 

REEVES COUNTY. 

Location — Trans-Pecos Texas; west of the Pecos River; south 
of New Mexico. 

County seat — Pecos; population, 1,856; elev. 2,580; lat. 
ar 26'; long. 103° 33'; mag. dec. 10° 30'. 

Area, square miles, 2,610. 

Population, 4,392. 



206 BuUeiin of the Unwertity of Texas 



Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 137.75. 

Assessed yaluation of property of all kinds, $8,593,312. 

Mineral resources — ^Natural gas; petrolenm; sulphur. 

Oil and natural gas occur in the Toyah field, and a consider- 
able numiber of wells have been drilled. The localily is dis- 
tinctly favorable, but no producing wells have been brought in. 
The same remark applies to the San Martme field, in the south- 
western part of the county. The sulphur deposits, similar to 
those in Culberson county, have not been developed. 

REFUGIO COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; borders on San Antonio Bay and 
Copano Bay. 

County seat^-Bef ugio ; population, 609; elev. 50; lat. 28*' 18'; 
long. 97^ 14'; mag. dec. 8° 58' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 802. 

Population, 2,814. 

Rdlroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 47.32. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,914,604. 

Mineral resources — Clays. 

The clays have not been investigated. This is one of the coastal 
counties and may yield both oil and gas. 

ROBERTS COUNTY. 

Location — ^Near center of the Panhandle; traversed by the 
Canadian River. 

County seat — Miami: population, 400; elev. 2,802; lat. 
35^ 42' ; long. 100° 38' ; mag. dec. 10° 52'. 

Area, square miles, 860. 

Population, 950. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 17.75. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,671,554. 

Mineral resources — Unknown. 

ROBERTSON COUNTY. 
Location — Bast of the center. 

€ounty seat^— Franklin ; population, 869 ; dev. 443 ; lat. 31** 1' ; 
long. 96^ 30' ; mag. dec. 8^ 26'. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 20T 

Area, square mileSy 913. 
Population, 27,454. 
Railroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 127. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $13,288,110. 
Mineral re^uroes — Clays; lignite; sandstone; gravel. 
The clays of easy fusibility are represented by an analysis 
of a sample from near Calvert, as follows : 

Per cent 

SUlca 83.50 

Alumina . . . • 8.51 

Oxide of iron 1.40 

Lime 1.00 

Magrnesia 1.08 

Soda 1.50 

Potash 0.50 

Titanic acid 1.05 

Water 2.40 

100.94 
Total fluxes 6.48 

This clay did not bum steel hard under a temperature of 
2,390 degrees F. 
A good fire clay is found near Bremond. It has the following 

composition : 

Per cent. 

Silica 83.00 

Alumina 7.42 

Oxide of Iron. 0.36 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia 3.01 

Soda 1.2e 

Potash 0.30 

Titanic acid 0.70 

Water 3.70 

, 99.75 

Total fluxes 4.93 

This clay did not bum steel hard at a temperature of 2,570 
degrees F. 

Robertson county has long been an important producer of 
lignite. The average composition of the lignite from this county 
is given by the following average of nine analyses : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 30.34 

Volatile combustible matter 32.48 



208 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent 

Fixed carbon 27.87 

Ash 9.31 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.86 

B. t. u. per pound 8,122 

ROCKWALL COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — Rockwall ; population, 1,136; elev. 552; lat. 
32° 45'; long. 96° 27'; mag. dec. 8° 44' (1912). 
Area, square miles, 171. 
Population, 8,072. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 13.58. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,185,248. 
Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 
The clays have not been investigated. 

RUNNELS COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest of the center. 

County seat — Ballinger; population, 3,536; elev. 1,630; lat. 
31° 45'; long. 99° 58'; mag, dec. 9° 2'. 
Area, square miles, 1,073. 
Population, 20,853. 
Railroads, 3. 
Miles of railroad, 62.37. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,167,342. 
Mineral resources — Clays ; gypsum ; limestone. 
The mineral re^urces have not been investigated. 

RUSK COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas. 

County seat — Henderson; population, 1,750; elev. 470; lat. 
32° 11' ; long. 94° 49' ; mag, dec. 7° 58'. 
Area, square miles, 915. 
Population, 29,946. 
Railroads, 5. 
Miles of railroads, 53.47. 
Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,977,880. 



• 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 209 

Mineral resources — Clays ; iron ore ; lignite ; sandstone. 

The pottery clays are represented by an analysis of a sample 

from near Henderson, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 69.80 

Alumina 15.85 

Oxide of Iron 1.60 

Lime • 3.40 

Magnesia 0.53 

Soda 1.05 

Potash 0.50 

Titanic acid 0.17 

Water 6.72 

99.62 

Total fluxes 7.08 

This clay burned steel hard at a temperature of 2,102 de- 
grees F. 

There is a bed of lignite at Graham's Lake, 12 miles west of 
Henderson, 3 to 6 feet thick, with the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 13.51 

Volatile combustible matter 45.36 

Fixed carbon 32.44 

Ash 8.69 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.88 

At Millville there is another outcrop of lignite. 

The iron ores (limonites) have not been developed, although 
i9ome of them are of good quality; as, for instance, two miles 
east of Henderson on the Pine Hill road ; the Iron Mountain, at 
Gould; at Sulphur Spring; west side of Iron County, 2^ miles 
east of Glenfawn. Some of these ores carry as much as 54 per 
cent, of iron. 

The quality ©f the brick made is shown by the following tests 
on a sample of furnace brick, several years old, made at Hen- 
derson: 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 114.70 

Per cent, of cells by volume 30.79 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . . 16.75 
Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. 19.21 
Crushed at, pounds per square inch 1,700 

14-MIn. 



CHAPTER V. 

DISCUSSION OP COUNTIES— Continued. 

Sabine — ZavaUa. 

SABINE COUNTY. 

T«>cation — East Texas; borders on Louisiana. 

Ooonty seat — Hemphill: population. 279; lat. 31° 21'; long, 
;>3" 51'; mag. dec. 7° 27' (1912). 

Area, square miles. 577. 

Population, 8.582. 

Kailroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad. 35.65. 

Assessed valuation of propertj- of all kinds. f4.587,828. 

Mineral tvsowives — Claj^s: inin ore; li^ite: sandstone. 

Thf mineral r«sour\'es have mn b«n fully investig»ted. There 
are prvhahlv' ^knxI ola,vs. with st>me iron ore and liamite, but the 
dejxviits have not been esamine*!. 

$AX AVGr?TTXE COUXTT. 
l.^x■a;■o!! — K.is: Texas; eas; of the Attoyae and Angelina 

iVuuTj- sea: — ^«n A:ijr.)s;;re; ;v;>v.'.a:i<«i, 1.204: dev. 304; 
U:. SI" SV: V'lur.^- ^^ nia^, de.v T >:•" 1912 . 
.\wa, Situate mi-**, 570. 
IVpv.:a!xw, IVe-W 

V. s^Ts: ■!?*■«««— .\^>*ah rv«A: irvn ««; tunite: sukdstrae. 
TV ^k«;-&ah vwk fe « ^tMaKaNl>ls a— A ttww dncl;' RaoaUin^ tiw 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 211 

Per cent. 

Moisture 13.10 

Volatile combustible matter 37.24 

Fixed carbon 41.22 

Ash 8.44 

100.00 

Sulphur 2.36 

SAN JACINTO COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas ; west of the Trinity river. 

County seat — Cold Spring; populationf 439; lat. 30° 35'; long. 
95° 6'; mag. dec. 8° 11' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 636. 

Population, 9,542. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 16.70. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,645,100. 

Mineral resources — Agate; days; gravel. 

Moss agates of great beauty have been found in San Jacinto 
county. The clay deposits have not been investigated. 

SAN PATRICIO COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; borders on San Patricio Bay. 

County seat — Sinton; population, 975: elev. 49; lat. 28° 1': 
long. 97° 28'; mag. dec. 9° 0' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 685. 

Population, 7,307. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 76. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,348,534. 

Mineral resources — Agate; clays. 

Moss agates have "been foimd. The clay deposits have not been 
investigated. 

In November, 1914, a very large flow of natural gas under 
heavy pressure was found in a deep well bored at White Point, 
7 miles across the Bay from Corpus Christi. The flow was struck 
at a depth of about 2,200 feet, and the yield of gas was variously 
estimated at from 30,000,000 to 50,000,000 cubic feet per day. 
It was found to be impossible to control the well, and it soon 
became entirely unmanageable, wrecking the derrick and form- 



212 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

ing what in effect was a great mud volcano, comparable to the 
early experiences in the Caddo field, Louisiana. 

Other wells are to be sunk in this field with every precaution 
to save the gas or oil, should they be found under like heavj' 
pressure. 

This is the first great gas well that has been found in the Gulf 
Coastal Plain. 

SAN SABA COUNTY. 

Location — ^Near center, west. 

County seat — San Saba; population, 1,200; elev. 1,705; lat. 
31° 11' ; long. 98° 43' ; mag, dee. 9° 7'. 

Area, square miles, 1,150. 

Population, 11,245. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 34.97. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,111,349. 

Mineral resources — Limestone ; marble ; onyx ; sandstone ; 
gravel; petroleum (?). 

San Saba county is rich in many varieties of limestone suit- 
able for building and road purposes, lime-making, etc. At Mrs. 
Houston's, on Cherokee Creek, there is a limestone which might 
be used for lithographic work. No tests of this stone for such 
purposes has been made, but it appears to warrant further atten- 
tion. The chemical composition of this stone is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 4.50 

Alumina 0.40 

Oxide of iron 0.60 

Lime : 49.29 

Magnesia «3.15 

Carbonic acid 41.59 

Loss on ignition 0.41 

99.94 

On the ranch of B. R. Russell, near the town of San Saba, 
there is a similar stone of the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Silica 1.84 

Alumina 0.10 

Oxide of iron 0.60 

Lime 53.86 

Carbonic acid 41.93 

Loss on ignition 1.27 

99.10 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 213 

On this same property there are deposits of reddish, dove-col- 
ored and whitish marble taking a fine polish, as also a beautiful 
silver-black and golden onyx. These latter stones are unequalled 
in attractiveness for interior ornamental purposes, but they have 
not been developed. 

Two samples of pink marble from B. R. Russell's ranch, near 
San Saba, have been examined, as follows : 

Silica 2.60 3.42 

Alumina 0.30 2.42 

Oxide of iron 0.15 0.78 

Lime 37.00 39.79 

Magnesia 15.00 9.41 

Carbonic acid 43.24 41.64 

Soda 1.40 

Potash 0.60 

Loss on ignition 0.22 2.10 



100.51 99.56 

Weight of a cu. ft. lbs 166.70 146.40 

Pounds of water absorbed 

per cu. ft 1.50 22.85 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. 

in 10,330 5,730 

A sample of white marble, with streaks of blackish gray, was 

examined as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 0.57 

Alumina / ^ o^ 

Oxide of iron j ^'"^^ 

Lime 55.50 

Carbonic acid 43.30 



99.58 



Weight of a cu. ft., pounds 167.28 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 0.53 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. in 20,925 

Two other samples of San Saba marble have been examined, 
as follows — No. 1 from two miles south of Richland Springs, and 
No. 2 from twelve miles south of San Saba : 

1 2 

' Silica 0.20 0.16 

Alumina 



oxide of iron ' O'^" ^.32 



Lime 54.50 55.50 

Carbonic acid 42.64 43.60 

Loss on ignition 1.00 

99.24 99.58 



214 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

1 2 

Weight of a cu. ft., pounds. 169.10 169.73 

Pounds of water absorbed 

per cu. ft 0.06 0.08 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. 

In 18,888 10.266 

While some drilling and considerable development work has 
been conducted on the marble deposits of. San Saba county, no 
commercial quarry has been opened. It would, however, appear 
that some of these beds are worthy of attention, especially the 
pink marble and the white. 

SCHLEICHER COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas; west of the center. 
County seat — Eldorado ; population, 300 ; lat. 30° 52' ; long. 
100° 39' ; mag. dec. 9° 21'. 
Area, square miles, 1,355. 
Population, 1,893. 
Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,189,380. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

SCURRY COUNTY. 

ff 

Location — ^Northwest Texas ; southeast of the Staked Plains. 
County seat — Snyder; population, 2,514; elev. 2,310; lat. 
32° 43'; long. 100° 56'; mag, dec. 10° 36'. 
Area, square miles, 821. 
Population, 10,924. 
Railroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 78.03. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,440,482. 
Mineral resources — Unknown. 

SHACKELFORD COUNTY. 

Location — Northwest of the center. ^ 

County seat — Albany; population, 999; elev. 1,410; lat. 
32° 43';'long. 99° 18'; mag, dec. 9° 36'. 
Area, square miles, 926. 
Population, 4,201. 
Railroads, 1. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 215 

Miles of railroad, ^. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,663,204. 

Mineral resources — Clays; coal; limestx>ne; natural gas; petro- 
leum; sandstone. 

A fair quality of sub-bituminous coal is found near old Fort 
Griffin in the bed of the BrajEOs river, at low water. 

A seam of coal has recently been found at depth of 675 feet 
on the Snalum ranch, 6 to 7 miles northeast of Albany. 

The petroleum and natural gas fields at and near Moran are 
now bein^ developed. The natural gas from this field is supplied 
to Moran, Albany and Cisco. The eomj)osition of a sample taken 
16 miles from the wells was as follows : 

Per oent. 

ICethane 80. SO 

Nitrogen 19.20 



100.00 
B. t. u. per cu. f: §35.50 

Samples of limestone from the Central Qnarry Company, main 
office at Waco, gave the following analyses and tests : 

1 

Silica 2.90 

Alnmina 0.60 

Oxide of iron 0.94 

Lime 51.69 



Carbonic acid 39.24 

Snlphnric add 

Loss on ignition 3.15 



2 


3 


4 


5 


1.70 


1.6S 


1.44 


1.66 


0.80 


0.11 


0.74 


2.02 


0.7S 


1.09 


0.S6 


0.11 


52.51 


52.56 


50.S0 


52.24 






0.43 


Trac^ 


39.06 


39.S0 


40.70 
0.24 


41. Of* 


4.30 


3.90 


4.20 


2.06 



9S.53 99.15 99.14 99.41 99.10 

Weight per cu. ft.. Ibs..l6.>.9^« 15^.60 153.30 14«^.r'' :€3.€0 
Pounds of 'irater absorbed 

perm, ft- 2.31 2.20 5.12 7.06 :.r2 

Crushed at, lbs. per sq. 

in. 4.400 7,155 6,125 4.100 5,«^75 

Some special test? hav*- bfrn made on c]£ys tZiZ sht'-es frorr. 
the Blaeh ranch, 10 to 12 mile? Dorth of A'b&nT. &> f or. ott*. : 
Arerage composition <•£ s:x saiiip]e> : 

Per cent. 

Silica . 62.70 

Jjvmina 17.97 

Qride of Iron 6.94 

Linne f»>- 



216 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Magnesia 0.60 

Soda 0.86 

Potash 1.53 

Titanic acid 0.24 

Sulphuric acid 0.44 

Water 8.05 



100.25 



These clays and shales are suitable for the manufacture of 
ordinary and pressed brick, hollow tile, paving brick, sewer pipe, 
etc. They occur in large deposits, within easy reach of abundant 
water, and in a particularly attractive part of the county. Their 
distance from rail, 10 to 12 miles, has prevented their development. 
It is probable that this part of the county is underlaid by a fair 
quality of sub-bituminous coal at depths varying from 500 to 
700 feet. The extension of the Moran oil and gas field to the north 
may bring this section of the county within commercial possi- 
bilities. 

SHELBY COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas ; borders on Louisiana. 

County seat — Center ; population, 1,684 ; elev. 345 ; lat. 
31° 48'; long. 94° 11': mag. dec. 7° 47'. 

Area, square miles, 814. 

Population, 26,423. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 88.30. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,283,272. 

Mineral resources — Bat guano ; clays; fuller's earth: iron ore: 
lignite; limestone; sandstone; gravel. 

Red and gray mottled and slip clays are found in Shelby 
county and have been utilized to some extent. No analyses or 
tests can be given. 

A fuller's earth occurring on the property of G. L. Milledge, 
Tirapson, gave J. C. Blake, A. & M; College, a bleaching power 
of 153, on refined cotton seed oil, as compared with English earth 
at 100. 

The iron ores of Shelby county, so far as present information 
goes, are of too low grade to be used as a source of iron. The 
iron -gravel would probably make a good material for roads. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 217 

SHERMAN COUNTY. 

Location — On north line of the Panhandle. 
Cotinty seat — Stratford; population, 510; elev. 3,690; lat. 
36° 20' ; long. 102° 4' ; mag. dec. 11° 58'. 
Area, square miles, 900. 
Population, 1,376. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 25.91. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,399,211. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

SMITH COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas; east of the Neches River. 

County seat— Tyler ; population, 10,400; elev. 521; lat. 32° 21'; 
long. 95° 17'; mag. dee. 8° 8' (1910). 

Area, square miles, 984. 

Population, 41,746. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 109. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $14,127,621. 

Mineral resources — Clays; fuller's earth; iron ore; lignite; 
limestone; salt; sandstone; mineral waters; gravel. 

The pottery clays are represented by an analysis of a sample 
from near Tyler (Liebreieh Pottery Co.), as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 78.22 

Alumina 8.71 

Oxide of iron 0.72 

Lime 3.36 

Magnesia 1.10 

Soda 1.17 

Potash 0.45 

Titanic acid 0.17 

Water 5.50 

99.40 
Total fluxes 6.80 

This clay burned steel hard at temperature of 2,174 deorrees F. 
Two other clays, the first from near Garden Valley and the 
second from near Tyler, had the following composition : 



218 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 
1 2 

Silica 64.00 86.40 

Alumina 24.17 10.02 

Oxide of iron 3.23 2.18 

Lime Trace 0.10 

Magnesia Trace None 

Alkalies 8.50 Trace 

Water 7.26 1.96 

102.16 99.66 

Total fluxes 6.73 2.28 

Brown iron ore (limonite) of fair quality is found at many 
localities in this county, but has not been developed. The total 
iron ore area may be taken at 81 square miles. 

The salines of Smith county were worked extensively many 
years ago, especially during the Civil War. At the Steen Sa- 
line, five miles east of Lindale, three thousand men were em- 
ployed. The wells were shallow, and the salt was recovered by 
evaporation in pans, kettles, etc. Twenty furnaces were in 
operation, and the output was 12,000 sacks a day. A bushel of 
salt was obtained from 190 gallons of the water. Limestone oc- 
curs on both sides of the saline. At the Brooks Saline, 17 miles 
southwest of Tyler and 9 miles west of BuUard, there was also 
some activity. Twelve furnaces were in operation, and the out- 
put was 100 sacks a day. A bushel of salt was obtained from 
300 gallons of the water. Borings conducted here a few years 
ago gave a water saturated with salt and fragments of rock salt 
half an inch across were brought to the surface. Near this locality 
limestone of the following composition was quarried and used 
as a flux in the State (iron) furnace at Rusk, Cherokee county : 

Per cent. 

Silica 6.20 

Alumina 3.75 

Oxide of iron 0.25 

Lime 46.00 

Magnesia None 

Carbonic acid 35.70 

Loss on ignition 8.05 

99.95 

Some native sulphur was also obtained from these borings. 
Composition of Biviere Mineral Water, Tyler : 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 219 

Grains per 
U. S. Gal. 

Potassium sulphate 18.58 

Lithium sulphate 2.27 

Magnesium sulphate 69.83 

Sodium sulphate 100.46 

Calcium sulphate 116.85 

Iron sulphate (ferrous) 170.89 

Iron sulphate (ferric) 37.72 

516.60 
Analysis by J. W. Mallet, University of Virginia. 

SOMERVELL COUNTY. 

Location — ^North of the center ; traversed by the Brazos river. 

County seat — Glenrose; population, 890; elev. 600; lat. 
32° 13'; long. 97° 45'; mag. dec. 8° 44' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 200. 

Population, 3,931. 

Bailroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,297,755. 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone. 

The mineral resfources of Somervell county have not been in- 
vestigated. 

STARR COUNTY. 

Location — Extreme southern part ; borders on the Rio Grande. 

County seat — Rio Grande City ; population, 2,085. 

Area, square miles, 1,223 (includes portion of Brooks county). 

Population, 13,151. 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valu^-tion of property of all kinds, $2,564,515. 

Mineral resources — Clays; coal; natural gas; petroleum. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. The Laredo 
coal field probably extends into this county, but nothing definite 
is known about it. Explorations for natural gas and petroleum 
have not yet resulted in the discovery of productive wells. 

STEPHENS COUNTY. 

Location — ^North a little west of the center. 
County seat — ^Breckenridge ; population, 750 ; elevation, 1,200 ; 
lat. 32° 46' ; long. 98° 53' ; mag, dec. 9° 43'. 



220 BtUletin of the University of Texas 

Area, square miles, 926. 

Population, 7,980. 

Railroad, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 5.87. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,707,071. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock ; clays ■ coal ; limestone ; sand- 
stone; gravel. 

The asphalt rock is the bituminous sandstone found in Mon- 
tague and Cooke counties. The occurrence is in the bed of the 
Brazos river at low water. A similar rock is found in Coke 
county to the southeast, in a creek which empties into the Colo- 
rado river near Edith postoffice. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

Sub-bituminous coal of fair quality is found near Crystal Palls 
and Breckenridge, but no mining operations, except for purely 
local needs, have been conducted in some years. Tests of the coal 
from near Breckenridge have been made by the Texas Central 
Eailway with satisfactory results. On Coal Branch, a few miles 
west of Crystal Falls, there is an outcrop of coal in two branches 
each 12 inches in thickness, with a parting of bone and slate from 
3 to 6 inches thick. The composition of the entire seam of 24 
inches of coal is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 5.02 

Volatile combustible matter 40.01 

Fixed carbon 40.46 

Ash 14.51 

100.00 

Sulphur 5.12 

Prom 20 to 25 years ago a good deal of work was done at the 
Jake Wizeart mine, near Crystal Falls, at the Berry Meadows 
mine; at the Wasson mine, on Albert Sidney Johnston property, 
etc. The extension of the Rock Island lines from Graham to 
Stamford, or of the Wichita Falls & Southern Railway from New- 
castle to Cisco, would open the coal fields of Stephens county to 
good advantage. 

From what is known of the coal seams it is not likely that any 
single bench would exceed 22 inches in thickness. The coal would 
probably cf^rry from 12 to 15 per cent of ash and from 2 to 3.5 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 221 

per cent of sulphur. This is not a coking coal, but has fine steam- 
ing qualities, and the lump is suitable for domestic purposes. The 
coal of this part of the state belongs to the Carboniferous forma- 
tion, whereas the coals along the Rio Grande (Laredo and Eagle 
Pass fields) are Tertiary or late Cretaceous. 

Considering the rapid growth of this part of the state, west 
and northwest of Fort Worth, and the extension of lines of rail, 
such as the Bock Island, the Wichita Falls & Southern, the Wich- 
ita Valley, the Mineral Wells & Northwestern, the Texas Central 
and its northwest connections from Stamford, the Kansas City, 
Mexico & Orient, the Gulf, Texas & Western, etc., it would ap- 
pear that the coals of Stephens, Young, Jack and Palo Pin+(» 
counties are worthy of much more detailed investigation than 
they have yet received. 

The Bureau of Economic Geology has undertaken to prepare 
an exhaustive report on the coal measure in Texas, and this work 
will be prosecuted as rapidly as the necessary means are pro- 
vided. 

Prom Mr. David Cole, Caddo, we received a sample of red- 
brown marble (dolomitic) which had the following composition 

and qualites: 

Per cent. 

Silica 0.63 

Alumina 0.39 

Oxide of iron 14.18 

Lime 30.29 

Magnesia 12.07 

Carbonic acid 41.14 

98.70 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 177.92 

Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . 1.79 
Crushed at, pounds per square inch 12,200 

This stone takes a good polish and is of an attractive (»olor nn<l 
texture. 

STERLING COUNTY. 

Location — West Texas. 

County seat — Sterling City; population, 582: el**'*. 2.2lir>: lat. 
31° 51' ; long. 101^ 0' ; mag. dec. 10° 34'. 
Area, square miles, 975. 
Population, 1,493. 
Railroad, 1. 



222 BuUeiin of the University of Texas 

Miles of railroad, 13.11. 

AsseBsed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,070,764. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

STONEWALL COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest Texas ; east of the Staked Plains. 

County seat — ^Aspermont; population, 600; elev. 1J73; lat. 
33^ 7' ; long. 100^ 13' ; mag. dec. ir 0\ 

Area, square miles, 777. 

Population, 5,320. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 39. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,210,340. 

Mineral resources — ^Alabaster; days; copper ores; gypsum. 

There is alabaster of good quality in Stonewall county, as 
also beds of gypsum. The clays have not been investigated. The 
copper ores are Permian, occurring as rich nodules of chaloo- 
cite, etc., in clays, similar to other deposits throughout the Per- 
mian area. 

SUTTON COUNTY. 

Location — Southwest of center. 

County seat — Sonora; population, 783; lat. 30® 35'; long. 
100** 40' ; mag. dec. 9® 32'. 
Area, square miles, 1,517. 
Population, 1,569. 
Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,966,423. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

SWISHER COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest Texas; south of the Panhandle. 
County seat — Tulia; population, 1,216; elev. 3,447; lat. 
34° 34' ; long. 101° 51' ; Inag. dec. 11° 17'. 
Area, square miles, 850. 
Population, 4,012. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 30.99. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,733,747. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 223 

TARBANT COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — Port Worth; population, 94,494; elev. 614; lat. 
32° 45' ; long. 97° 20' ; mag. dec. 9° 5'. 

Area, square miles, 900. 

Population, 108,572. 

Bailroads, 12. 

Miles of railroad, 287.71. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $97,696,872, 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel; limestone. 

The clays, gravels and limestones have not been fully investi- 
gated. The quality of the brick made in the county is shown by 
the following tests on samples received from the Cobb Brick Com- 
pany, Fort Worth : 

Red. Brown-Red. Speckled. 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 111.00 109.00 117.60 

Per cent, of cells by volume 27.44 34.39 16.84 

Volume of cells In 100 parts D7 

weight 15.44 19.69 8.94 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft. 17.13 21.46 11.50 

Crushed at» pounds per square inch. . 5,950 3,950 6,230 

A sample of limestone received from W. S. Meller, Port Worth, 
had the following composition and qualities: 

Per cent. 

SlUca 0.50 

Alumina 0.44 

Oxide of Iron 0.76 

Lime 53.77 

Carbonic acid 42.20 

Loss on Ignition 1.86 

99.53 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 159.40 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 1.84 

Crushed at, pounds per square Inch 5,000 

TAYLOR COUNTY. 

Location — Northwest of center. 

County seat — Abilene; population, 9,20-i: elev. 1,719. 

Area, square miles, 900. 

Population, 26,293. 

Bailroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 105.30. 



224 BuUetin of the University of Tex€K 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $14,114,950. 

Mineral resources — Clays; sandstone; mineral waters; gravel. 

The mineral resources have not bee^i investigated. There are 
some localities where drilling for oil and gas could be recom- 
mended, but there are no deep wells from which records are 
available. 

TERRELL COUNTY. 

Location — Trans-Pecos Texas (west of the Pecos river). 

County seat — Sanderson; population, 450; elev. 2,775; lat. 
30^ 9' ; long. 102° 26' ; mag. dec. 10° 16'. 

Area, square miles, 2,776. 

Population, 1,430. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 61.82. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $3,828,624. 

Mineral resources — Clays; limestone. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. Many ex- 
cellent limestones are found contiguous to the Southern Pacific 
Railway. 

TERRY COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas; south of Staked Plains. 

County seat — ^Brownfield ; population, 275. 

Area, square miles, 828. 

Population, 1,474. 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,909,552. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

THROCKMORTON COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest of center. 

County seat — Throckmorton; population, 500; lat. 33° 11': 
long. 99° 10' ; mag. dec. 9° 45'. 

Area, square miles, 821. 

Population, 4,563. 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,241^38. 

The mineral resources of Throckmorton county have not been 
investigated, although some deep drilling for oil in the north- 
west part of the county has been carried on during the last year. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 225 

' TITUS COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northeast Texas. 

County seat — ^Mount Pleasant; population, 3137; elev. 405; 
lat. 33° 10' ; long. 94° 58' ; mag. dec. 7° 51'. 

Area, square miles, 421. 

Population, 16,422. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 48.90. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,760,003. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; sandstone; min- 
eral waters. 

The clays and iron ore have' not been investigated. 

The lignite mined near Cookville has the following composi- 
tion: 

Per cent. 

Moisture 31.24 

Volatile combustible matter 40.29 

Fixed carbon 21.07 

Ash 7.40 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.73 

B. t. u. per pound 6,727 

The composition of Red Mineral Springs water, from Mount 

Pleasant, is as follows : 

Grains per U. S. Gallon. 

Spring No. 1. Spring No. 2. 

Sodium oxide 2.42 2.30 

Potassium oxide 1.12 0.22 

Calcium oxide 2.07 1.28 

Magnesium oxide 0.65 0.54 

Anhydrous sulphuric acid 1.22 1.22 

Humic acid 12.46 il.62 

19.94 17.18 

Analyses by H. H. Harrington. 

TOM GREEN COUNTY. 

Location — ^West of center ; traversed by the Concho river. 
County seat — San Angelo; population, 10,321; elev. 1,847; 
lat. 31° 28'; long. 100° 26'; mag. dec. 9° 35'. 
Area, square miles, 1,363. 
Population, 17,882. 
Bailroads, 3. 

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The Mineral Resources of Texas 227 

« 

The composition of the water from the Morgan Mineral Wells 
Company, Christoval, is as follows : 

Grains per 
U. S. Gallon. 

Sodium chloride 51.774 

Sodium bicarbonate 3.812 

Calcium carbonate 3.106 

Aluminum sulphate 3.228 

Magnesium sulphate 8.090 

Silica 0.420 

70.400 
Hydrogen sulphide gas, 8.54 cu. in. per gallon. 

Analysis by R. H. Needham. 

Two samples of mineral water from the Concho Land Com- 
pany, Carlsbad and San Angelo, had the following composition : 

Grains per U. S. Gallon. 

Silica 3.39 1.03 

Oxide of iron and alumina. . 0.53 0.16 

Sodium chloride 192.43 113.75 

Potassium chloride 1.17 

Magnesium (5hloride 6.87 

Magnesium sulphate 98.55 10.31 

Calcium sulphate 74.13 80.23 

Calcium bicarbonate * 47.38 22.90 

424.45 228.38 

Analyses by W. T. Garbade, Medical Department, University of 



TRAVIS COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast of center; traversed by the Colorado 
^K^ver. 

Comity seat — Austin; population, 29,860; elev. 466; lat. 

1^ 16'; long. 97° 46'; mag. dec. 8° 17'. 

Area, square miles, 1,036. 

Population, 55,620. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 87.20. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $38,644,950. 

Mineral Resources — Bat guano ; clays; limestone; marble; pe- 
troleum; sulphate of strontium (eelestite) ; mineral waters; trap 
rock for road metal ; gravel. 

The calcareous brick clays are represented by analyses of two 
samples, both from near Austin, as follows: 



228 HuUeUn of ike Univer$Uy of Texas 

I 2 

Silica 58.60 34.00 

Alumina 9.(M) 15.02 

Oxide of iron 2.60 8.02 

Ume 16.80 21.48 

Magnesia 1.20 0.15 

Soda Traee 1.48 

Potash 1.80 1.48 

Titanic acid a.80 0.96 

Water 2.72 6.00 

Carbonic add 11.64 15.60 



100.16 89.60 

Total fluxes 28.4i0 27.42 

Became yiscoas at, deg. F.. 2,246 2,260 

A sample of so-called Caen marble from near Austin had the 
following composition and qualities : 

Per cent. 

Silica 0.90 

Alumina 0.06 

Oxide of iron 0.14 

liime 53.96 

Carbonic acid . 42.40 

Loss on ignition 1.71 



99.17 



Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 156.80 

Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . 3.87 
Crushed at, pounds per square inch 8,882 

Travis county is particularly rich in heavy deposits of lime- 
stone of excellent quality. 

Among the earlier investigations of these limestones the tests 
made by Colonel D. W. Flagler, U. S. A., at the Rock Island 
Arsenal, Rock Island, Illinois, may be quoted. These tests were 
made for the Capitol Commission, 1881, and the results were 
ss follows: 

12 3 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 162.03 134.76 135.86 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft. None None None 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 8,207 3,422 2,279 

1. Foesiliferous limestone, I^omis & Christian's quarry. This is 

the so-called Caen marble. 

2. Austin Quarry. Stone used in building the Travis county court- 

house. 

3. Hancock Quarry, 8 miles from Austin. Probably at or near 

Spicewood Springs. 



TA« Uinerai Rosourcet of Texas 229 

During the hurt montha tbe Bureau of Economic Geolog; has 
made many analyses and testa on limestones from Travis county, 
the samples weighinz from 30 to 40 pounds. Of these, ten are 
selected as fairly representing the range of composition and 
qualities, as follows : 



Explanation: 

About a mile from Manchaca, on Auetln-Manchaca road, and 
■bout % mile west of the I, & O. N, Ry. Heavy eipoaure. 

BartOD Creek, near Auetin, about a mile above Barton Spring. 
Heavy exposure. Contains also l.Ol per cent, of magnesia. 

Aastln White Lime Co., McNeil. Old pit on west aide. Near 
I. A Q, N, and A. & N, W, Rya. Good exposure. 

About 8 milee from Austin, on upper Manchaca road, near Oak 
Hill switch from J. & G. N. and M., K. & T. Rys. Oood ex- 
posure. 

First creek north of Duval section-house, I. & G. N. Ry.. at 
croBslnK of wagon road and railroad, about 12 miles north- 
west of Austin. Light exposure. 

Hamilton place, 8 mtlcs northweat of Austin, on Burnet road, 
about fi 00 yards west of the I. & G. N. Ry. Contalna also 
4.24 per cent, magnesia and O.EO per cent, of aulphuric add. 
Heavy exposure. 

Old Johnson quarry. Deep Eddy, Colorado river, Austin, 
i. Spicewood Springs, T miles northwest of Austin and witbin hi 
mile of the I. & Q. N. Ry. Contains also 3.54 per cent, of 
BOlphuric acid. Good exposure. 
I. Old Taylor quarry at lime kiln, near end of i, & G .N. Ry. 

track to Austin dam. Good exposure. 
lO. Old Walsh quarry, near end of I. & G. N. Ry. track to Auatin 
dam. Good exposure. Stone from this quarry used In mak- 
ing concrete for dam. 

The Dry Creek quarry stone, a few miles northwest of Austin, 
IBS the following composition and qualities; 

Per cent. 

Silica 1.07 

Alumina 0.22 

Oxide of Iron 0,71 

Ume 63.91 



230 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Carbonic acid 41.28 

Loss on ignition 1.91 

98.10 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 146.70 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 5.38 

Crushed at, pounds per sq. in 3,150 

The average composition of the white lime made at McNeil 

by the Austin White Tame Company is as follows, analyses by 

J. R. Bailey, University of Texas : 

Per cent. 

Insoluble siliceous matter 0.20 

Oxides of iron and alumina 0.15 

Lime 97.65 

Magnesia None 

Sulphuric acid None 

Loss at white heat 1.21 

99.21 

A heavy, asphaltic oil has been found near Watters Park and 
between this place and Dessau at depths varying from 300 to 
600 feet, but it has not been brought into use. 

The deposits of celestite (sulphate of strontium) on Mount 
Barker and Mount Bonnell, near Austin, have not come into 
commercial use. This locality gives a celestite of exceptional 
purity. It occurs as ** pockets" of greater or lesser extent in 
Cretaceous limestone. The trap rock (nephdite basalt) that 
forms Pilot Knob, 10 miles southeast of Austin and 5 miles 
from the I. & G. N. and M., K. & T. Rys. is an excellent material 
for concrete and for road-making. It has a weight of nearly 200 
lbs. per cubic foot and a maximum crushing strength of more than 
46,000 pounds per square inch. It is practically the same rock 
that occurs near Knippa, in Uvalde county, on the Southern 
Pacific Ry., about 80 miles west of San Antonio. At this place 
there is a modem crusher plant of a capacity of 750 tons a day 
and a considerable amount of the crushed and sized material has 
been used in San Antonio. The deposits in Travis county are 
the only ones known to exist within easy reach of shipping facili- 
ties in all of central and north central Texas. This and the 
Knippa stone are the best road-making materials known to occur 
in Texas. 

A deposit of this stone is also found in Travis Heights, South 
Austin, within a mile of the I. & 6. N. Ry., the M., K. & T. Ry. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 231 

and the H. & T. C. Ry. It is of unknown extent, but steps are 
being taken to investigate the locality thoroughly. 

The composition of the mineral water from the well at the 
Capitol, depth 1,511 feet, is as follows: 

Grains per 
U. S. Gallon. 

Socium chloride 42.945 

Sodium sulphate 52.360 

Magnesium sulphate 14.140 

Calcium sulphate 3.752 

Calcium carbonate 10.745 

Potash Trace 

SiUca 0.805 

Alumina } ^ 

Oxide of iron ] ^^^^® 

124.747 
Analysis by L. Magnenat. 

The total depth of this well was 1,554 feet ancj the flow was 
86,400 gallons per 24 hours. 

Composition of the Champion Mineral Water, near junction 
of the small branch with main channel of Bull creek : 

Grains per 
Hypothetical combination — XJ. S. Gal. 

Potassium chloride Trace 

Sodium chloride 55.343 

Sodium sulphate 153.376 

Magnesium sulphate 91.098 

Calcium sulphate 7.330 

Calcium bicarbonate 78.390 

Iron bicarbonate 0.099 

Alumina 0.303 

Silica 0.320 

386.259 
Free carbonic acid, cu. inches per gal. . . 1,7088 

Analysis by H. W. Harper, University of Texas. 

TRINITY COUNTY. 

Location — East Texas; southwest of the Neches river. 
County seat — Groveton; population, 1,076; elev. 323; lat. 
3r 4'; long. 95° 7'; mag. dec. 8° 0' (1911). 
Area, square miles, 704. 
Population, 12,768. 
Railroads, 6. 
Miles of railroad, 102.32. 



232 Bulletin of the UniverMtjf of fexaa 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,594,911. 

Mineral resources— Clays ; lignite; natural gas; sandstone; 
gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. There is a good deal 

of lignite in the county, but no producing mines. At Hyde's 

Bluflf, on the Trinity river, there is an outcrop of lignite 4 feet 

thick, which has the following composition : . 

Per cent. 

Moisture 18.10 

Volatile combustible matter 41.65 

Fixed carbon 86.80 

Ash 8.46 

100.00 
Sulphur 0.90 

At Westmoreland Bluff is another lignite outcrop. A sample 
of natural gas taken from a spring a mile east of Trinity gaA^, 
on analysis, 929 B. t. u. per cubic foot, an excellent result. 

TYLER COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas; west of the Neches river. 

County seat — ^Woodville; population, 650; elev. 232; lat. 
30° 46'; long. 94° 22'; mag. dec. 7° 46' (1912). . 

Area, square miles, 925. 

Population, 10,250. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 56.27. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,269,551. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock ; clays ; sandstone ; gravel. 

The asphalt rock is a bituminous sandstone similar to rock in 
Jasper county. 

The sandy brick clays of this county are represented by an 

analysis of a sample from Colmesneil, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 90.00 

Alumina 4.60 

Oxide of iron 1.44 

Lime 0.10 

Magnesia 0.10 

Soda Trace 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 0.70 

Water 8.04 

99.98 
Total fluxes 1.64 



The Mineral Kesources of Texas 23'4 

This clay did not fuse at a temperature of 2,570 deg. P., bat 
melted to a glass at 3,038 deg. F. 

We have received many samples of sandstone from D. M. 
Picton & Co., BeaumoDt, representiDg the quarries at Rockland. 
Of these ten are selected as showing Iht dil't'crcnt kimls ol mate 
rial, as follows: 



The Rockland sandstone is pnneipally iis^d for rip-rnp 
UPSHUR COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texaa. 

County seat— Gilmer; populatioD. 1.484; elev. 370: lat. 32° 43'; 
long. 94" 56'; mag. dec. 7° 59' (1911). 

Area, square milee, 527. 

Population, 19,960. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 86. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $6,067,700. 

Mineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

Brown iron ore (limonite) occurs in the northeast part of the 
county; near Coffeeville, three miles south and three miles south- 
east; near Gilmer, near Omega Postoffice, etc. The total iron 
ore area within the county is thought to be about ten square 
miles, but it is not known how much of this would be ore-bearing 
in a commercial Bcnse. The ores are of medium quality, so far as 
present information goes, although an ore of 56 per cent of iron 
occnra three miles southeast of Coffeeville and a 50 per cent ore 
is fonnd three miles southwest of this place. Two analyses 
of the Hgnite from near Gilmer are as follows: 



f 



234 BvUetin of the University af Texas 

1 -2' 

Mtoisture 11.40 25.20 

Volatile combU:jtible matter. 42.80 37.50 

Fixed carbon 33.76 26.09 

Ash 12.04 11.21 

100.00 100.00 

Sulphur 0.88 1.20 

B. t. u 7.650 

UPTON COUNTY. 

Locaftion — ^West Texas. 

County seat — ^Upland; population, 35. 

Area, square miles, 1,190. 

Population, 501. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 36. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,672,975. 

Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

UVALDE COUNTY. 

Location— ^Southwest Texas. 

County seat— Uvalde; population, 3,998 ; elev. 937 ; lat. 29° 13' ; 
long. 99° 48' ; mag. dec. 9° 48'. 

Area, square miles, 1,759. 

Population, 11,223. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 51.64. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,008,809. 

Mineral resources — Asphalt rock; bat guano; coal; lignite; 
limestone ; trap rock for road ; metal. 

The asphalt rock is of two distinct kinds, bituminous limestone 
and bituminous sandstone. 

The chief deposit of bituminous limestone occurs at Carbon- 
ville, six miles south of Cline, a sta/tion on the Southern Pacific 
Railway, with which it is connected by a spur track. 

The plant at this place was originaly designed for the extrac- 
tion of bitum«i with naphtha. Li 1895 there were shipped 450 
tons of **litho-carbon," the selling price being $50.00 a ton. 
New York. Two classes of product seem to have been made^ 
hard gum (mastic) and soft gum. These substances do not seem 
to have been produced separately after January, 1895, but dur- 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 235 

ing two months in 1894 and one month in 1895, the total produc- 
tion was 1,922,984 pounds, or 511 tons of 2,000 pounds. 

The extraction with naphtha seems to have been suspended in 
January, 1895, and was not resumed until 1899. In this year, 
the production of gum was 1,647,696 pounds, or 823.8 tons. Dur- 
ing the three months of 1900, when the plant was running, the 
production of gum was 516,136 pounds, or 258 tons. The total 
amount of gum produced was about 2,043 tons. For several 
years no attempt has been made to extract the bitumen, the work 
being confined to mining the rock and shipping it for paving 
purposes. It has been used in San Antonio, Waco, etc., and 
some shipments were made to Toledo, Ohio, and to Shreveport, 
Louisiana. When properly prepared and laid on a foundation 
suitable for this kind of material, there seems to be no reason 
why this rock should not make excellent pavements. 

The average of many analyses of this rock shows that it con- 
tains from 14 to 17 per cent of total bitumen, with 80 to 85 
per cent, of carbonate of lime, a small amount of silica, alumina 
and oxide of iron, with sulphur up to 1 per cent. The asphaltene 
varies from 50 to 75 per cent, of the total bitumen. 

Six miles south of Carbonville, on the Smyth-Nunn ranch, 
there is another heavy deposit of bituminous limestone of the 
following composition : 

Per cent. 

Asphaltene 6.73 

Petrolene i 9.28 

Carbonate of lime 78.73 

Silica 5.26 

Sulphur 1.50 

Total bitumen 16.01 

At Waxy Falls, on the Nueces river, about twelve miles west 
of south from Uvalde, there is a calciferous bituminous sand- 
stone on W. P. May's ranch, of the following composition : 

Per cent. 

Asphaltene 4.19 

Petrolene 5.28 

Carbonate of lime 11.24 

Silica 79.27 

Sulphur 0.91 

Total bitumen 9.47 



i!:» BnUetin of the Vnivenity if 2VMf 

Other analjirses of this stone show total lAtmDtm 14 per cent 

The silica varies from 74 to 82 per eeat. and tbe carfionate of 
lime from 7 to 14 per cent. This bitumiDoitt sandstone has alao 
been used for street pavements. 

The active competition of bitnlithie and other forais of arti- 
ficial asphalt pavements, of paving brick, etc., have interfered 
with the development of the Uvalde oonnty natural asphalt 
rocks. A large business might have been built np had the same 
care in the preparation and laying of this material been diown 
as has been the case with competing materials. This is partica- 
larly tme of the foimdations on l^hich the paving proper is laid, 
for without such adequate sub-courses no paving can be expected 
to give the best service. 

The outcrops of sub-bituminous coal along Hbe Nueces river 
have not been prospected, and but little is known concerning 
the quality or extent of the beds. 

The deposit of trap rock (nephelite basalt) near Knippa con- 
stitutes the best road-making material known to exist in Texas. 
A modem crushing plant of a capacity of 750 tons a day has 
beoi built, and considorablc shipments have been made to San 
Antonio, etc., for concrete. This stone has a weight of nearly 
200 lbs. per cubic foot, and a crushing strength of more than 
30,000 lbs. per square inch. The Pilot Knob trap, Travis cottBty. 
is a similar stone. The results of further examinations of these 
rocks will appear in the Bulletin on Road Making MatPtrisls now 
in preparation, by the Bureau of Economic Geology. 

The existence of kaolin in Uvalde county has been 
but we have no positive information oonc^ning it. 

VAL VERDE COUNTY. 
Ix>ea&tion — Southwest Texas. 

County seat — Del Rio; population, 4,000; der. 
29^ 22' ; long. 100^ 52' ; mag. dec. 9° 58'. 
Area, square miles, 3,034. 
Population, 8,613. 
Railroads, 1. 

>fiW of railroad, 124.58. 
Amfssmei valuation of property of aJl kinds, 
Minora] resources — ^Limestone. 

mm^^ral rvvonrees have not been investigated. 



The Mirieral Resources of Texas 237 

VAN ZANDT COUNTY. 

Location — Noiiiieast Texas. 

County seat— Canton; population, 600; lat. 32° 33'; \mg- 
95° 52'; mag. dee. 8° 21' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 877. 

Population, 25,651. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 32.69. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $9,541,435. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; iron ore ; lignite ; salt. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

Lignite occurs in many parts of the county, as at Grand Saline, 
along the Sabine river, at Wills Point, etc. The composition of 
the lignite mined at Wills Point is as follows : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 27.20 

Volatile combustible matter 40.90 

Fixed carbon 27.00 

Ash 4.81 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.4 8 

B. t. u. per pound 7,682 

There is a small area of brown iron ore (linionite) in the 
southeastern part of the county, but the quality is not good. The 
t>otal area is probably about one square mile. 

This county has been for some years an importanVproducer 
c> f salt, obtained from brine. The industry centers arouiid Grand 
^Saline, and extensive improvements have recently been made, es- 
X>ecially by B. W. Carrington & Co., in the process of manufacture. 
-At this plant the pan house contains three triple-effect vaouum 
evaporating pans; the brine is taken from the wells to the set- 
tlers, thence to these pans, then the water evaporated in vacuum 
«nd the salt delivered by elevators from the bottom of these pans 
"tx) storage bins in the top of the same building. In these bins 
i^he salt is drained and is then distributed to a belt conveyor 
i^hich carries it to the store-house. Prom this store-house, the 
euT«d salt is taken to the dairy or table salt mill, where it is 
kiln-dried in a rotary direct heat coke drier. It then goes to a 



238 Bulletm of the University of Texas 

system of scl^ens in the top of the building, where it is prepared 
into the various grades to meet demand. 

The advantage of the vacuum system of evaporation over 
the old open grainer method, is said to be, first, great economjjr 
in fuel; and, second, the production of a uniform cube crystal 
salt in place of the irrregular flaky grade produced by the 
grainers. 

The Carrington plant is designed for a production of a little 
over 1,100 barrels daily. 

VICTORIA COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Victoria; population, 3,673; elev. 93; lat. 
28° 48'; long. 97° 0'; mag, dec. 8° 59'. 
Area, square miles, 883. 
Population, 14,990 
Railroads, 2. 
Miles of railroad, 90. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $13,529,180. 
Mineral resources — Clays. 
The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

I \ r- ~ -. WALKER COUNTY. 

Location — Bast Texas. 

County seat — Huntsville; population, 2,073; elev. 400; lat. 
30° 42' long. 95° 32'; mag. dec. 8° 16' (1912). 

Area, square miles, 754. 

Population, 16,061. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of rjtilroad, 54.75. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,831,925. 

Mineral resources — Clays; fuller's earth, lignite; natural gas; 
petroleum; sandstone; gravel. 

The clays (including fuller's earth) have not been investigated. 
Lignite is known to occur, but has not been developed. An 
analysis, of a small sample of lignite from a locality south of the 
Trinity river and about twelve miles north of Huntsville was as 
follows : 



The Mvfieral Resources of Texas 239 

Per cent. 

Moisture 13.73 , 

Volatile combustible matter 45.95 

Fixed carbon 37.22 

Ash 3.10 



100.00 



This seam is said to be from 10 to 12 feet thick, but no attempt 
has been made to mine it. 

Natural asphalt has been found in the same locality, but noth- 
ing is known concerning the extent, etc. 

West of the lignite area there is a heavy outcrop of a sand- 
stone that would make excellent material for rip-rap, railroad 
ballast, etc., but it has not been developed. Petroleum and nat- 
Tiral gas have been found in deep drilling, both north and west 
of Huntsville, but no commercial fields have been opened. 

WALLER COUNTY. 

Location — ^Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Hempstead; population, 1,848; elev. 251; lat. 
30° 8' : long. 96° 10' ; mag. dec. 7° 57' 

Area, square miles, 510. | '^ 

Population, 12,138. ; 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 40.53. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,364,278. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

WARD COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas; southeast of New Mexico. 
County seat — Barstow; population, 500; elev. 2,557. 
Area, square miles, 858. 
Population, 2,389. 
Railroads, 1. 
Miles of railroad, 43.50. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $4,462,366. 
Mineral resources — Salt ; sandstone. 

Salt occurs in Ward county as encrustations, etc., in old lake 
basins and depressions. It is used locally. 



240 BtitletiH of the Univemt^ «/ 2Vcat 

• 

The red sandstone, near Barstow, has been used to a consider- 
able extent. The work here was suspended several years ago, 
but the demand for this st(me in the addition to the Bexar county 
oourthouse has caused a resumption of work temporarily. The 
composition and qualities of this red sandstone are as follows : 

Per cent 

SiUca 70,00 

Alumina 7.50 

Oxide of iron 8.00 

Lime 8.00 

Magnesia 0.80 

Soda 2.00 

Potash 2.50 

Carbonic acid 6.00 

Water 0.40 

99.70 

Weight of a cubic foot, pounds 156.00 

Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . 11.50 
Crushed at, pounds per sq. inch 2,000 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Brenham; population, 4,718; elev. 382; lat. 
30^ 10' ; long. 96° 23' ; mag. dec. 8° 57' (1912).' 

Area, square iniles, 568. 

Population, 25,561. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 87.34. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $11,072,190. 

Mineral resources — Clays; natural gas; opalized wood, fuller's 
earth; gravel. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

The quality of the brick made in the county is shown by the 
following results of the examination of a sample from the Bren- 
ham Pressed Brick Company, several years old: 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 101.10 

Per cent, of ceUs by volume 87.37 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . 23.08 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. ft 23.33 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 3,368 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 241 

Fuller's earth of j>ood quality occurs at and near Burton, but 
it has not been developed. Of two samples examined by J. C. 
Blake, one gave a bleaching power on refined cotton seed oil 
of 64, and the other of 168, English earth being taken as 100. 

More than thirty years ago natural gas under good pressure 
was found in a well drilled near Burton, but records are not now 
available. 

WEBB COUNTY. 

Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Laredo; population, 14,855; elev. 438; lat. 
2T 32'; long. 99° 31'; mag. dec. 8° 50'. 

Area, square miles, 3,421. 

Population, 22,503. 

Bailroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 124.94. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $7,980,413. 

Mineral resources — Clays; coal; natural gas; sandstone; 
gravel. 

The buff-burning semi-refractory clays are represented by the 
following average of four samples from Minera and Cannel, shaly 
clays from below the coal : 

Per cent. 

Silica 60.41 

Alumina 22.43 

Oxide of Iron 1.90 

Lime 0.44 

Mafirnesla 0.61 

Soda 0.24 

Potash 0.45 

Tlt-^nlc acid 1.30 

Water 6.00 

Organic matter 6.50 

100.28 

Total fluxes '. 3.64 

These clays will vitrify at a temperature of about 2,400 de- 
gre«*.s P., and will become viscous below 3,000 desrees F. 

The calcareous brick clays are represented by an analysis of 
a sample from Laredo, as follows : 

16— Mln. 



242 BvUetin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Silica , 59.03 

Alumina 11.19 

Oxide of Iron 2.77 

Lime 12.16 

Magnesia 0.80 

Soda 0.18 

Potaeh Trace ■ 

Titanic acid 1.05 

Carbonic acid 9.60 

Water 2.10 

98.88 

Totai fluzes lfi.91 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,318 degrees P. 
The quality of the brick made in Webb county is shown by 
the following results of tests: 



Weight per cu. ft., pounds. 95.8 97.85 93.60 
Per cent ot cells by toI- 

ume <1.79 40.76 43.90 

Volume of cells in 100 

parte by weight 27.22 26.00 29.27 

Pounds of water absorbed 

per cu. ft 26.07 25.44 37.39 

Cm shed at, pounds per 

sq. inch 1,442 1,776 1,037 

1. No. 1 yellow, Geo. H, Page & Co., Laredo. 

2. No, 3 eyo-brick, Geo, R. Page & Co., Laredo. 

3. No. 3 white brick, Geo. R. Page & Co., Laredo. 

4. Face brick, 'Reiser Pressed Bricli Co., Laredo. 

5. Derby Brick Manufacturing Co., I^redo. 

For a number of years Webb county has been an im] 
producer of sub-bituminous coal. The mines are at I>i 
Cannel, Minera, etc., along the R, G. & E, P. Ry., nmni 
the Rio Grande from Laredo. The composition of this 
given by the following average of 13 analyses: 



Moisture ^ . . . 

Volatile combustible i 
Fixed carbon 



110.10 


se.ts 


32.76 


43.04^ 


18.S7 


37.2^ 


20.44 


Se.Sift. 


1,368 


1.CW . 



SMlphur 

R, t, u. per pound 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 243 

The town of Laredo is supplied with natural gas by the Border 
Gas Company from wells at Reiser, 18 miles east of Laredo. 
The average B. t. u. per cubic foot of this gas is 74G, although 
one sample ran as high as 948. 

WHARTON COUNTY. 

Location — Southeast Texas. 

County seat — Wharton; population, 1,505; elev. Ill; lat. 
29° 18' ; long. 96° 4' ; mag. dec. 8° 18'. 

Area, square miles, 1,137. 

Population, 21,123. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 106.42. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $15,869,939. 

Mineral resources — Clays; gravel. 

The calcareous brick clays are represented by the following 
average of three samples from near Wharton : 

Per cent. 

SUica 64.85 

Alumina 9.30 

Oxide of Iron 3.02 

Lime 9.26 

Magnesia 0.49 

Soda 0.89 

Potash 0.17 

Titanic acid 0.97 

Water 3.51 

Carbonic- acid 7.31 

99.77 

Total fluxes .' 13.86 



ese clays become viscous at a temperature of 2,100 de- 
P. 

WHEELER COUNTY. 

tion — East line of Panhandle. 
^ormty seat — Wheeler ; population, 200. 
square miles, 851. 
, 5,258. 

* 

^3.38. 

property of all kinds, $3,811,538. 
teown. 




244 BuUetin of ike University of Tetcas 

WICHITA COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas; borders on the Red river. 

County seat — Wichita Palis; population, 8,200; elev. 946. 

Area, square miles, 606. 

Population, 16,094. 

Railroads, 6. 

Miles of railroad, 71.88. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $18,507,195. 

Mineral resources — Clays; copper ores; limestone; natural 
gas ; petroleum ; sandstone ; gravel. 

The clays have not been fully investigated, but a large brick 
and tile plant at Wichita Falls utilizes the deposits near that city. 

The copper ores are Permian and have not been utilized. 
They occur as chalcocit-e and as replacements after wood (mala- 
chite, etc.) 

Wichita is one of the important oil producing counties. The 
Electra field came into production in 1911, and to the close of 
1913 yielded 11^4,627 barrels valued at about $10,169,000. 

The geology of the Wichita county oil fields has been investi- 
gated by J. A. Udden, geologist for the Bureau of Economic 
Geology, and his report was issued in 1912 as Bulletin No. 246. 
''The Oil and Gas Fields of Wichita and Clay Counties." It 
may be obtained on application to the Bureau. 

WILBARGER COUNTY. * 

Location — North Texas; borders on Red river. 

County seat — Vernon; population, 3,195; elev. 1,205; lat. 
34° 9'; long. 99° 18'; mag. dec. 9° 52'. 

Area, square miles, 923. 

Population, 12,000. 

Railroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 58.90. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $11,466,140. 

Mineral resources — Clays; copper ores; possibly natural gas 
and petroleum. 

The clays have not been investigated. 

The copper ores are Permian and have not been utilized. It 
is possible that the Wichita county oil fields extend into this 
eounty. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 245 

WILLACY COUNTY. 

Location — ^Extreme southern part ; borders on Baffin Bay. 

County seat — Sarito ; population, ; elev. 38. 

Area, square miles, 

Population, (organized after 1910) . 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 47.60. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $2,162,307. 

Mineral resources — Clays; salt, in old salt lakes. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY. 

Location — Near center, southeast. 

County seat — Georgetown; population, 3,096; elev. 442; lat. 
30° 39' ; long. 97° 40' ; mag. dec. 8° 33'. 

Area, square miles, 1,169. 

Population, 42,228. 

Railroads, 4. 

Miles of railroad, 146.88. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $32,344,520. 

Mineral resources — Bat guano ; clays; gold; limestone; dolo- 
mite; petroleum; mineral waters; gravel. 

The calcareous l)rick clays are represented by an analysis of a 
sample from near Taylor, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 21.72 

Alumina 7.97 

Oxide of iron 2.23 

Lime 36.54 

Magnesia 0.95 

Soda Trace 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 0.52 

Water 2.06 

Carbonfc acid 28.44 

99.73 

Total fluxes 39.72 

This day became vritrified below 2,390 degrees F. 
The quality of the brick made is shown by the following tests 
on a sample from the Taylor Brick Company, several years old : 



2i^i 



Bulletin of the University of Texas 



Weight per cubic foot, pounds 110.90 

Per cent, of cells by volume 32.98 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight. . 18.57 
Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . . 20.59 
Crushed at, pounds per square inch 3,656 

In 1883 gold ore was discovered in limestones twenty miles 
north of Georgetown. Some of the samples carried as much as 
$2,500 a ton in gold, but a careful examination of the locality 
failed to show commercial possibilities. The gold was carried in 
a decomposed limestone heavily stained with oxide of iron, which 
was probably derived from pyrite, by oxidation. An analogous 
occurrence is in Tom Green county, near Mertzon, where a similar 
material carried $237 a ton in gold. 

Williamson county contains many varieties of limestone suit- 
able for building and road purposes, for the manufacture of 
white lime, etc. 

From a considerable number of analyses and tests we select 
five as typical. These are as follows : 



Silica 1.00 

Alumina 1.30 

Oxide of iron Trace 

Lime 55.00 

Magnesia Trace 

Carbonic acid 42.90 

Loss on ignition 



100.20 



Lbs. of water absorbed 

per cu. ft. 17.70 

Crushed at, lbs. per sq. 

inch MS5 2.S08 



2 


3 


4 


5 


0.39 


1.40 


5.96 


0.96 


0.31 


0.36 


2.00 


None 


Trace 


Trace 


0.82 


4.80 


55.06 


54.80 


41.66 


50.20 


0.11 


0.48 


7.51 


None 


42.94 


41.90 


41.30 


38.73 




1.76 


1.24 


4.67 


98.81 


100.76 


100.49 


99.06 


132.30 


107.30 


146.00 


153.00 


15.50 


14.26 


6.89 


5.04 


2.S08 


2.155 


7,000 


9.050 



ExpUaatlOB: 

1. Round Rock. 

2. Cedar Park. E. Clvck dr Bro. 

3. Lnnder. R. B. Gcoffse & Col 

4. Near Codar ftrk. J. R. K!a«. 

5. Bruhy Creek. I's kiLcs X. of Roimd Rock. 



SoEse of :b? WiIIi43L5*?EL ifoonry Limestones show much hisrher 
CTGs&izur s5r«:ir:J» tkan aay ot the pneceding. Thus, a sample 
frvci a ^«i^ exposoxr about one and one-half miles east of 
RtiCLsd Boek. CB Lake Brtsskr Creek, and some 300 yards from 

e mm Gne «f the L & 6. X. Ry. crushed at 11,550 pounds 



The Mineral Resources of Texcts 247 

per square inch ; another sample from Lake Brushy Creek, about 
200 yards above the I. & 6. N. Ey. bridge, crushed at 13,725 
pounds per square inch ; a sample from about one and one- fourth 
mil^ south of Round Rock, near the I. & 6. N. Ry. and the 
McNeill wagon road, crushed at 15,050 pounds per square inch, 
and a sample from the George Johns ranch, about three miles 
southwest of Round Rock and near the I. & G. N. Ry. main 
line, crushed at 37,050 pounds per square inch. 

Excellent white lime is made at Round Rock by the Round 
Sock White Lime Company, and a crusher is also operated. 

The composition of the Hydrated Premium white lime made at 
Round Rock by the Round Rock White Lime Company is as 
follows (analysis by the Underwriters' Laboratory, Chicago) : 

Per cent. 

Insoluble siliceous matter 0.73 

Oxides of iron and aluminum 0.64 

Lime (hydrated) 99.30 

Magnesia Trace 

Sulphuric acid Trace 

Undetermined 0.13 

100.00 

This corresponds very closely with an analysis made December 
15, 1903, in the laboratory of the University Mineral Survey by 
0. H. Palm, which was as follows : 

Per cent. 

Insoluble siliceous matter 0.40 

Alumina Trace 

Oxide of iron Trace 

Lime (hydrated) 99.05 

Magnesia 0.21 

Sulphuric acid Trace 

99.66 

Williamson county also has good dolomites, suitable for use in 
iron furnaces making pig iron for basic steel. The following 
analysis shows the quality of this stone, from D. MacRae, Cedar 
Park: 

Per cent. 

Silica 0.62 

Alumina 0.74 

Oxide of iron Trace 

Lime 33.00 



% 



248 BuUeiin of the University of Texas 

Per cent. 

Magnesia 18.56 

Carbonic add 46.66 

99.68 

Weight per cubic foot, pounds 129.20 

Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . 21.42 
Crushed at* pounds per square inch 2,644 

A similar stone occurs on the property of J. R. Kiag, in the 
same vicinity. 

The discovery of a* high grade oil a few miles south of Thrall 
has attracted much attention of late (1915). This field is 
unique among the oil fields of the United States in that the 
oil-sand is an altered igneous rock akin to serpentine. The depth 
below the surface, at which this material is found, varies from 
820 feet, or theiieabout, to 900 feet. The maximum thickness 
is at present unknown but is certainly more than 100 feet, in 
places. This altered igneous rock is in the Ti^^lor Marls (Upper 
Cretaceous) above the Austin chalk. It does not appear prob- 
able that it was the original repository of the oil. It has afforded 
to the oil (and gas) a more or less spongy bed, suitable for the 
entrance and for the retaining of oil and gas. 

A notable feature of this material is the occurrence of a com- 
paratively large amount of black, magnetic iron sand. 

In the Matanzas province. Cuba, a heavy asphaltic oil has 
been noticed in conjunction with serpentine, but so far as is 
now known the Thrall field is the only one in which any con- 
siderable quantity of a high grade oil has been found in an 
altered igneous rock. 

The discovery of this fact is due to Dr. J A. Udden, geolo- 
gist for this Bureau, and he published an article, on the sub- 
ject in the Oil and Gas Journal, Tulsa, Oklahoma, April 22, 
1915, p. 27. 

WILSON COUNTY. 

Location — South Texas. 

County seat — Floresville; population, 1,398; elev. 389; lat. 
29° 7'; long. 98° 10'; mag. dec. 9° 3' (1912). 
Area, square miles, 784. 
Population, 17,066. 
Railroads, 2. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 249 

Miles of railroad, 54.16. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $10,254,470. 

Mineral resources — Clays; lignite; mineral waters; gravel. 

Wilson is one of the most important clay-working counties in 
the State. The pottery clays of the county are represented by 
an analysis of a sample from Lavernia, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Snica . 68.84 

Alumina 21.15 

Oxide of iron 1.15 

Lime , Trace 

Magnesia Trace 

Soda 1.12 

Potash 0.45 

Titanic acid 1.22 • 

Water 6.62 

100.55 

Total fluxes 2.72 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 3,038 degrees P. 
The buflf-buming semi-refractory clays are represented by an 
analysis of a sample from Calaveras, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 70.50 

Alumina 18.30 

Oxide of iron 1.80 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia 0.90 

Soda 0.20 

Potash Trace 

Titanic acid 1.20 

Water 5.50 

98.40 

Total fluxes 2.90 

This clay became viscous at a temperature of 2,498 degrees F. 
The calcareous brick clays are represented by an analysis of 
a sample from Calaveras, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 37.45 

Alumina 7.72 

Oxide of iron 2.02 

Lime 27.02 

Magnesia 0.36 



250 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

Per cent 

Water 2.40 

Carbonic acid 21.80 

99.67 

Total fluxes 30.30 

This clay slagged at a temperature of 2,390 degrees F. 
The quality of the brick made is shown by the following tests 
on a sample several years old : 

Weight per cubic foot, lbs 92.87 

Per cent, of cells .by volume 60.26 

Volume of cells in 100 parts by weight 36.20 

Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot. . 33.61 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 2,144 

Lignite occurs in the vicinity of Sutherland Springs, but it 
has not been developed. 

WINKLER COUNTY. 

Location — ^West Texas ; southeast of New Mexico. 

County seat — Kermit ; population, .... 

Area, square miles, 888. 

Population, 442. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 10. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,085,473. 

Mineral resources — Salt, from old salt lakes, basins, etc. 

WISE COUNTY. 

Location — ^North Texas. 

County seat — Decatur; population, 1,651; dev. 1,058; lat. 
33° 15'; long. 97° 33'; mag. dec. 9° 29' (1910). 

Area, square miles, 843. 

Population, 26,450. 

Railroads, 2. 

Miles of railroad, 96.47. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $14,010,450. 

Mineral resources — Clays; coal; limestone; sandstone; gravel. 

The red- and brown-burning clays are represented by an 
analysis of a sample from near Bridgeport, as follows: 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 251 

Per cent. 

Silica 56.01 

Alumina 24.07 

Oxide of iron 2.59 

Lime Trace 

Magnesia 1.11 

Soda ; 1.44 

Potash 1.19 

Titanic acid 1.65 

Organic matter 4.04 

Water 7.30 

99.40 

Total fluxes 6.33 

The clays of easy fusibility are represented by aii analysis of 
a sample from Bridgeport, as follows : 

Per cent. 

Silica 59.20 

Alumina 20.60 

Oxide of iron 6.90 

Lime 1.08 

Magnesia 1.62 

Soda 1.84 

Potash 1.60 

Titanic acid 1.50 

Organic matter 0.20 

Water 4.66 

99.20 

Total fluxes 13.04 

•This clay became steel hard at a temperature of 1,992 de- 
grees F. 

The quality of the brick made is shown by the following tests 
on samples from the Wise County Brick Company, Bridgeport : 

Dry press. Stiff mud. Perforated. 

Weight per cu. ft, lbs 130.70 115.10 106.80 

Per cent, of cells by volume 15.09 18.21 16.62 

Vol. of cells in 100 parts of weight. . 7.21 9.87 9.73 

Lbs. water absorbed per cu. ft 9.42 11.36 10.39 

Crushed at, lbs. per square inch... 6,998 2,800 2,642 

Wise county has been an important coal-producinof county 
for some years. The composition of the coal is shown by the 
following average of 6 analyses : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 9.81 

Volatile combustible matter 33.06 



252 BvUetm of the UnivertUy of Texas 

Per cent. 

Fixed carbon 44.66 

Ash 12-47 



100.06 



Sulphur 2.03 

B. t u. per lb 10,396 

* « 

Some of the bc^t limestones in the State are found in this 
comity. From a number of' analyses and tests we select the 

following as typical : 

1 2 

BUlca 1.21 1.60 

Alumina 5.46 Trace 

Oxide of iron 1.47 2.40 

Lime 47.7o 53.14 

Carbonic acid 36.05 40.76 

Loss on ignition 6.96 2.04 



3 


4 


5 


6 


1.76 


5.20 


1.32 


2.20 


1.03 


1.02 


1.06 


0.50 


0.57 


Trace 


Trace 


1.10 


50.60 


51.78 


55.50 


53.70 


39.75 


41.50 


41.14 


41.80 


5.65 









99.06 100.03 99.36 99.50 99.02 99.30 

Weight per cu. ft., lbB..168.00 166.40 168.60 170.30 169.70 170.00 
Lbs. water absorbed 

per cu. ft. 0.36 0.73 0,10 

Crushed at, lbs. per 

inch 4,125 4,240 13,644 16,933 14,000 

Explanation: 

Nos. 1, 2 and 3. Chico Crushed Stone Co., Chico. 
Nos. 4, 5 and 6. Bridgeport Coal Co., Bridgeport. 

A sample of limestone from Alvord quarry, near Alvord, gave 
the following results : 

Per cent. * 

Silica 1.50 

Alumina 0.36 

Oxide of iron 0.44 

Lime 52.87 

Magnesia ^ None 

Carbonic acid 41.23 

Loss on ignition 2.17 

Sulphuric acid 0.55 



99.12 



Weight per cubic foot, pounds 168.00 

Pounds of water absorbed per cu. f t 0.31 

Crushed at, pounds per square inch 11,425 

WOOD COUNTY. 

Location — Northeast Texas. 

County seat — Quitman; population, 475; dev. 590; lat. 
32° 46'; long. 1)5° 26'; mag. dec. 8° 9' (1912). 



The MinenA Resources of Texas 253 

Area, square miles, 688. 

Population, 23,417 

Bailroads, 5. 

Miles of railroad, 69.72. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,720,246. 

Ifineral resources — Clays; iron ore; lignite; petroleum; ^laas- 
aand ; gravel. 

The pottery clays are represented by the average of two sam- 
ples from near Comersville, and two samples from Winsborn 
as follows: 

Per cent. 
Comersville. Wlnaboro. 

Silica 71.78 67.65 

Alumina 16.75 20.50 

Oxide of iron 1.11 1.20 

Lime 0.32 Trace 

Magnesia 1.17 0.25 

Soda 0.86 0.50 

Potash 0.19 1.05 

Titanic acid 1.15 1.30 

Water 5.90 6.60 

99.23 99.05 

Total fluxes 3.66 3.00 

The Comersville clays bum steel hard at about 2,200 degrees 
P. and become viscous at temperatures ranging from 2,570 to 
3,146 degrees F. The Winsboro clays become steel hard at a 
temperature of about 2,000 degrees F. 

The iron ore beds in Wood county are east of Mineola and 
north of the Texas & Pacific Railway. They have not been de- 
veloped or even prospected. Nothing definite is known concern- 
ing their extent or quality, but surface specimens indicate a li- 
mouite of fairly good character. It is probable that many of the 
deposits of iron-gravel would make excellent roads, especially the 
material found along the road from Mineola to Hainesville and 
west of Mineola on the w^st side of the Sabine river. In many 
of the east and northeast counties there are very large deposits 
of such gravel, containing not enough iron to render them useful 
as iron ores, but constituting an excellent road material, easily 
obtained and convenient to some of the principal roads. One of 
the few localities in Texas where oil can be seen oozing from the 
jp"0und is southeast of Mineola on the Macklin farm, and south of 



254 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Hainesville, at Seed Tick Spring. It is not unreasonable to think 
that in this part of the county some producing wells may be 
brought in, although it must be said that surface indications are 
not to be depended on with certainty. . 

Wood county has long been known as one of the most important 
producers of lignite. The largest lignite mine in the United 
States, that of the Consumers Lignite Company, is at Hoyt, near 
Alba, while the Alba-Malakoff Company, at Alba, adds to the 
already large production of the county. Very nearly one-h^ 
of the entire lignite output in the State is from this county. 

The composition of the lignite is given by the following aver- 
age of 20 analyses : 

Per cent. 

Moisture 27.05 

Volatile combustible matter 35.10 

Fixed carbon 29.25 

Ash 8.60 

100.00 

Sulphur 0.76 

B. t. u 7.469 

The composition of the water from the 1,400-foot well at 
Mineola is as follows : 

Grains per 
U. S. Gallon. 

Silica 2.00 

Iron None 

Aluminum None 

Calcium 0.60 

Magnesium 0.70 

Sodium 30.70 

Potassium 2.50 

Carbonate radicle (CO,) 2.40 

Bicarbonate radicle (HCO3) 36.80 

Sulphate radicle (SO4) 0.70 

Nitrate radicle (NO3) None 

• Chloride 23.60 

100.50 

« 

Analysis said to be by United States Geological Survey. 

YOAKUM COUNTY. 

Location — West Texas; borders on New Mexico. 
County seat — Plains ; population, 125 ; elev. 3,300. 



The Mineral Resources #/ Texas 255 

Area, square miles, 840. 
. Population, 602. 
Bailroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,412,232. 
Mineral resources — ^Unknown. 

, YOUNG COUNTY. 

Location — ^Northwest of center. 

County seait — Graham; population, 1,569; elev. 1,045; lat. 
33^ 4' ; long. 98° 35' ; mag. dec. 9° 20'. 

Area, square miles, 821. 

Population, 13,657. 

Bailroads, 3. 

Miles of railroad, 53.01. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $8,179,578. 

Mineral resources^ — Clays ; coal ; limestone ; sandstone ; possibly 
natural gas and petroleum; gravel. 

The vitrifiable brick clays are represented by an average of 

two analyses of samples taken from 14 to 16 miles west of 

Graham, as follows: 

Per cent. 

Silica 60.90 

Alumina 20.95 

Oxide of iron 5.30% 

Lime 0.05 

Magnesia 0.25 

Soda 1.40 

Potash 1.85 

Titanic acid 0.80 

Water 6.30 

Water, hygroscopic 2.70 

100.50 

Total fluxes 8.85 

These clays become steel hard at temperatures varying from 
1,900 to 2,000 degrees F. They would probably make good ma- 
terial for the manufacture of paving brick. 

Young county has been a producer of coal for some years. 
The composition of the coal from this county is given in the 
following average of two analyses: 

Per cent 

Moisture ', 9.00 

Volatile combustible matter 35.79 



256 BidUtin of the Vnivemty of Texas . 

Fixed carbon 89.08 

Ash 18.18 

100.00 

m 

Sulphur 2.88 

B. t. u. per pound 9,601 

There are opportunities for petroleum and natural gas, but no 
producing wells have been brought in. 

ZAPATA COUNTY. 

Location — Extreme southern part ; borders on the Rio Grande- 
County seat — ^Zapata ; population, 250. 

Area, square miles, 1,269. 

Population, 3,809. 

Railroads, none. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $1,156,818. 

Mineral resources — Clays, and possibly coal, petroleum and 
natural gas. A sample of natural gas from this county gave 887 
B. t u. per cubic foot, an excellent result. 

ZAVALLA COUNTY. 

Location — ^Southwest Texas. 

County seat — ^Batesville; population, 80; elev. 700. 

Area, square miles, 1,328. 

Population, 1,889. 

Railroads, 1. 

Miles of railroad, 35.28. 

Assessed valuation of property of all kinds, $5,427,805. 

Mineral resources — Clays ; coal ; lignite. 

The mineral resources have not been investigated. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE MINING LAW. 

SCHOOL LANDS— RELATING TO PROSPECTING AND 
DEVELOPING MINERALS THEREON. 

S. B. No. 128.] Thirty-third Legislature, 1913. 

An Act relating to prospecting and developing minerals on land 
owned by the State of Texas, by the public free school fund 
and University and Asylum funds, and upon such land as the 
State has heretofore sold or may hereafter sell with reservation 
of the mineral therein and upon such land as may have been 
purchased with the waiver of mineral rights; and also the 
pro8p6CtLi>^ and development of minerals in fresh water lakes 
and in islands, bays, marshes, reefs and salt water lakes ; re- 
lating to the disposition of the minerals and mineral rights 
therein; authorizing the lease of such lands and the mineral 
rights therein ; providing royalties and other compensation to be 
paid to the State therefor ; appropriating to certain funds the 
proceeds arising from such development ; authorizing the adop- 
tion of rules and regulations to carry out the provisions of this 
Act; providing penalties for violations of the provisions of 
this Act; prescribing terms upon which, and the method by 
which, access to mineral deposits may be acquired by con- 
demnation or otherwise ; repealing Chapter 1, Title 93, of the 
Revised Civil Statutes adopted in 1911, and declaring an 
emergency. 
Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Texas : 

Section 1. All public school, University, Asylum and the 
other public lands, fresh water lakes, islands, bays, marshes, 
reefs, and salt water lakes, belonging to the State of Texas, and 
all lands which may hereafter be so owned, and all lands which 
have been heretofore sold or disposed of by the State of Texas, 
with a reservation of minerals or mineral rights therein, as well as 
all lands which may hereafter be sold with reservation of min- 
erals or mineral rights therein, and lands purchased with relin- 
qnipment of the minerals therein, shall be included within the 
provisions of this Act and shall be open to mineral prospecting, 
mineral development and the lease of mineral rights therein in 
the manner herein provided. Only citizens of the United States 
and such other persons as have heretofore declared, or shall here- 
after declare, their intention of becoming such shall be entitled 
to acquire any rights under this Act. It is declared to be the 

17— Mta. 



25S BuUetin of the University of Texas 

policy of the State to opea all saeh lands to mineral prospecting 
and development on a system providing for the payment into the 
State Treasury to the credit of the permanent free school. Uni- 
versity, Asylum or other funds, of certain rents and royalties 
upon the gross output of any minerals or mineral product thereon. 
Sec. 2. Any person or association of persons, corporate or 
otherwise, desiring to obtain the right to prospect for and de- 
velop petroleum oil or natural gas that may be in any of the 
surveyed public free school land, University or Asylum or other 
public lands of the State, which may be unsold at the time such 
•desire is made known as herein provided^ or in any of said land 
which has heretofore been sold with the reservation of minerals 
itbei>ein to the public free school fund or other fund, and such of 
^id land as has heretofore been purchased with the relinquish- 
ment of the minerals therein by the purchaser, or in any of said 
land that may hereafter be sold with the reservation of minerals 
therein, also in any of the fresh water lakes owned by the State 
or public free school fund or other fimd, and also in any of the 
islands, bays, marshes, ree& and salt water lakes, may do so un- 
der the regulations; terms and conditions of this Act, together 
with such rules and regulations as may be adopted relative there- 
to and necessary for the execution of the purpose of this Act by 
the Commissioner of the General Land OflSce. 

Sec. 3. One desiring to obtain the right to prospect for and 
develop petroleum oil or natural gas that may be in any of the 
surveyed lands mentioned herein shall first file with the clerk 
of the court of the county in which the area desired, or a portion 
thereof, is situated, or with the clerk of the county to which said 
•county may be attached for judicial purposes, a separate appli- 
cation in writing for each tract applied for, designating the land 
in which he desires to acquire the aforesaid rights. No individual 
or corporation shall be awarded exceeding 1,280 acres of the pub- 
lic lands of the State for oil or gas development purposes, and 
no individual or corporation shall be awarded exceeding 200 
acres for oil and gas development purposes within ten mUes of 
Any producing oil or gas well. The said 1,280 acres in unde- 
'veloped territory, or the 200 acres within ten miles of any pro- 
ducing oil or gas well, may be in as many different tracts of land 
of fresh w^ter lakes as the applicant may desire; provided, 
the applicant correctly describes the land or fresh water 
lakes desired for development purposes. The lines of all tracts 
less than a whole survey shall conform to the exterior of the 
lines of the survey of which it may be a part, as nearly 
as practicable. The said clerk shall file and record the 
application or applications aforesaid and note the same on his 
register opposite the entry of the proper survey if surveyed, or 
in his record book if unsurveyed, giving the time of filing, and the 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 259 

applicant shall file such application in the Oeneral Land Office, 
together with one dollar as filing fees, within thirty days after 
the date it was filed by the county clerk. 

Sec. 4. One desiring to obtain the right to prospect for and 
develop petroleum oil or natural gas in any of the State 's islands, 
salt water lakes, bays, marshes, reefs and fresh water lakes owned 
by the State, or in any of the unsurveyed public land, shall first 
file a separate written application for each tract applied for with 
the county surveyor of the county in which the area or a part of 
same may be situated, or the county to which said county may 
be attached for surveying purposes, giving a designation of the 
same sufficient to identify it. The surveyor shall immediately 
file and record same, giving time of such filing, and within ninety 
days thereafter he shall survey and deliver to the applicant the 
£eld notes and original application. Said papers, together with 
one dollar as filing fee, shall be filed in the General Land Office, 
within one hundred days after the application was filed with the 
<5orinty surveyor, and not thereafter. Locations and surveys un- 
"der this section shall not exceed 1,280 acres in undeveloped terri- 
"tory, and not exceeding 200 acres within ten miles of a pro- 
ducing gas or oil well. All locations and surveys under this sec- 
tion shall, if practicable, be of regular form, but in every case 
the line or lines adjacent to other surveys shall conform to the 
lines of such adjacent surveys. If there are no adjacent surveys 
the surveyor shall connect such survey with some established 
survey on the main land. 

Sec. 5. "When the Commissioner receives an application or 
application and field notes, as provided for in the two preceding 
sections, within the time required, together with the filing fee- 
of one dollar, he shall file same, and if, upon examination, saidl 
Xmpers are found to be correct, and in compliance with this Acty 
and if the status of the area applied for is within the provisions 
herein, the applicant shall be entitled to the right to prospect for 
and develop the petroleum oil or natural gas that may be under 
the surface embraced in the application and field notes, and as 
evidence of such right the Commissioner shall issue to each ap- 
plicant a permit after the applicant shall have complied with 
the conditions hereinafter imposed. 

Sic. 6. Before the issuance of the permit provided for in 

preceding section the applicant shall pay to the Commissioner 

^Jemeial Land Office ten cents per acre for each acre em- 

\ tile application and field notes. Thereupon a permit 

oed to the applicant, conferring upon him an ex- 

ft prospect for and develop petroleum oil or natural 

iesignated area for a term not to exceed two years. 

'^ys after the expiration of the first year the 

nit shall pay another ten cents per acre, as in 



260 Bulletin of the University of Tex(U 

the first instance. Upon the termination of the period for which 
the original permit was granted, and the receipt of satisfactory 
erridence of the compliance with the conditions prescribed in 
Section 7 of this Act, and such compliance shall not have led 
to the discovery of petroleum oil or natural gas in conunercial 
quantities, then the Commissioner may grant an extension of the 
permit for a term not to exceed one year upon the payment 
by the applicant or his successors in interest of an additional 
fee of twenty-five cents per acre. No extension, however, shall 
be granted unless satisfactory proof of an effort towards the 
development of the area included in the permit has been made 
in good faith and the expenditure of the sum required and duly 
submitted as set forth in Section 7 of this Act. 

Sec. 7. Before the expiration of six months after the date 
of the permit the owner of said permit shall in good faith com- 
mence actual work necessary to the physical development of said 
area, and if petroleum oil or natural gas is not developed the 
owner or manager .^'hall, on or before the thirty days after the 
expiration of twelve months from the date of the permit, file 
in the General Land Office a sworn statement supported by two 
disinterested, credible witnesses, that such actual work was 
begun within the six months aforesaid, and that petroleum oil 
or natural gas has not been discovered in commercial quantities 
and that a bona fide eflfort to develop said area was made during 
the six months preceding the filing of said statement during the 
two years covered by said permit, the owner thereof shall expend 
not less than four thousand dollars in a bona fide eflfort for the 
development of such area, unless such area has sooner been de- 
veloped or abandoned. The owner or manager shall, within 
thirty days after the expiration of the two years from the date 
of the permit, file with the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office a sworn statement, supported by two disinterested, cred- 
ible witnesses, 'that such bona fide eflfort for the development of 
the area has been made, stating in what condition, and showing the 
expenditure thereof. A failure to file either of the sworn state- 
ments herein provided for and within the time specified, or the 
filing of a statement untrue or false in material matters, or the 
failure to expend the sum named in a bona fide eflfort toward 
the development of the area or areas, shall work a revocation of 
said permit and the termination of the rights of the owner. Such 
termination shall be endorsed by the Commissioner of the General 
Land Office, upon a duplicate copy of the permit retained in 
the General Land Office. Upon the termination of such permit 
the area shall again be subject to location by another than the 
forfeiting owner. The expenditure herein required for develop- 
ment purposes may be made upon one or more contiguous tracts 
embraced in a permit, and shall be sufficient for the en- 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 261 

tire area embraced in one such permit. The amount herein 
required to be expended in development purposes shall be re- 
quired on each and every non-contiguous area. A separate per- 
mit shall be issued for each non-contiguous area, but may con- 
tain an entire contiguous area of two or more adjacent tracts of 
land. An application may embrace contiguous portions of dif- 
ferent tracts or surveys. An assignment by deed or other form 
of transfer, and also a Hen of any form may be executed upon 
any claim to any person, association of persons, corporate or 
otherwise, that may be qualified to obtain a permit or lease in 
the first instance; provided, that deed or other evidence of sale, 
assignment or lien shall be recorded in the county where the 
property or a part thereof is situated, and shall be filed in the 
Land Office within sixty days after the date thereof, accompanied 
by a filing fee of one dollar. If such instrument shall not be 
filed in the Land Office within the time required, such deed or 
evidence of transfer or evidence of lien shall not have the effect 
to convey the property, nor shall the obligations incurred therein 
be enforceable. 

Sec. 8. If at any time within the life of the permit one should 

develop petiroleum oil or natural gas in commercial quantities, 

the owner or manager shall file in the Land Office a statement of 

such development within thirty days thereafter, and thereupon 

"the owner of the permit shall have the right to lease all or part 

of the area included in the permit, upon the following conditions : 

(1). An application and a first payment of $2.00 per acre for 
s lease of the area included in a permit shall be made to the 
Oommissioner of the General Land Office within thirty days after 
"the discovery of petroleum oil or natural gas in commercial quan- 
idties. 

(2). A lease may be granted for a i>eriod of ten years, or 
such portion thereof as the applicant may desire, and with the 
option of renewal or rene:wals for an equal or a shorter period 
upon the payment of a cash sum of $2.00 per acre in advance on 
the entire area included in any lease and an equal sum annually 
in advance thereafter during the life of such lease, and in addition 
thereto the owner of such lease shall pay a sum of money equal 
to a royalty of one-eighth of the value of the gross production of 
petroleum oil. 

(3). The owner of a permit shall not take, carry away or 
sell any petroleum oil or natural gas found in any area before 
such owner shall have obtained a lease therefor; provided, such 
owner may use for fuel such portion of said substances as may 
be necessary for the continued development of the area without 
accounting therefor. In addition to the $2.00 per acre annually 
in advance, the owner of a gas well shall pay a sum of money 
equal to 10 per cent, of the meter output of all gas sold. The 



262 BiMetin of the Univerrity of Texas 

said noyalty on petroleum oil, or natural gas, shall be paid to 
the Commissioner of the General Land Offiee monthly daring the 
life of the lease. In all such payments the owner or manager 
shall accompany the remittance with a sworn statement of the 
amount produced, and the market price of the output, and a copy 
of any pipe or pipe lines or tank receipts, check or memoranda 
of amount put out or into such lines or tanks. The books and 
accounts and the receipts and discharges of all lines, pipe lines 
or tanks and gas lines and gas pipes, and all other matters per- 
taining to the production, transportation and marketing of the 
output shall be open to the examination and inspeetion at all 
times by the Commissioner of the Qeneral Land Office or his rep- 
resentative or any other representative of the State. The value 
of any unpaid royalty or royalties and any sum or sums due to 
the State upon any lease contract shall become a prior lien upon 
all production of petroleum oil or natural gas produced upon the 
leased areas to secure the payment of any royalties and sums 
due the State. 

Sec. 9. In the event any land or water included within the 
operation of this Act has heretofore been or may hereafter be 
sold by the State with the reservation of minerals therein, or 
has been purchased by one with the waiver of mineral rights, such 
land shall be subject to prospect and lease as set forth in this Act, 
but the owner of the permit or lease shall pay to the owner of 
the surface of the land twenty cents per acre per annum in ad- 
vance during the life of the permit or lease, and liie first payment 
shall be paid to the Commissioner of the General Land OflGice for 
the use of the owner of the surface, prior to the issuance of such 
permit, and said sum so paid to the owner of the surface rights 
shall be in full compensation for all damages to such surface by 
reason of the ingress and egress and operation necessary to de- 
velopment and the operation under the permit or lease ; provide, 
that if the owner or lessee of the surface will not accept the pay- 
ment of twenty cents per acre per annum, as above provided, and 
the lessee of the mineral rights cannot agree with such owner or 
lessee of the surface rights on the compensation to be paid for 
the use of the damages to such surface rights, then tiie right 
thereto and the ingress and egress from such mine or mining 
claim may be acquired by condemnation as hereinafter provided. 

Sec. 10. No person, association of persons, corporate or other- 
wise, shall hold or own at one time, by permit or lease, direct or 
through assignment, nor hold or own a controlling interest in 
more than two sections of 640 acres each,* more or less, of sur- 
veyed school land. University, Asylum or other public land, nor 
more than 1,280 acres of islands, lakes, bays, marshes, reefs, or 
imsurveyed school. University or Asylum or other public land 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 263 

in any undeveloped field, nor more than two hundred acres 
within ten miles of any producing oil or gas well. 

Sec. 11. A person or association of persons, corporate or other- 
wise, applying for a permit or lease, shall file with the application 
a sworn statement showing what interest, if any, the applicant 
or each of the members of the association or each stockholder in 
the corporation may hold in any other permit or lease issued b}' 
the State. When the Commissioner is satisfied that the applicant 
is entitled to sueh permit or lease he shall issue the permit for a 
term not to exceed two years, and the lease may be issued for 
such time as the applicant may elect, not to exceed ten years, 
with the right of a renewal or renewals upon such terms and 
conditions as hereinbefore provided. The permit or lease shall 
contain the terms upon which it is issued, and such other matters 
as the Commissioner may deem important to the rights of the 
State or applicant. Should a permit or lease be issued upon a 
statement by the applicant or applicants, or either of them, which 
is false or untrue in any material fact, the Commissioner may 
cancel such permit or lease when sufficiently informed as to 
.such false or imtrue statements. 

Sec. 12. Should the owner of a permit fail or refuse to pro- 
ceed with reasonable diligence in a bona fide effort to develop 
an area included in such permit, the Commissioner of the General 
Xand OfiBce may cancel same. Should the holder of a lease fail 
or refuse to proceed with reasonable diligence and in a bona fide 
effort to develop, operate and put out the product of a producing 
well of petrol^m oil or natural gas at any time during the life 
of a lease, the Commissioner of the General Land Office may 
cancel such lease contract. In the event of a cancellation of a 
permit or lease contract for the causes mentioned in this section, 
the area included therein shall be subject to the application of 
another than the forfeiting owner, in the same manner as in the 
first instance; provided, should a lease covering a producing well 
be canceled an application for a lease of such area or part thereof 
may be made direct to said Commissioner, and a copy of such 
lease shall be filed in the office of the County Clerk. 

Sec. 13. Coal and Lijrnite. — All coal and lignite underlying 
the surface of the lands and waters, as defined by this Act, shall 
be subject to prospect and development under the following terms 
and conditions : 

Any person, firm or corporation desiring to prospect for coal 
and lignite shall file with the clerk of the county in which the 
land is situated his application covering not more than 2,560 acres. 
Said application shall be made in the same manner and form as 
is required by other sections of this Act, and permits shall be 
grants by the Commissioner of the General Land Office author- 
izing such prospect and development upon the following terms 



264 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

and conditions, subject to forfeiture for breach of any of said 
terms and conditions: said permit shall run for a period of 
twenty years with preference right of renewal to lessee for three 
months after the expiration thereof. Lessee shall, within sixty 
days after the granting of said permit, begin to prospect for coid 
and lignite, and shall, within ten months thereafter, sink a shaft 
6x8 feet to coal or lignite, drive a tunnel in said coal or lignite^ 
to a distance of twenty yards, and shall crib said shaft and prop 
said tunnel in strict conformity with specifications to be furnished 
by mine inspector of this State, and shall, within sixty days 
thereafter, begin to mine said coal or lignite, and shall continu- 
ously mine the same, provided same be situated within two miles 
of any railroad ; but, if said coal or lignite be situated more than 
two miles from any railroad, then said lessee shall be allowed five 
years within which to begin to mine said coal and lignite ; pro- 
vided, that in the last named contingency the said five years shall 
not be reckoned as any part of the time covered by said lease. 
The royalty to be paid to the State shall not be less than six 
cents per ton for coal and not less than four cents per ton for 
lignite, for each and every ton of two thousand pounds of said 
product sold. Said royalties shall be due and payable to the 
State monthly, and the same shall be accompanied by a sworn 
statement of the lessee showing the number of tons so mined as 
well as the number of tons sold; provided, further, that the 
royalties herein provided shall, after the third year of operation 
of said mine, equal a minimum of $4.00 per acre for each and 
every acre covered by said lease. Said mine shall be kept in 
continuous operation, barring strikes, lockouts, fires, floods and 
other accidents over which the lessee has tio control; provided, 
further, that said lessee shall not be required to operate said 
mine at a time when the market price for said product is such as 
to cause same to be run at a loss to the lessee. 

Sec. 14. Other Minerals. — ^All other minerals and mineral 
rights that may be in the lands or waters included in Section 1 
of this Act, shall be subject to prospect and development under 
the terms and conditions hereinafter stated. 

Sec. 15. A mining claim upon deposits, veins or lodes of 
quartz or any other rocks, bearing silver, gold, cinnabar, lead, 
tin, iron, copper or any other metallic substance, may equal but 
shall not exceed 1,500 feet in length and 600 feet in width ; such 
claim may be of unlimited depth, but shall be bounded by four 
vertical planes. All claims shall be in the form of a parallelogram 
unless such form is prevented by adjoining rights, and the lo- 
cator shall be entitled to the use of all superficial area bounded 
by the enclosed lines of the claim and to all minerals therein upon 
the terms hereinafter provided. In all conflicts priority of loca- 
tion shall decide. 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 265 

Sec. 16. The locator of any mining claim shall post up at the 
center of one of the end lines of the claim a written notice stating 
the name of the location and of the claim and date of posting, 
and shall describe the claim by giving the number of feet in 
length and width and direction the claim lies in length from the 
notice, together with the section number, if known, and the county, 
and shall place stone or concrete markers at the four comers not 
less than three feet high and otherwise describe the comers so that 
they can be readily found. The notice shall be posted in a con- 
spicuous place so that it can be easily seen. 

Sec. 17. The locator shall, within three months after the date 
of posting the required notices, file with the country clerk of the 
eounty in which the land, or a part of the same, is situated, a 
copy of the notice provided for in Section 16 hereof, together 
with a recording fee of one dollar ($1), and an afSdavit that 
the locator has performed ten feet of work in the shape of tunnels, 
ghaft or open cut on the claim, and within one year from the date 
of the iMMting of the original notice the locator shall file with the 
county surveyor of the county in which the land or a part thereof 
is situated, an application in writing for the survey of the claim, 
giving the name of the daim and such description of its bound- 
ary and location as will enable the surveyor to identify the land. 
The affidavit shall be accompanied by a fee of twenty dollars 
($20) unless its tender is waived, and also with an affidavit 
stating the kind of the claim ; also the date of the first posting 
of the notice on the claim by the applicant, and that the notice 
lias not been post dated or its date changed. Upon receiving the 
application and affidavit and fee, the surveyor shall file the 
application and affidavit, and shall forthwith proceed to survey 
Uie claim. After the field notes are recorded and a plot of the 
sorv^ is made by the surveyor, which shall be within ninety 
days, he shall deliver the application and the affidavit, together 
with the field notes and plat, to the applicant or his agent, who 
shall forward the same within sixty days to the Commissioner of 
the General Land Office, together with one dollar ($1.00) as a r 
filing fee. The fee of twenty dollars ($20) shall cover all charges 
by the surveyor in connection with any one claim. 

Sec. 18. In any mining claim of any character shall be filed 
upon jointly by two or more claimants, and any one or more of 
them shall fail to contribute his proportion of any expenses re- 
quired in this Act within the necessary time the co-owner or co- 
owneis who have paid the fees or other expenditures required by 
this Act may, at the expiration of the time in which the paym^it 
is required to be made, and after the same has been made, give 
notice in writing to such defaulting co-owner, or if such default- 
ing oo-owner cannot be found, then by publication in a newspaper 
published in the county where the claim is situated, or if no such 



266 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

newspaper be published in such county, then in the newspaper 
published nearest thereto, at least once a week for four successive 
weeks. If, after such publication notice, such delinquent shall 
fail or refuse to contribute his proportion of the expenditures 
required, his interests in the claim shall cease and shall be for- 
feited to the co-owner or co-owners who have made the required 
expenditures. An affidavit of such co-owner or co-owners of the 
claim, accompanied with notices given, shall, when recorded in 
the office of the county clerk, be sufficient evidence of such de- 
linquency and forfeiture. 

Sec. 19. Claims usualy called placers, including all forms of 
metallic deposits, excepting those described in Section 15, as 
well as any mining claim covering deposits of kaolin, baryta, salt, 
marble, fire clay, gypsum, nitrates, mineral paints, asbestos, marl, 
natural cement, clay, onyx, mica, precious stones or any other 
non-metallic minerals and stones valuable for ornamental or 
building material, shall be subject to location and entry and lease 
on the same terms and conditions and upon similar proceedings 
as are provided herein for vein or lode claims ; provided, all placer 
claims located shall conform as nearly as practicable to existing 
surveys and their sub-divisions, and no placer claim shall include 
more than forty acres, and no aggregation of individual claims 
shall exceed three hundred and twenty acres. After the location 
of any mining claim and survey thereof and the registration 
thereof in the office of the General Land Commissioner, as here- 
inbefore provided, the locator shall be entitled to the exclusive 
uses and possession thereof so long as the locator shall continue 
to do the amount of work upon such claims equivalent to one 
hundred dollars ($100) worth of labor per annum; provided, that 
an affidavit shall be filed before the expiration of each and everj^ 
year, setting forth in detail the development work that has been 
done that year, with an itemized statement of the value thereof. 
Such statement shall be filed in the office of the Commissioner of 
the General Land Office, also in the office of the county clerk 
.of the county where such mining claim is located, or the county 
to which such county is attached for judicial purposes. The 
Commissioner of the General Land Office may, at his discretion, 
require additional proof that such development work has heexi 
done. 

Sec. 20. In fiill payment to the State for the right to take 
from any mining claim of any character described in Sections 15 
and 19, any mineral wealth or deposit whatever, whether metallic 
or non-metallic, the owner or holder of such daim shall pay unto 
the State a royalty or rental equivalent to five per centum of the 
total gross output sold or disposed of from such mine or mining 
claim of any character therein defined. If any locator shall fail 
to post the location notice or to file with the county clerk tho 



The Mineral Besaurces of Texas 267 

• 

location notice and afSdavit, or shall fail to file with the county 
surveyor the application for survey and affidavit hereinbefore 
required, or shall fail to file with the Commissioner of the Gen- 
eral Land Office the application, affidavit, file notice and plat 
hereinbefore required; or shall fail to comply with any of the 
terms or conditions herein required, such claim shaQ be subject 
to forefeiture by the Commissioner of the General Land Office 
by an endorsement upon such application theretofore filed of 
the word ** forfeited,'' signed officially by him, and thereupon all 
rights in such mining claim and rights of the locator or claimant 
in such mining claim shall utterly cease and determine, and the 
same shall be subject to relocation ; provided, that the Commis- 
sioner of the General Land Office may, upon satisfactory showing 
to him why such conditions or requirements were not complied 
with, reinstate such claim upon the written request of one or 
more of the locators, claimants or owners, filed in his office ; pro- 
vided, further, that no rights of any others have intervened at 
the date of filing of such request in the General Land Office. 
One interested in the claim at the date it was forfeited shall not 
be eligible to relocate or file upon the same land or in behalf of 
any other person within a period of six months next ensuing 
after such forfeiture, and any attempt to make such location by 
.such person shall be wholly void. 

Sec. 21. Any locator, claimant or owner of any mining claim 
under this Act is authorized to fell and remove for building and 
mining purposes any timber or any trees growing or being upon 
any unoccupied public lands under such rules and regulations 
as the Conunissioner of the General Land Office may, from time 
to time, provide for the protection of timber and other growth 
upon such lands and such other purposes. 

Sec. 22. Nothing in this Act contained shall ever be construed 
to destroy, invalidate or impair any valid claim, right or interest 
existing in, to or concerning any lands whatsoever at the date of 
the passage of this Act, or of any pre-emptor, purchaser, claim- 
ant, settler, locator or any other person whatsoever. 

Sec. 23. The locator or owner of a mining claim shall have 
the right to occupy within the limits of his claim so much of the 
surface ground as is strictly neccssaiy for the use and exploita- 
tion of the mineral deposits and for the buildings and works nec- 
essary for mining operations and for the treating and smelting 
of the ore produced on such claims and to occupy within and 
without the limits of his claim the necessar>^ land for right of 
way, for ingress and egress to and from his claim, for roadways, 
or railways; provided, that if the locator or owner of the mineral 
right cannot agree with the owner or lessee of the surface right 
in regard to the acquiring of same and in regard to the compen- 
sation for the injury incident to the opening and the working 



268 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

of such mine and the access thereto, he may apply to the judge of 
the county court of the county in which such mining claim is 
located, by filing a written petition setting forth with a sufficient 
description the property and surface right sought to be taken and 
the purpose for which the same is to be taken, and it shall be 
the duty of such county judge of such county to appoint three 
disinterested freeholders to examine, pcuss upon and determine 
the damages and compensation to be paid to the owner of such 
surface right or other property necessary to be taken, and the 
proceedings for acquiring or condemning such surface right or 
other property shall, at all times, so far as possible, be covered by 
the laws relating to the condemnation of rights of way for rail- 
way companies, the locator or owner of such mining claim oc- 
cupying the position of the railway company, and an appeal may 
be taken from the decision of the commissioners upon the same 
terms and conditions and subject to the same regulations and 
qualifications prescribed by law for the condemnation of right 
of way for railways. 

Sec. 24. Upon all lands of any character heretofore sold or 
leased by the State in which the minerals or mineral rights were 
reserved to the State, the public free school fund University fund, 
Asylum or other fund, the grantee or lessee, as the case may be, 
shall have the prior right for six months after date upon which 
this Act shall take effect to prospect, locate and apply for the 
mineral rights upon such land heretofore sold or leased to him, 
and after the expiration of such six months such preference or 
priority right shall cease and such grantee or lessee shall have 
no prior or preference rights over any other prospector or lo- 
cator. 

Sec. 25. The holder of a permit, a lease, a prospecting right, 
or any other right acquired under this Act may relinqmsh one 
or more of such permits, leases, claims or pi^ospector's claims at 
any time by filing a relinquishment in the General Land Office 
after it is duly recorded by the clerk of the proper county, but 
such holder shall not be entitled to a refund of any sum paid 
thereon. 

Sec. 26. The Commissioner of the General Land Office shall 
collect and transmit to the State Treasurer all money derived 
from the development of any minerals or substance named herein 
and found on the public free school land or other public land, 
and it shall be credited to the permanent free school fund or 
other fund to which the land from which such money is derived 
is set apart. All money derived from the development of any 
mineral or substances named herein and found on other than 
public free school land. University or Asylum land, shall be 
credited to the game, fish and oyster fund for the use of that de- 
partment. All fees shall be credited to the g^eral revenue in 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 269 

the iDiaimer provided by law for other fees paid into the General 
Land Office. 

Sec. 27. All development in water or on islands, marshes and 
reefi9 shall be done under such r^ulations as will prevent the 
pollution of the water, and for the prevention of such pollution 
the Game, Fish and Oyster Commissioner may be called upon for 
assistance in the adoption and enforcement of rules and regula- 
tions for the protection of said waters. For a violation of such 
rules and regulations the Commissioner of the General Land Of- 
fice may revoke a permit or cancel a lease. 

Sec. 28. The rights acquired under this Act shall be subject 
to taxation as is other property after the owner shall have paid 
to the State the sums necessary to perfect his rights. 

Sec. 29. The issuance of a permit or lease or the filing of a 
prospector's affidavit on unsold land included within this Act 
shall not prevent the sale of the land without minerals on which 
such mineral or mining claim may be located under the laws 
applicable to such land, but in case of such sale after an appli- 
catioii has been filed with the county clerk so herein provided^ 
the purchaser of such land shall not b^ entitled to any part of 
the proceeds of such minerals or mining location, nor other com- 
pensation, nor shall such purchaser have any action for damages 
done to such land by or resulting from the proper working of or 
operation under such permit, lease or prospector's daim. 

Sec. 30. The Commissioner of the General Land Office shall 
liave general supervision of all matters necessary for the proper 
administration of the purpose of this Act, and he is authorized 
to adopt rules and regulations and to alter or amend them from 
time to time as may appear necessary for the protection of the 
interest involved and the execution of the purposes of this Act 
not inconsistent with its provisions and the Constitution of the 
State. 

Sec. 31. No individual, firm, association of persons or cor- 
porations shall be entitled to locate or lease more than five min- 
ing claims of any character defined in Section 15 and 19, and 
any location or lease made contrary to this section shall be void ; 
provided, however, that upon coal or lignite mines or deposits 
any one individual, firm, association of persons or corporation 
shall be entitled to locate or lease a total area not to exceed 
twenty-five hundred and sixty (2560) acres. 

Sec. 32. If any provision of this bill shall be held to be un- 
constitutional either as applied to any character of land or water 
described in Section 1, or in any other respect, such decision 
shall not be construed to invalidate the provisions of this Act 
with regard to any other character of land (or) waters described 
in Section 1 or any other provision of this Act. 

Sec. 33. Chapter 1, Title 93, of the Revised Civil Statutes of 



270 BvUetin of the Universiiy of Texas 

1911, relating to mines and mining, and all other laws and parts of 
laws relating to the sale of mineral lands are hereby repealed. 

Sec. 34. The fact that there is no adequate statute by which 
the mineral resources of this State can be properly developed on 
the public lands and the waters of the State, creates an emer- 
gency, and an imperative public necessity exists that the consti- 
tutional rule requiring bills to be read on three several days in 
each house should be suspended, and that this should be placed 
upon its third reading and final passage, and take effect from 
and after its passage. 

Approved April 9, 1913. 



CHAPTER VII. 

LOCATION, ELEVATION AND POPULATION OF CITIES, 

TOWNS AND VILLAGES. 

Under "Population" the figures are from the census of 1910, ex- 
cept those marked *, which are4for the year 1912-1913. 

The highest point in the State appears to be El Capitan Peak. 
Guadalupe Mountains, Culberson county, 8690 feet. The highest 
town is Fort Davis, Jeff Davis county, 4927 feet. 

The county towns are printed in capital letters. 

Place. County. Elevation. Population. 

Abbott Hill 713 475 

Abernathy Hale 3,310 160 

ABILENE Taylor 1.719 12,806* 

Abneys Harrison . 304 

Acampo Shackelford 1,885 

Acme . . . .- .Hardeman 1,517 75 

Adams Bexar 718 

Addicks Harris 100 26 

Addison Dallas 625 65 

Adkins Bexar 546 183 

Adrian Orange 25 . 

Adsul Newton 102 

Ady Potter 3,140 

Afton Dickens 3,249 45 

Aguilares Webb 617 30 

Aiken Floyd 3,261 

Akron Smith 382 

Alamo Cass 242 54 

Alanreed Gray 2,993 250 

Alba Wood 447 625 

ALBANY Shackelford 1,410 999 

Alco Angelina 312 

Aldrldge Robertson 135 

Aledo Parker 874 2!50> 

Aleman Hamilton 1,168 

Alexander Erath 1,165 38r 

Alfalfa El Paso . 3,687 

Algerita San Saba 1,300 

Algoa Galveston 37 80* 

ALICE Jim Wells 205 2,136: 

Allef Harris 86 112! 

AUamore El Paso 4,530 

Allen Collin 652 26(^ 

Allendale • • .Wichita 1,016 

AUenfarm Brazos 205 67 

Allenhurst Matagorda , 45 .... 

Alley Hale 3,322 

Alleyton Colorado 188 25i 

Alma Ellis 473 158 

Almeda Harris 66 63 

Aloe Victoria Ill 



272 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

Place. County. ElevaUon. PopulaUon. 

ALPINE Brewster 4,481 800 

Altalr Colorado 207 150 

Alta Loma Galveston 25 160 

Alto Cherokee 433 672 

Alton Hidalgo 166 

Altuda Brewster 4,638 

Alum Wilson 360 25 

Alvarado Johnson 693 1,156 

Alvln Brazoria 51 1,468 

Alvord Wise 880 1,028 

Amanda Kinney . ^ . <m 1,086 

AMARILLO Potter . T 3,676 13,685^ 

Ambia Lamar 663 64 

Ambrose Grayson 52^ 

Amelia Jefferson 31 21 

Ames Liberty 78 

Amherst Lamb 3,701 

Amigo Smith 376 

Anacacho Kinney 1,349 

ANAHUAC Chambers 23 300 

Anchor Brazoria 41 60 

ANDERSON Grimes 368 572 

Andrews Caldwell 341 

Andy Cherokee 326 

Ange Uvalde 1,007 

Angelina Angelina 216 34 

ANOLBTON Brazoria 31 898 

Angus ., Navarro 444 29 

Anna .' Collin 707 402 

Annarene Archer 1,171 

Anneta Parker 847 63 

Annona Red River 370 429 

Auson Jones 1,716 1,842 

Antelope Jack 4,206 166 

Antelope Gap Mills 1,488 

Anthony Fannin 529 

AiiviUe Wilson 449 

Appleby Nacogdoches 405 208 

Aquilla Hill 626 450 

Aragon Presidio 4,900 

Arunsas Pass San Patricio 5 1,197 

Arcadia Galveston 33 168 

Archer City Archer 1,085 825* 

Areola Port Bend 67 76 

Arsyle Denton 659 197 

Arlola Hardin 41 

Arlou Milam 464 

Arlspe El Paso 4,366 

Arlington Tarrant 616 1,794 

Armstrong Washington 26 

Armstrong Williamson 600 

Arno Reeves 2,663 60 

Arnold Collin 167 29 

Aroya Ward 2,663 

Arp Smith 499 

Artesia LaSalle 461 60 

Artesia Wells ^.LaSalle 440 

Arthur City '.Lamar 426 168 



The Mineral Betources of Texas 



Ash Henderson 644 

Aahwood Matagorda 58 

Asbworth Trinity 200 

Aaia Polk 226 

Aspermont Stonewall 1,773 

ATHENS Henderson 490 

AtklaBoa WUllanison 685 

Atlanta Cass 264 

Atlas Lamar 515 

Aubrey Denton 681 

Aue Bexar 1,131 

AagustUfl Garza 

AUSTIN Travis 

Avery Red River 

Avlng«r Cass . . . 

Avoca Jones 

Avondale Tarrant 

Axtell McLennan 524 

Bacon Wichita 1,044 

&aESetts McLennan 667 

Baffvell Red River 476 

Bailey Fannin 706 

BAIRD Callahan 1,708 

Baker Cottle 1,740 

Pecos 2,513 

Harrison 214 

Dallas 450 

Runnels 1,630 

Bandera 1,268 

Brown 1,603 

Nuecea S2 

Wilbarger 1,426 

Ellis 478 

Sarker Harrla 109 

Samhart Irion 2,549 

Samam Polk 222 

Sarreda Cameron 38 

Sarry Navarro 602 

Barttow Ward 2,667 

Trinity 243 

Williamson 699 

Sasaett Bowie 246 

BASTROP Bastrop 368 

Bastrop 473 

Zavalla . , . : 700 

Eastland 1,600 

Henderson 482 

Matagorda 65 

Bay PraIHe Matagorda 40 

Bayrlew Galveston 26 

Beach Montgomery 212 

Beadle Matagorda 37 

Beaaley Port Bend 112 

Beaakisa Williamson 602 

BEAUMONT Jefferson 21 



2,421 




466 


33,218' 


478 




397 


600 


1,530 


200 


845 


IS 



>74 BuUetm of the University of Texas 

Place. County. 

Beckvllle Panola 

Bee Caves Travis 

BEBVILLE Bee 

Belcher Montague 



Elevation. I 


^opulatio 


326 


606 


960 


23 


214 


3,269 


887 


181 



Belding Pecos 3.196 . ..... 

Belen Kl Paso 3,652 25 

Bellalre Harris 62 

Bellcamp Young 1,Z08 . ..... 

Bellevue Clay 1,029 413 

Bells Oravson 674 4»o- 

Belt JuncUon Tarrant 91 'rxzx 

BELLVILLE Austin 263 1,07b. 

Belleville Yard Austin 200 •!•••; 

BELTON Bell 511 4,164 

Belton Junction Bell 530 

Benamold Milam 392 250 

Benavldes Duval 390 233 

Benbrook Tarrant 658 76 

Benchley Kobertson 301 80 

Bencini Newton 107 

Bender Harris 79 '"'' 

Benford Polk 234 25 

Ben Franklin Delta 465 400 

BENJAMIN Knox 1.456 400 

Bennetts Palo Pinto 747 200 

Benoit Runnels 1,716 25 

Benonlne Wheeler 2,142 160 

Ben West Jackson 37 

Berclair Goliad 194 250 

Bergs Bexar 542 

Berkshire Wise 834 

Bemlcker Fisher 2,137 

Bertram Burnet 1,268 450 

Berwick Jack 1,093 

Bessemer Llano 1,009 

Bessmay Jasper 92 850 

Bethel •Tarrant ^94 

Bettle Upshur 330 284 

Big Cypress Camp 349 

Big Lake Reagan 2,677 400 

Big Sandv Upshur 336 750 

BIG SPRINO ^Howard 2,397 4,102. 

Big Wells Dlmmitt 532 

Blllum Tyler 182 

Birds Tarrant 723 

Blsbee Tarrant 705 

Bishop Nueces 495 

Blssell Armstrong 300 

Blvlns Cass 314 302 

Bixby Cameron 65 

Black Parmer 3,944 

Blackwell Nolan 2,100 

Blair Taylor 2.002 25 

Blair Liberty 351 

Blanchard Polk 222 . ..... 

Blanco Blanco 1,250 469 

Blanket Brown 1.601 425 

Blanks Caldwell 562 



Elevation. 


Population. 


100 


25 


44 


400 


170 




266 


25 


58 




309 


400 


599 


903 


61 


25 


530 


871 


475 


30 


880 


436 


1,000 


48 


582 


600 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 275 

Place. County. 

Bleakwood Newton 

Blessing Matagorda 

Blix Angelina 

Blocker Harrison 

Blodgett • .Harris 

Bloomburg Cass 

Blooming Grove .... Navarro 

Bloomington Victoria 

Blossom .Lamar 

Blue Lee 

Bluffdale Erath 

Bluffton Llano 1,000 

Blum Hill 

Bobo Shelby 320 

BOERNE Kendall 1,405 886 

Bogata Red River 418 247 

Boise Deaf Smith 3,955 

Boling Wharton 83 

Bolton LaSalle 433 

Bomarton Baylor 1,409 

Bon Ami Jasper 

BONHAM Fannin 

Bonita Montague 

Bonita Junction Nacogdoches 

Bonney Brazoria 

Bonus Wharton 

Bon Wier Newton 

Booth Fort Bend 

Boracho Culberson 4,451 

Borden Colorado 293 

Bovina Parmer 4,064 200 

Bowers Polk 255 

Bowie Montague 1,125 2,874 

Bowieville Matagorda 30 

Boyce Ellis 519 160 

Boyd Wise 738 550 

Boynton Angelina 276 

BRACKETTVILLB . . Kinney 1,100 925 

Braden Bexar 1,319 

Bradshaw Taylor 1,976 120 

BRADY McCulloch 1,670 2,669 

Bragg Hardin 124 

Brambleton Tarrant 649 

Brand Scurry 2,365 

Brandenburg Stonewall 1,674 

Brandon Hill 

Bransford Tarrant 

Brashear Hopkins 

Bravo Hartley 

Brazoria Brazoria 

Brazos Palo Pinto 

BRECKENRIDGE . . .Stephens 1,200 

Bremond Robertson 

BRENHAM Washington 

Bridgeport Wise 

Brin Kaufman 

Britton Ellis 

Broadus San Augustine 



409 


400 


148 


35 


568 


4,844 


929 


375 


354 




51 


27 


144 


63 


76 


100 


76 


50 



621 


401 


665 


76 


513 


26 


4,161 




32 


633 


801 


175 


1,200 


750 


466 


808 


332 


4,714 


754 


2,000 


538 




560 


260 


240 


120 



276 BuUetin of tlu Univvaity of Texoi 

Place. ConntT. maratlon. Popnlatlon. 

Bronaoa BaMne 82« B50 

Bronte Cok. 1,898 8« 

Brookesmith Brown . M« 160 

Brootahlre Waller IM 700 

Brookiton Lamar 690 237 

Broome Sterling 2,211 

Brougbton Cherokee 688 

Browndel Jaaper 227 ■•■i" 

Terry tit 

Henderson 878 SS 

Cameron 88 12,810* 

Brown 1,842 «,967 

Brucertllo McLennan 692 326 

BrundagB ?'"""'" S" 

Brunswick Cherokee 862 •";;; 

BRYAN Braaoa 867 4,132 

Im^ ... .Jack 1,227 350 

Rnckere Matagorda 43 40 

iSckfoH- :: M""",/-^ ,5" ''** 

■ Bud Matthews Shackelford 1,760 -■■■;; 

Bn(Ia Hays 716 460 

RiiniAH Garza 2,B19 

iXto . . -Leon 397 810 

BSSloOap Taylor 1.979 249 

Rnlcher Cooke 749 

iSiilS;:. amiti. "J «« 

Bunker BlU J"P.r ■ '• 

Bnrdette Caldwell «8 

bSJ" .:: WlchlU l.OM 

BmrMurnett Wleuu l.OH ...... 

Bute Anwllna 27! 1«1 

BirkUsd Wllll«m<0» 711 ...... 

Bsrleioii Jolmeoii 70! SSI 

iSflSSr:::::::::™.^:::.-.-.-::::::: -iji 

BURNBT Burnet 1,294 981 

Burr Wharton 97 

Burrla Lubbtwk 8,106 

BurroughB ., Austta 148 . ..... 

Burton Washington 416 485 

Buih Land Potter 8,788 40 

Bntlen .Bastrop 481 

i™ . Clay 1,067 800 

Snnm Hill 668 SEO 

Byrd Dimmitt 600 

Cabell Tort Bend 88 

Cabra Tal Verde 1,417 

OactUB Webb 607 81 

Caddo Mills Hunt 688 660 

CalaUen SH?^" Ji .52 

Cataveras Wll«on 418 869 

CALDWELL Burleson 406 1,478 

naief Tarrant 888 

cSl Newton »B 100 

^^Slan Mwiard 2,080 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 277 

Place. County. Elevation. Population. 

Calvert Robertson 335 2,579 

Calvin Nueces 469 

Camden Polk 305 66 

CAMERON Milam 390 3,263 

Carney Denton 610 

Campbell Hunt 585 508 

Campbellton Atascosa 244 27 

Canaan Limestone 414 

CANADIAN Hemphill 2,340 1,648 

CANTON Van Zandt 600 

Cantrell Nacogdoches 343 

Canutillo El Paso 3,751 

Canyon Stephens 1,150 

Canyon City Randall 3,566 

Caplen Galveston 12 30 

Capron Haskell 1,567 

Carbon Eastland 1,591 479 

Carbondflile Bowie 252 

Carey Childress 1,789 60 

Cariker Nacogdoches 369 

Carl Navarro 354 

Carlos Grimes 255 

Carlsbad Tom Green 2,011 

Carlyle Clay 972 

Carmine Payette 447 400 

Carmona Polk 254 42 

Carney Haskell 1,560 

Caro Nacogdoches 426 

Carpenter Bexar 501 60 

Carrizo Springs Dimmitt 600 860 

CarroUton Dallas 448 526 

Carmth Dallas 612 

Carson Fannin 2,866 

Carthage Panola 292 1,350 

Cartwright Kaufman 453 

Camthera Angelina 326 

Caah Hunt 494 60 

Morris 337 205 

Cass 241 98 

isin Bexar 628 

<3«8tell Llano 1,207 112 

^^WM,t Springs Austin 307 406 

CT^^lar Kaufman 331 

C7^dar Creek Bastrop 445 296 

CT^^tar HUl Dallas 820 242 

O^dwLT Lane Matagorda 27 

ir Park Williamson 812 21 

ir Valley Travis 1.179 16 

tc Crosby 3,173 

ite Hunt 660 821 

Collin 663 724 

r^dftCer Shelby 345 1,684 

Point Kerr 450 1,578 

Leon 400 

Lampasas 1,864 

Dallam 8,952 

or Pecos 8,397 

Angelina 290 




1.877 


3,818 


1,400 


1,207 


425 


400 



278 BuUetin of the Unimrsity of Texas 

Place. Connty. Blevation. PopuUUon. 

Henderson iOO S41 

Harrla 58 

Hartley 8,817 800 

Chappell HIU Washington ^ . 317 813 

Cbapman Runnels 1,919 

Cbarlotte Atascosa 645 

Chatterton Harrison 294 

Chautauqua Callahan 1,626 

Checkup Cherokee 427 

Cheek Jefferson 21 25 

Cheetham Colorado 264 

Chenango drazoria 461 

Cheneyboro Mavarro 250 100 

Cherokee San Saba 1,49S 260 

Chester i yler 237 200 

ChestervlUe Colorado 158 100 

Chew Anderson 371 

Chfco Wise 942 642 

Chihuahua Hidalgo 124 

CHILDRESS Childress 

ChiUlcothe Hardeman 

Chilton Palls 

China JeOerBOn 45 

Chireno Nacogdoches 318 

ChlBpa Jeff Davis 4,079 

Chita Jefferson 41 

Choctaw Irayson : 578 

Chorn Scurry 3,307 

Chrlesmaa Burleson 452 

Christine Ataecosa 667 

Chrlstoval Tom Green 2,000 

Clbolo CUiadalupe 718 

Clma Tyler 292 

Clrclevllle WlIllamBon 550 

Cisco Eastland 1,608 

Citrus Grove Matagorda 24 

CLAIHEMONT Kent 2.127 

Clalrette Krath 1,093 

Clara Bee 134 

CLARENDON Donley 2,727 

Clarke Calhoun 31 

CLARKSVILLB Red River 442 

CLAUDE Armstrong 3,406 

Clawson Angelina 372 

Clay Burleson .' 208 

Clearfork "aldwell 567 

Clear Fork Jones 1,506 

Clear Lake Collin 

CLEBURNE lohnson 

Cleveland ' ibprty 

Clpvenger Nacogdoches .... 

Click I.lano 

Cllffslde Potter 

Clifton riosqiie 670 

C!lfton-by-the-aee . . • "itlveaton 20 

Climax Nacogdoches 200 

Cline (Tvalde 1,000 

Clint !I Paso 3,63l> 



764 


11,587' 


160 




22f 


100 


1.050 


19 


3.408 





The Mineral Resources of Texas 279 

Place. Countf. Elevation. Population. 

Clinton Harris 667 

CUp GoUad 230 

Clodlne Fort Bend 99 24 

Clopton Bastrop 506 

Closner Hidalgo 119 

Clyde Callahan 1.980 495 

Coahoma Howard 2,399 350 

Coatee Taylor 1,940 25 

Cobbs Kaufman 623 200 

Cobum LIpacomb 2,644 20 

Codman Roberts 2,885 

San Jacinto 439 

ColemaD 1,690 3,046 

...Coleman 1,680 

MaUBorda 13 200 

College SUUon Brazos 346 

Collins Nueces 184 

Colllnsville Grayson 744 791 

Colmeaneil Tyler 295 632 

Goliad 130 34 

Mitchell 2,067 1,840 

Brazoria 34 612 

Colorado 201 1,824 

Comanche 1,358 2,756 

Combes Cameron 38 

Comfort Kendall 1,429 600 

Commerce Hunt 648 2,818 

Como Hopkins 632 650 

Comstock Val Verde 1,650 63 

Comyn Comanche 1,241 40 

Concord Hardin 36 100 

Conejo Presidio 4,906 

Conlen Dallam 2,927 

Conley JobnsoQ 746 

Connell Orange 22 

CONROE Montgomery 213 1,374 

Converse Bexar 713 63 

Conway CarBon 3,419 

Cook's Point Burleson 308 87 

Cook's Springs Grayson 636 

Cookville Titus 422 426 

Cooledge Limestone 535 200 

COOPER Delta 495 1,513 

Copevllle Coliln 561 204 

Coppell Dallas 516 118 

Copperas Cove Coryell 1,086 600 

Coraleta Bexar 518 

Corbet Navarro 397 69 

Corbyn Comal 663 

Corinth Denton 579 41 

Corlena Dallam 4.520 200 

Coriey Bowie 295 66 

CORPUS CHRISTI . .Nueces 35 9,720* 

Corrigan Polk 226 461 

CORSICANA Navarro 418 9.934* 

Cortes Matagorda 66 

Coston Archer 1,203 

COTULLA LaSalle 442 1,880 



280 BvUatin of th9 Vnherntv of Textu 

Place, Conntr. BleTattoa. Population. 

Cousbntn AtaacosB S4S 

Couplond WllllamBon 626 800 

Courchflane El Paso 3,720 

Courtse; Gnmes 18S 228 

Covington HUl 76« 800 

• Cowart Tyler 2S6 

Cowen Wiae 878 

CoBart Taylor 1,990 

Crabb Port Bend 87 

Craft .Cherokee 498 14 

Craig VIctoHa 124 

Crandall Kaufman 480 COO 

Cranell Refugio 47 

Crawford McLennan 687 61« 

Creamer Comanche 1,231 26 

Creedmoor TraTts 630 146 

Cresaon Hood 1.047 279 

Crtap EIUo 399 84 

Houston 360 8,947 

Harris 4S 160 

CroBbr 8,068 120 

Crou Qrimes 3G6 126 

CroM Plalna Callaban 1,710 300 

CroM Timbsra Harris 76 

Qrimes 228 

Foard 1,468 1,341 

Crowley Tarrant 764 276 

Crum Anderson 850 

CrysUl City Zavalla 680 860 

CrfBtal Falls Stephens 1,000 

Crystal Lake Anderson 306 

CUBRO DeWltt 177 2,109 

Cnmby Hopkins 036 700 

Currto Navarro 410 

CuBhiDg Naeosdoches 420 600 

Cuyler Carson 3,462 

Cypress Harris 144 126 

Cypress MiU Blanco 976 38 

DaCosU Victoria 67 

DacuB Montgomery 261 100 

Dalian Travis 610 

DAINQERFIBLD Morris 897 1,100 

Dakln Tonng 1,189 

Dalberg .El Paso 4,186 

Dale CaldweU 620 96 

DALHART Dallam 3,986 2,680 

DALLAS Dallas 428 92,104* 

Dallas Junction Tarrant 31 

Daliell Brown 1,468 

Danbury Brazoria 28 40 

Danforth Hockley 3,841 

Darden Springs Lee 444 

Darling Mavertck 920 

Darnoc San Saba 1,168 

Daugberty Kaufman 469 

Daupbin Henderson 366 

Davenport Red River 798 



m 
m 

The Minei \'^ .e^iources of Texas 281 

Place. County. Elevation. Population. 

Dayidson Burleson 346 

Davy Hill 615 

X>awn Deaf Smith 3,758 

Dawson Navarro 482 803 

Dayton .Liberty 84 650 

Dean Clay 974 

Deanville Burleson 355 106 

Deaver Grayson 619 

DECATUR Wise 1,058 1,651 

Deepwater Harris 42 59 

Deerpark Harris 39 26 

DeKalb Bowie 407 650 

Delaware .Brown 1,457 

Deleon Comanche 1,268 1,015 

Delery Matagorda 57 

Delhi .Caldwell 529 37 

Delphine Jefferson 11 

DEL RIO Val Verde 948 4,000 

Delrose Upshur 346 

Denison Grayson 723 14.409* 

Denny .Falls 507 

DENTON Denton 620 4,732 

Deport Lamar 415 700 

Derby Prio 542 30 

Dermott Scurry 2,442 

Dessau Travis 

Detroit Red River 

Devers Liberty 

Devil's River Val Verde 

Devine Medina 

DeWalt Fort Bend 

D'Hanis Medina 

Dial Fannin 

Dialville Cherokee T . . . 

DiboU Angelina 

Dickens Dickens 

Dickinson Galveston 

Dickworsham Clay 

Dilley Frio 

Dillworth Gonzales 

Dime Box Lee 

Dinero Live Oak 

Dinsmore Wharton 

Dixieland Reeves 

Dixon Hunt 

Dobbin Montgomery 

Dobson LaSalle 

Dockville Nacogdoches 

Dodd City Fannin* 

Dodge Walker 

DodsonviUe Collingsworth 1,730 

Dolores Brazoria 32 

Donie Freestone 490 100 

Donna Collin 88 28 

Donovan Angelina 299 

Don-Tol Wharton 75 

Dora Nolan 2,518 100 

Dorchester Grayson 861 100 



675 


16 


482 


1,056 


58 


187 


966 


•••••• 


670 


1,042 


75 


49 


881 


266 


500 




494 


250 


252 


100 


2,200 


375 


21 


250 


888 




586 


500 


288 


120 


372 


129 


117 


17 


97 




2,681 


20 


509 


74 


239 


168 


495 




256 




669 




402 


350 




282 BuUetin of the Univergiiy of TeMt 



Place. County. Eleratton. Population. 

Dorso Val Verde 1,466 

Doty Orange 26 

Dothan Eastland 1,614 76 

Doucette Tyler 299 60 

Douro Ector 3,080 

Dowell Fisher 266 

Downman Jasper 137 

Downsvllle McLennan 894 134 

Doyle Limestone 484 

Draper Bowie 242 

Driscoll Nueces 166 

Druso Houston 219 100 

Dryden Terrell 2,104 60 

Dublin Erath 1,450 2,661 

Duff .Shelby 468 

Dugger Garza 2,690 

Duke Fort Bend 72 26 

Dulls LaSalle 361 

Dumas Moore 3,638 200 

Dumont Harris 40 

Dunagan Angelina 306 

Duncan Hartley 3,913 

Duncanville Dallas 727 150 

Dundee Archer 1,143 250 

Dune Lynn 3,067 

Dunham Nacogdophes 278 

Dunlay Medina 997 72 

Dunn Fayette 332 

Durham Borden 258 

Durst Angelina 325 

Duster Comanche 1,390 126 

Duval Travis 650 

Dyer Fo^:t Bend 116 

Dyersdale Harris 62 

Eagle Plat El Paso 4,450 

Eagle Ford Dallas 441 54 

Eagle Lake Colorado 170 1,717 

Eagle Pass Maverick 735 3,536 

Earls Parker 896 

East Bernard Wharton 121 260 

East Columbia Brazoria 34 

East Dallas Dallas 465 

Easterly Robertson 386 46 

Eastgate Liberty 82 

EASTLAND Eastland 1.421 855 

Easton Rusk 

East Temple Polk 

East Winnsboro Wood 

Ebenezer Hidalgo 

Echo Bell 

Echo Orange 

Ector Fannin 

Edburke Brazoria 

Eddy McLennan 

Eden Concho 

Edgar DeWitt 

Edgewood Van Zandt 



^ w ^ 

241 




525 




45 




642 




19 




652 


404 


32 . 




672 


575 


733 


450 


323 


79 


460 


550 



Blevatlon. 


Population 


422 




32 




72 


1,144 


106 




972 




838 


100 


119 


25 


298 




459 




39 




110 


1,778 


2.357 


25 


1,229 


640 


514 




577 


1,707 


950 




33 




390 


600 


487 




157 




458 




289 


488 


379 


41 


40 





The Mineral Resources of Texas 288 

Place. €k>ii]ity. 

:EDINBURa Hidalgo 

IBdmondB '. . .Brazoria 

IBDNA Jackson 

lEdroy San Patricio 

Sidwarda Clay 

^Egan Johnson 

'WsgTPt Wharton 

:Elckhoff TitUB 

IBlam Dallas 

El Buey Harris 

Ill Campo Wharton 

:E:idrldge Terrell 

lElectra Wichita 1,229 

lElevation Milam 

;iClgin Bastrop 

ZEliasville Stephens 

'Elizabeth Hardin 

"Slkhart Anderson 

IBlkton Smith 

:Ella Jim Wells 

'Ellard Hunt 

:Bllinger Payette 

"Elliott Robertson 

"Elmaton . •. Matagorda 

:i:imdale Taylor 1,786 

Elmendorf Bexar 506 300 

Elmmott McLennan 518 247 

Elmo Kaufman 504 410 

Elna Wise 935 

Bl Par Jim Wells 161 

EL PASO El Paso 3,711 49,505* 

El Toro Jackson 75 

Elvista Jefferson 7 

Emerson Terrell 3,090 

Emhouse .Navarro 475 225 

EMORT Rains 564 426 

Enal . Angelina 172 

Encinal LaSalle 575 627 

Engle Payette 364 226 

Englewood Harris 430 

Enloe . Delta 495 326 

Ennis Ellis 548 5,669 

Enos Waller 126 

Eppler Garza 2,244 

Erin Jasper 59 21 

EskoU Fisher 1.939 150 

Estelline Hall 1,759 400 

Etholen El Paso 4.646 

Etoile Nacogdoches 314 40 

Eunice Swlsber 3,432 

Eureka Harris 71 

Eustace Henderson 430 250 

Evadale Jasper 42 

Evans nonley 3,117 

Evans •^•.« • glHardeman 1,530 

Evansville Leon 425 

Ewelder San Patricio 51 

Swing Angelina 312 



2S4 BiOletin of the University of Texas 

Place. ConDtr. ElAvatlon. Population. 

Exit Hartley 3.82B 

Experimental Farm . .Hldalso 182 

Eyiau Bowie 339 

EzellB Ellia 491 

Fabens El Paso 3,612 25 

Fairbanks Harris 94 71 

Falrland Burnet 973 60 

Falrlie .Hunt 649 248 

Fair Plains Cooke 783 

Faker Camp 819 

FALPURRIAS Brooks 119 760 

Fallon Limestone E04 

Palls City Karnes 309 800 

Fancber Baylor 1364 

Fannett Jefferson 20 80 

Fannin Goliad 143 200 

Fant City Live Oak 200 

Faber Angelina 306 

Farmers Branch .... Dallas 465 205 

i:S*fe^J^Siaiffi Collin 611 1.848 

Limestone 426 73 

Parmer 4,095 200 

Parmer 4,095 

Pate Rockwall 684 212 

Faulkner Ellis 391 

Fauna Harris 51 

Fawcett Bastrop 332 

Fay Culberson 4,018 

Fayetteville Fayette 411 274 

Fedor Lee 424 

Feely Val Verde 1,S43 

Felicia Liberty 51 

Felton Bell 71! 

Feodora Terrell 2,476 

Ferguson Hale 3,343 

Ferguson Upsbur 366 

Fernando Cameron 14 

Ferris Ellis 468 1,238 

Field Potter 3.249 

Field Creek Llano 1,407 111 

Finlay El Paso 3,943 

Finley Bowie 254 

Finney Hale 3.BB1 

Fisher Dallas 531 

FiBher Fisher 1,920 21 

Ffahers Travis 678 

FlBkville Travis 700 

Fitzc Nacogdoches 452 

Pitzmaurico Matagorda 127 

Fitzpatrick Harrison 225 

Flake Galveston 12 

Flanagan Rusk 266 68 

Flatonla Fayette 463 886 

Flat Rock Reagan 2,588 

Fleming Comanche 1,296 

Fletcher Hardin 35 

Fletcher Orange 16 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 285 

Place. ConntT- Elevation. Population. 

Flewellen Fort Bend 13G 

FUnt Smith 525 200 

Florence Williamson 650 363 

PLORESTILLB Wilson 389 1,398 

Florine Bexar 671 

Floumoy Sbd Augustine 301 

Floyd Hunt SOI 231 

FLOTDADA Floyd 3,137 664 

FlQTanoa Scurry 2,666 460 

Flynn Cass 472 22 

Folsom Potter 3,635 

Footes Gregg 273 

Forbes Newton Ill 

Fonnll Coryell S22 

Forney Kaufman 473 1,114 

Forrerton EIHb 640 233 

Fort BUsa El Paao 3,874 

Fort Brown Cameron 67 

Fort Chadboume . . . .Coke 1,960 

Fort Clarke Kinney 1,050 

FortDaTiB Jeff Davis 4,927 1,061 

Fort Orifflii ahackeKord 1,275 

Fort Hancock E] Paso 3,517 34 

Fort McIntoBh Webb 460 

Fort BCcKavett Menard 2,156 136 

Fort RlngKold Starr 260 

FORT STOCKTON . . Pecos 2.948 439 

FORT WORTH Tarrant 614 73,312 

FoBtorla Montgomery 170 150 

FoutB Liberty 106 

Fowler Bosque 686 69 

Fowlerton LaSalle 336 

Fowlkes Wichita 1,092 

Francis wrse 911 

FraDdtu Jackson 42 

Franco Parker 1,101 

Robertson 443 869 

Anderson 389 660 

S;*'S Bexar 722 

.Gillespie 1,721 2,100 

..Gilleaple 1,310 

Freestone Freestone 506 

Fresenlus Hardin 49 

Fresnal Cameron 25 

Fresno Fort Bend 79 

Frio LaSalle 3,998 

Friona Parmer 3,968 200 

Frlotown Frio 626 69 

Frisco Collin 645 625 

Frost Navarro 628 702 

Frultland Atascosa 1,060 

Fruitvale Van Zandt 458 50 

Frys Qap Cherokee 576 

Fulda Baylor 1,229 

Fuller Scurry 2,181 

Fiillerton Liberty 81 

Fullemile Scurry 2,416 

FnOshear Fort Bend 132 247 



286 ByUeUn of the Univeriity of Texa$ 

Place. County. BlefatloiL Popoliitioii. 

Puqua Liberty 117 

• 

Gabriel RiTer WilUamBon 911 

Gaineemore Matagorda 21 

GAINESVILLB Cooke 780 7.624 

Galgo Presidio 4,792 

GallaUn Cherokee *... 256 126 

Galloway Cass 294 

GALVESTON Galveston 6 40,289^ 

Gammon Fisher 2,169 

Ganado Jackson 71 558 

Ganahl Kerr 1,610 

Garden City Glasscock 2,800 200 

Gardendale .LaSalle 586 

Garfield Travis 494 68 

Garland Dallas 641 804 

Gamer Parker 936 200 

Garrett Ellis 667 16? 

Garrison .Nacogdoches 380 627 

Gary Panola 286 341 

Garsa Denton 686 250 

Gaston Fort Bend 126 25 

Gastonia Kaufman 466 

GATBSVILLB Coryell 774 1,929 

Gause Milam 887 289 

Gay Hill Washington 344 216 

Genoa Harrts 47 100 

George M^adlson 363 

GEORGETOWN WiUiamson 442 3,096 

George West Live Oak 161 

Germania Midland 2,746 

GIDDING8 Lee 612 1,375 

Gilbert Jefferson 36 

Giles Donley 2,396 36 

GILMER Upshur 370 1,484 

Ginger Rains 480 75 

Glrard Kent 2,113 

Glrvin Pecos 2,286 

Gladewater Gregg 333 560 

Glazier Hemphill 2,601 475 

Glen Flora Wharton 117 500 

Glenham Bastrop 466 

Glenrio Deaf Smith 3,812 

Glenrose Somervell 600 

Glldden .Colorado 234 84 

Godley Johnson 896 500 

Golden Wood 422 350 

Goldsboro Coleman 1,994 150 

GOLDTHWAITE Mills 1,680 1,129 

GOLIAD Goliad 167 1,261 

Gomez Reeves 3.272 

GONZALES Gonzales 300 3,139 

Goodlett Hardeman 1,578 100 

Goodnight Armstrong 3,146 150 

Goodrich Polk 97 100 

Goodson Smith 476 

Goodwin Comal 691 68 

Gordon Palo Pinto 966 609 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 287 

Place. County. Blevation. Population. 

t3oree Knox 1,446 675 

Qorman Eastland 1,435 963 

Gossett Kaufman 322 18 

Gould Smith 355 • . 

Cover Grayson 522 

Graford Palo Pinto 1,003 

GRAHAM Young 1,045 1,569 

GRANBURY Hood 698 1,836 

Grand Lake Montgomery 136 

Grand Prairie Dallas 528 994 

Grand Saline Van Zandt 407 1,065 

Grand View Johnson 695 1,018 

Granger Williamson 578 1,708 

Granite Mountain .... Burnet 866 34 

Grapeland Houston 480 550 

Grapevine Tarrant 635 681 

Graphite Llano 987 

Grayburg Hardin 46 

Grayton El Paso 4,224 

Greathouse Jack 1,148 

Green Karnes 607 

Greenbrier Smith 393 

Green Lake Calhoun 32 

Greens Harris 49 

GREENVILLE Hunt 552 9,696* 

Gregory San Patricio 32 122 

Greta Refugio 64 

Griffing Newton 10 

Grimes Grimes 337 

Griswold Polk 226 

OROESBEOK Limestone 447 1,454 

Groom Carson 3,214 

Grover Williamson 1,148 

GROVETON Trinity 323 1,076 

Oruene Comal 646 

'Guadalupe Reeves 2,853 . 49 

Guda Falls . 365 

Guffey Jefferson 18 200 

-Guild Pecos 2,665 

Guion Taylor 2,121 40 

"Gulf View Galveston 14 

Gunter Grayson 697 30fl 

Gurley Palls 382 13S 

Gustine Comanche 1,193 212 

Gypsum Hardeman 1.578 

Hacienda Uvalde 989 

Hagerville Houston 328 66 

Hale Dallas 633 

HALLETTSVILLE . . . Lavaca 232 1,379 

Halsell Clay 957 60 

Hallsville Harrison 385 700 

Hallville San Saba 1,488 

Halstead Fayette 318 

Ham Henderson 383 35 

Hamilton Hamilton 1,250 

Hamiltonburg Live Oak 157 

Hamlin Jones 1,711 1,978 



288 BuUetvn of the University of Texas 

Place. County. BleTation. Population. 

Hammond Robertson 408 116 

Hampton Tyler 288 

Hampton's Nacogdoches 882 

Haney Randall 3,593 

Hamrick Coleman 1,828 

Happy Swisher 3,664 250 

Hamshlre Jefferson 17 31 

Handley Tarrant 690 156 

Harbin Erath 1,282 83 

Harlem Port Bend 84 

Harlingen Cameron 86 600 

Harlow Hunt 662 

Harmaston Harris 78 

Harriet Tom Green 1,832 

Harris Fort Bend 112 

Harrisburg Harris 45 56S 

Harrison McLennan 457 51 

Harrold Wilbarger 1,235 375 

Harrys Rockwall 420 

Hartburg Newton 34 75 

HARTLEY Hartley 3,907 200 

Hartley Montgomery 120 

Harvard Camp 352 

Harwood Gonzales 452 30O 

HASKELL Haskell 4,013 2,436 

Haslet Tarrant 700 175 

Hasse Comanche 1,170 350 

Hatchel Runnels 1,717 40 

Hathaway Hardin 50 

Hawdon Fort Bend 67 

Hawkins Wood 394 350 

Hawklnsvllle Matagorda 20 

Hawley Jones 1,648 400 

Haymond Brewster 3,879 27 

Hayward Nacogdoches 300 : 

Hazel Clay 861 

Hazel Hardeman 1,481 25 

Head Works Cameron 53 

Hearne Robertson 305 2,352^ 

Hebbronville Jim Hogg 680 190 

Hebert Jefferson 20 

Hebron Denton 517 

Hedley Donley 2,626 325 

Heidenheimer Bell 519 24^ 

HEMPSTEAD Waller 251 1,849 

HENRIETTA Clay 886 2,104 

Hermlelgh Scurry 2,392 625 

Henderson Rusk 470 1,750 

Hensley Jack 1,226 

HEREFORD Deaf Smith 3,806 1,750 

Herman Wise 933 

Hermosa Reeves 2,728 25 

Herring Cherokee 294 

Herrington Brazos 196 

Hesse Webb 1,207 

Hewitt McLennan -656 79- 

Heyser Calhoun 69 

Heywood Cameron 44 



Elevation. 


Population 


461 




432 




1,006 


1,437 


2,569 




572 


92 


8 


78 


2,058 




550 




90 




185 


72 


100 




547 




621 


6,115 


355 


49 


691 




395 




2,931 




462 


25 


19 


300 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 289 

Place. County. 

Hetty Hunt 

Hicks T-.ee 

Hico Hamilton 

Higgins Lipscomb 

High Lamar 

High Island Galveston 

Hemdon Coleman 

Hilda Guadalupe 

Hillendahl Harris 

HilUster Tyler 

HiUJe Wharton 

Hills Lee 

HILLSBORO Hill 

Hills Prairie Bastrop 

Hilton Grayson 

Hindes Atascosa 

Hlndman Dawson 

Hinckley Lamar 

Hitchcock Galveston 

Hobbstown Tom Green 1,950 . . 

Hockley Harris 223 296 

Hodge Tarrant 627 

Hoffman Junction Titus 425 

Hogan Cherokee 705 

Hogsett Wise 956 . . . 

Holland Bell 523 * '778 

Holllday Archer 1,055 130 

Homer Reeves 3.634 66 

HONDO Medina 887 

Honea Montgomery 240 24 

Honey Grove Fannin 666 2,300 

Honey Springs Dallas 446 ...'... 

Hooks Bowie 375 50O 

Hoover Gray 3,088 

Horton Delta 489 

Horton Jasper 416 

Hot Wells El Paso 4,283 

House Junction Fort Bend 65 

HOUSTON Harris 53 93ii22* 

Houston Heights .... Harris 63 6,984 

Hovey Pecos 3,530 

Howe Grayson 846 581 

Howland Lamar 505 226 

Howth Waller 27 8 7a 

Hoxie Williamson 611 

Hoya Nacogdoches 286 

Hoyt Wood 431 ...... 

Hubbard Hill 627 1,843 

Hudson Tarrant 972 ..!... 

Huff Archer 1,030 25 

Huffman Harris 46 

Hughes Springs Cass 373 600 

Hull Liberty 46 

Humble Harris 92 1,250 

Huugerford Wharton 109 183 

Hunter Comal 628 162 

Huntington Angelina 335 350 

19— Mtn, w« 



290 BuUeti/n of the UnivenUy of Teaas 

Place. County. Blevation. Populatioii 

HUNTSVILLB Walker 400 2,072 

Hurdle Upton 2,480 

Husbands Hunt 562 

Hutchins Dallas 467 204 

Hudson Randall 3,534 

Hutto Williamson 659 568 

Hyatt Tyler 109 

lago Wharton 87 100 

latan Mitchell 2,209 126 

Iberis Taylor 1,858 

Idalou Lubbock 3,238 

Idlewild Bexar 681 

Immermere Erath 1,067 

Ina Milam 443 

Inarl Refugio 78 

Inez Victoria 71 98 

Ingleslde San Patricio 23 36 

Ingram Kerr 1,700 

lo Goliad 175 

lola Grimes 338 200 

lona Tarrant 950 

Iowa Park Wichita 1,037 603 

Iredell Bosque 86 v 571 

Ireland Coryell 1,065 

Isaacs Milam 428 

Iser El Paso 3,673 

Italy Ellis 576 1.149 

Itasca Hill 704 1,356 

Ives Montgomery 158 

iTy'. Caldwell 440 

JACKSBORO Jack 1,074 1,480 

Jackson Montgomery 227 

Jacksonville Cherokee 516 2,876 

Jamestown Upshur 158 

Japonica Kerr 1,800 ...... 

Jarrell Williamson 547 

Jayton Kent 2,016 700 

Jean Young 1,193 

Jeanetta Harris 78 

Jeddo Bastrop 448 

JEFFERSON Marion 191 2,515 

Jeffries Ellis 518 

Jericho Donley 3,151 75 

Jermyn Jack 1,183 

Jessie Hill 415 61 

Jester Navarro 407 29 

Jewett Leon 506 586 

Jiba Kaufman 407 

Jimdale Clay 965 

Jims Bayou Cass 295 

Joel .Parmer 3,720 

Jno. Camp Williamson 570 

Joaquin Shelby 213 400 

Johnson City Blanco 1,200 

Johnstone Val Verde 1,075 

Johntown Red River 355 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 291 

Place. Oomitj. Blevatlon. Population. 

Joiner Fayette 253 

Jolly Clay 978 42 

JonesYille Harrison 268 300 

Joppa Burnet 1,106 

Jordan Bastrop 440 

Josephine Collin 588 274 

Joshua Johnson 923 482 

Josselet Haskell 1,570 

Josserand Trinity 314 538 

Jourdanton Atascosa 484 500 

Joyce Bowie 299 

Jullff Port Bend 66 63 

Justin Denton 644 476 

Justicehurg Garza 2,208 

Kaffir Swisher 3,478 

Kamey Calhoun 37 

Karen Montgomery 258 

Kamack Harrison 237 72 

KARNES CITY Karnes 404 635 

Kasota Armstrong 3,467 

Katy Harris 145 350 

KAUFMAN Kaufman 439 1,959 

Keechi Leon 292 62 

Keeler Johnson 787 

Keenan Montgomery 255 172 

Keeran Victoria 24 

Keller Tarrant 704 294 

Keithton Jasper 237 

Kellys Walker 381 

KellyviUe Marion 280 

Keltys Angelina 345 59 

Kemah Galveston 12 

Kemp Kaufman 372 925 

Kempner Lampasas 876 125 

Kendleton Fort Bend 102 116 

Kenedy Karnes 271 1,147 

Kenefick Liberty 54 

Kennard Houston 402 425 

Kennedale Tarrant 603 216 

Kenney Austin 383 202 

Kent Culberson 4,202 100 

Kentuckytown Grayson 810 112 

Kerby Hill 715 

Kerens Navarro 365 

KERRVILLE Kerr 1,645 

Kierseys Palls 425 

Kildare Cass 311 

Kilgore Gregg 371 

Killeen Bell 853 

Kingola Wilbarger 1,171 

Kingsbury Guadalupe 606 

Kingsland Llano 856 

King's Mill Gray 3,358 

Kingston Hunt 631 

KingBYllle Nueces 66 

Kinney Kinney 1,027 

KIrby Bexar 707 



' "945 

1,843 


* '214 

700 

1.265 


* '*346 
194 


* **278 
975 



292 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

Place. County. Elevation. Population 

KirbyviUe Jasper 101 1.000 

Kirk Bexar 662 

Kirkland Childress 1,705 

Klrtley Payette 320 

Kirvln Freestone 464 160 

Kittle Live Oak 169 

Kittrell Walker 320 27 

Kleburg Dallas 439 100 

Klondike Delta 478 220 

Knarf Colorado 257 

Knickerbocker Tom Green 2,025 

Knlppa Uvalde 984 28 

Knox City Knox 1.517 925 

Kokernot Gonzales 392 

Kolp Spur Tarrant 570 

Kopperl Bosque 574 329 

Kosse Limestone 500 764 

.Kouns Travis 652 

KOUNTZB Hardin 85 342 

Kress Swisher 3,418 225 

Krum Denton 725 550 

Kyle Hays . , '. 714 742 

Kyle Quarry Jasper 130 

LaBahia Goliad 147 

Labatt Wilson 407 

Lacerda Nacogdoches 308 

Lacoste Medina 719 250 

Ladonia Fannin 625 1.293 

La Fruita San Patricio 64 

LAGRANGE Fayette 272 1.850 

Lake Robertson 324 

Lakenon Hill 695 40 

Lake Side Colorado 170 

Lake Victor Burnet 1»382 200 

Lake Wichita Wichita 1.032 

Lamarque Galveston 17 53 

Lambert Parker 1,136 75 

LAMESA Dawson 2.931 500 

Lamkin Comanche 1,068 97 

Lament Polk 130 

LAMPASAS Lampasas 1,025 2,119 

Lancaster Dallas 512 1,115 

Landa Bexar 748 

Landes Washington 365 

Landrum Cameron 45 

Langtry Val Verde 1,315 68 

Lanier Cass 355 

Lanius Fisher 1.679 

Lansing Harrison 408 

LaPaloma Cameron 43 

LaPorte (West) Harris 29 674 

LaPrelle Brazoria 62 

LAREDO Webb 438 15.461» 

Lariat Parmer 3.961 

I^rk Carsou 3,336 

La Rosa Refugio 42 

lie Henderson 478 100 



TJte Mineral Resources of Texas 293 

Plaee. Comitsr. Eleyatlon. Population. 
Bl Paso 4,472 

XiaBher Bastrop 462 

XAssater Marlon 336 100 

:Xa8 Vegas Dlmmltt 667 

XAvemia Wilson 476 342 

Xavon Collin 523 178 

^jaward Jackson 43 23 

liawn Taylor 1,953 

Xawrence Kaufman 470 176 

Lazare Hardeman 1,606 30 

League City Galveston 23 525 

Leah Tyler 263 

Leakey Real 1,600 318 

Leander Williamson 980 283 

Leary Bowie 380 75 

Lebau Lee 410 

Ledbetter Fayette 443 310 

Lee Carson 3,470 

Leeeburg Camp 394 318 

Ltefora Gray 2,900 

Leggett Polk 269 300 

Lieigh Harrison 229 125 

L^ith Kaufman 463 

Lela Wheeler 2,366 80 

I^lavale Hardin 110 

X^lia Lake Donley 2,590 

Hrem Bastland 1,499 

Xjeming '. Atascosa 482 

I^emley Parker 1,192 

Xiemon Orange 32 

Xiena Fayette 314 

XfOnoii^ Lamar 532 

Xienoz Brewster 4,339 

Xieonard Fannin 704 990 

Leoncita Brewster 3,875 

Leonidas Montgomery 165 

Leon Junction. « Coryell 675 62 

Leon Springs Bexar 1,125 158 

Lester Randall 3,619 

I-«tltia Harris 100 

Letot Dallas 443 21 

LeVerte Jasper 102 

Levinson Jeff Davis 3,885 

Levita Coryell 

Lewis Anderson 

Lewisville Denton 

Lexington I^ee 

LIBERTY Liberty 

Liberty Hill Williamson 1,038 

Lider Hale 

Lillard Hardin 

Lime City Coryell 

Limestone Freestone 

Uncoln Lee 

Lindale Smith 

LINDEN Cass 

Lindenau De Witt 

Lindsay Cooke 



932 


89 


331 




484 


900 


456 


525 


30 


980 


1,038 


500 


3,290 




38 




706 




523 




364 


148 


559 


658 


270 


675 


184 


46 


786 


151 



294 BvUetm of ifie Univenity of Tesa* 

Place. Conntr- BlsratlOlL PopuUtion. 

LlBBle Wharton 16C M 

LltUg TraviB 4«« ie« 

Little MUam 848 

Ltttlefleld Lamb 3,610 

^ Bell 804 188 

Brazoria 26 8* 

Polk 286 1.024 

LLANO Llano 1,029 1.687 

Loho Culberson 8,941 

LOCKHART Caldwell 618 2,946 

Lockner Floyd 8,281 760 

Lodi Marion 268 200 

Loeb Hardin 32 

Lofton Lynn 8.038 

Lometa Lampaaas 1,484 550 

Lomita School Hidalgo 104 

Lone Oak Hunt 562 756 

Long Cameron BS 

Longfellow Pecoa 3,269 32 

Longhorn El Paao 3,984 

Longleat Angelina 2S6 

Longmott Calhoun 21 29 

Longs Hardin 103 

LONGVIBW Gregg 339 6,155 

Longriew Jet Gregg 338 

Longwottih Fisher 1.9«3 

Lora Roberts 2.663 

Loraine Mitchell 2,266 633 

Lorena McLennan 693 675 

Lorenzo Crosby 3,2l& 

Lorine Colorado 306 

Los Indlos Cameron 48 

Lott Falls 622 1.021 

Lotus Harris 76 

Louetta Harris 166 40 

Louise Wharton 90 600 

Love Cherokee 706 

Lovelady Houston .- . . . 300 526 

Loving Young 1,29! 225 

Loyal Valley Mason 1,680 

Lo«ler Pecos 1,629 

LUBBOCK Lubbock 3.148 1.938 

Lucas San Patricio 114 

bucern Hansford 2,609 25 

Lueders Jones 1,565 425 

Luella Grayson 640 

LUFKIN Angelina 323 2,749 

Luke Wilson Archer 1.063 

Luling Caldwell 403 1,404 

Lumberton Hardin 4'6 

Lumm Liberty 116 

Lyford Cameron 34 76 

Lyons BurleBon 346 459 

Lytle Atascosa 745 212 

McAllen Hidalgo 122 

MeCaropbell San Patricio 23 

McCauIley Fisher 1,867 400 



The Miiural Resources of Texas 295 

PlacB. C(nint7. Elevation. Populatlin. 

KcClure'a 2*0 

XtfcConneU Haskell 1.516 

McCoy Angelina 300 

McC07 AlaBcofla 310 

lUcDade Bastrop 566 418 

XfcDow Wbarton 155 

XfcOee Montague 548 

McLennan 713 1.804 

FHlB 4S3 

Val Verde 946 

ColHn 592 4.714 

McLean Gray £.812 633 

McNeil Travis 837 132 

Zlabank Kaurman 395 760 

»labelle Baylor 1,265 

Slacdona Beiar 631 123 

Macedonia City Liberty 116 

Mackay Wharton 105 

Slacks Wood 379 

Vlacksvllle Comanche 1.103 

Maddellae Calhoun 53 

Xfadden El PaBO 3,666 

afagenta Oldham 3,233 

Mabl Nacogdoches 521 80 

Xfalakorf Henderson 377 376 

Ualden Armstrong 3,349 

Malone El Paso 4,263 550 

Malta Bowie 410 800 

Hamie Hidalgo 497 

Manard Angelina 292 

Wanchaca Travis 697 118 

Manda Travis 557 111 

Mangum Eastland 1,464 300 

Manhattan McLennan 750 

Uanklns Archer 1,086 

Mann Navarro 450 

Mtnor Travis 525 900 

Uansfleld Tarrant 580 627 

Uaaton Angelina 322 

Uanvel Brazoria 56 113 

Maple CoIIln 998 

Marathon Brewster 4,039 300 

Marble Falls Burnet 764 1,061 

MARFA Presidio 4.688 494 

Margaret Foard 1.370 

Marianna Victoria 675 60 

Uarllee Collin 214 

Marlon Guadalupe 644 525 

Harkbam Matagorda 57 

Martin i-'alls 383 3,878 

Marquez I-eon 420 482 

MARSHALL Harrison 375 12,984' 

Manton Polk 190 

Martinez Bexar 690 

Maryneal Nolan 2,564 276 

MamTille Cooke 873 236 

MASON Mason 1.450 

Matagorda Matagorda 9 482 



/ 



296 Bulletin of the University of Texas 

Place. County. BIoTatioii. Population. 

Mathis San Patricio 161 250 

Matlock Dallam 4,085 

Maud Bowie 284 875 

Mauriceville Orange 29 80 

Maurin Gonzales 807 

Maxon Springs Brewster 3,588 . ../. . 

Maxwell Caldwell 605 225 

May Brown 1,657 400 

Maydelle Cherokee 396 

Mayfleld Hill 587 

Mayotown .Nacogdoches 865 

Meadors Dallas 581 

Meadow Lake Grayson 800 

Medicine Mound Hardeman 1,488 160 

Medina Bandera 618 117 

Medio Bee 206 

Megargel Archer 1,288 276 

Melissa Collin 680 350 

Melvin McCulloch 1,849 80 

MEMPHIS Hall 1,980 1,936 

MENARD Menard 1,870 450 

Mendota Hemphill 2,540 50 

Mercedes Hidalgo 61 1,209 

Mercury McCulloch 1,426 375 

Meredith Johnson 781 

MERIDIAN Bosque 791 718 

Merit Hunt 656 322 

Merkel Taylor 1,872 2,008 

Mortens Hill 533 400 

Mertzon Irion 2,184 

Mesquite Dallas 491 687 

Mesa Grimes 312 

Metz Ector 2,860 

Mewshftw Cherokee 377 

Mexia Limestone 534 

Mexico Jet Limestone 460 

MIAMI Roberts 2,802 

Michelson Wilson 444 

Middlewater Hartley 4,080 

Midfields Matagorda 51 

MIDLAND Midland 2,769 

Midline Montgomery 136 

Midlothian Ellis 749 

Mifflin Willacy 43 

Mikeska Live Oak 127 30 

Milano Milam 485 481 

Miles Runnels 1,800 1,302 

Milford Ellis 601 766 

Mill Bailey 3,764 

Mill Creek Washington 319 25 

Miller Dallas 418 

Millet LaSalle 498 150 

Millheim Austin 177 59 

Millican Brazos 298 613 

Millsap Parker 812 475 

Milvld Liberty 85 

\ Mineola Wood 414 1,706 

Minerva Milam 399 118 



'2,694 


"466 


* '46 

75 

2.192 


' **868 



The Minerei Besources of Texas 

Place. Coiuit7. 

Mingo Denton 

MinguB Palo Pinto . . . 

MlBslon Hidalgo 134 

Missoari City Port Bend 84 

MobberlT Titus 323 

Mobile Tyler 199 

Moccasin Coryell 81S 

Mofeta Terrell 2,360 

Monahan Ward 2,613 

Monroe Lubboch 3,257 

Mont&gue 1,076 

Hidalgo 178 

Aneeltna 233 

Montgomery 286 

Jet Montgomery 326 

Hontoya El Paso 3.739 

Honument Irion 2.320 

Moody McLennan 783 

Hoore Frio 660 

Horan Shackelford 1,350 

Ubrey JefFerson 15 

Morgan Bosque 721 

Morlta Howard 2,469 

MorrUl Cherokee 329 

Moscow Polk 310 

Moselle Tarraot 763 

Moss Greek Nacogdoches 211 

HoBtyn Montgomery 237 

UoQlton Lavaca 383 

Hound Coryell 

at. Calm Hill 

Ht. Honston HarrlB 

MT. PLEASANT Titus 

(Iherokee .... 

Franklin 

Muenster Cooke 

Mnldoon Fayette 

Huleshoe Bailey 3.744 

Mnllen Mills 1,430 

Hulvey Polk 2i7 

Humford Robertson 257 

Wuncy Floyd 3,156 

Hunday Knox 1,482 

Hunger Limestone 602 

Uurchlson Henderson 453 

Murdo Oldham 3,527 

Murphy Collin 576 

Murray Young 3,812 

Murraul Panola 275 

HuBgrove Franklin 427 

Mustang Denton 717 

Myra Cooke 916 

Nacllna Nacogdoches 300 

HACOODOCHG3 Nacogdoches 283 

Nadenn OalveBton 13 

NapleB MorriB 399 

NardMO Cottle 2,000 



693 


38 


601 




74 




405 


3.137 


692 


168 


476 


1,200 


964 


600 



298 Bulletin of the Umvenity of Texas 

Place. Conntj. BleTatlon. Population. 

Naruna Burnet 1,476 19 

Nash Bowie 863 350 

Natalia Medina 686 

Navarro Navarro 420 50 

Navasota Grimes 216 3,284 

Neal Madison 331 

Neches Anderson 411 325 

Nederland Jefferson 25 250 

Neelle San Patricio 92 

Neff Trinity 206 

Nelleva Jet Brazos 189 

Nelms Trinity 224 

Nep Cherokee 526 

Neuville Shelby 323 450 

Nevada Collin 616 510 

Newark : Wise 696 300 

New Baden Robertson 427 103 

New Birmingham. . . .Cherokee 557 

New Boston Bowie 352 960 

NEW BRAUNFELS. .Comal 637 3.165 

Newby Leon 453 

Newcastle Young 1,166 550 

New California Zavalla 673 

New Camp Nacogdoches 312 

New Caney Montgomery 98 127 

Newlin Hall 1,800 125 

Newline Marion 310 

Newsome Camp 453 150 

NEWTON Newton 172 575 

New Ulm Austin 392 444 

New Willard Polk 215 

Neyland Hunt 561 107 

Niblock San Saba 1,732 

Nickel Gonzales 445 36 

Nivac* •Nacogdoches 411 

Nix Lampasas 1,281 48 

Nixon Gonzales 396 850 

Nocona Montague 930 1,388 

Nolanville Bell 695 138 

Nome Jefferson 47 100 

Nona Hardin 68 50 

Noonan Medina 768 

Nopal Presidio 4,817 

Nora Lavaca 378 

Nordheim DeWitt 404 400 

Norias Willacy 19 

Normangee Leon 375 676 

Normanna Bee 273 175 

Norris ..Val Verde 905 

Xorthend Washington 301 

North Ft. Worth Tarrant 533 

North Houston Harris 51 

North Jefferson Marion 208 

North Pleasanton . . ..Atascosa 373 

North Quarry Fayette 315 

North Roby Fisher 1,916 

Northrup Lee 480 66 

North Zulch Madison 356 250 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 299 

Plac«. County. Elevation. Population. 

Korrall Cherokee 273 

!Korwood Harrison 214 

I^orwood McLennan 388 

Xlorwood Runnels 1,716 

X^ottawa Wharton 134 40 

l^oYiee Coleman 2,028 275 

l^oyl Spnr Hardeman 1,446 

Nulo El Paso 3,567 

Nursery Victoria 134 177 

Oak Cliff Dallas 450 

Oak GroTe Bowie 429 50 

Oak Hill Travis 806 116 

Oakville Live Oak 90 431 

Oakwood Leon 290 906 

Oasis Dallas 620 

Obi Uvalde 1,042 

O'Brien Haskell 1,575 150 

Ochiltree Ochiltree 2,700 450 

Odem San Patricio 82 25 

ODESSA Ector 2,890 400 

Odlaw Kinney 1,102 

O'Donnell Lynn 3,000 

Ogle Lampasas 1,421 25 

Oglesby Coryell 846 283 

Ohio Cameron 45 

Oil City Nacogdoches 224 

Oklaunlon Wilbarger 1,227 75 

Otey Brazoria 47 

Olden Kastland 1,557 

Olive Hardin 105 383 

Olmito Cameron 29 

Olmos Maverick 767 

Olney Young 1,184 1,095 

Olton Lamb 3,615 150 

Olyphant Baylor 1,429 

Omaha Morris 399 750 

Omega (Jregg 229 60 

Onalaska Polk 201 125 

Onion Creek Ellis 394 

Ontario Oldham 3,994 

ORANGE Orange 10 5,527 

Orchard Fort Bend 129 200 

Orchard Park Harrison 260 

Ore City Upshur 211 

Oriana Stonewall 1,809 25 

Orphans Home Navarro 484 

Orth Young 1,282 

Osceola Hill 716 325 

Osman Val Verde 1,554 

Ottine (ionzales 342 200 

Ovalo Taylor 2,026 500 

Overton Rusk 507 675 

Owego Pecos 2,377 

Owens Brown 1,467 

Oxford Llano 1,333 

Oyster Creek Brazoria 38 

Ozena Crockett 2,500 427 



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The Mineral Resources of Texas 301 

Place. County. Eleyatlon. Populatioa. 

nont Grimee 209 

e Wharton 109 65 

on Gonzales 323 

Point Denton 674 1,371 

Camp 390 60 

Island Angelina 182 

Island Jefferson 36 25 

and Sabine 267 100 

ry Montgomery 250 

ston Navarro 446 50 

acle Upshur 436 

) Kinney 1,059 

ser Eastland 1,710 73 

: Colorado 290 72 

SBURG Camp 392 1,916 

>do Victoria 53 

d McCulloch 1,600 50 

s Yoakum 3,300 125 

view Hale 3,325 2,829 

> Collin 655 1,258 

^ersviUe Grimes 325 207 

erco .Fisher 1,787 

au Culberson . 3,936 25 

lanton Atascosa 365 420 

fer Matagorda 68 150 

ons Hutchinson 2,800 100 

jr Tarrant 710 

I Payette 309 182 

bontas Montgomery 183 

Matagorda 61 

Angelina 187 

:a Bee 246 

: Rains 523 325 

!; Isabel Cameron 8 249 

k Angelina 316 200 

) El Paso 3,653 

) Presidio 2,500 

er Denton 735 250 

tta Johnson 753 

a Cherokee 282 175 

X Hamilton 1,283 

Arthur Jefferson 8 7,663 

Boliver Galveston 6 83 

)r Lubbock 3,196 

and San Patricio 31 182 

r LAVACA Calhoun 22 1,699 

O'Connor Calhoun 3 250 

y Lubbock 3,103 

rCITY Garza . .• 2,543 350 

Wilson 401 175 

nac Polk 223 

iboro Grayson 761 313 

lerly Lamar 464 63 

5ll Navarro 376 248 

jrs McLennan 485 

or Henderson 402 

ue Calhoun 12 

ie Harris 87 



302 BuUetvn of the Univenity of Toxas 

Place. Conntsr. BleTatiOB. PopulaAion. 

Prairie View Waller 250 100 

Presidio del Norte . . . Presidio 2,400 

Preston Grayson 575 

Prestridge Angelina 281 

Prices Cherokee 292 

Priest's School Hidalgo 107 

Primm Fayette 312 26 

Primrose Tarrant 773 

Prince McMullen 426 

Princeton Collin 660 460 

Pritchett Upshur 409 260 

Probst Potter 3,408 

Proctor Comanche 1,209 826 

Prosper Collin 647 500 

Pressor Angelina 314 

Providence Robertson 265 

Pruett Marion 392 

Pueblo Callahan 1,440 

Pulliam Tom Green 1,909 

Pulliam Zavalla 815 

Pullman Potter 3.599 

Pumpville Val Verde 1.814 

Purdon Navarro 394 220 

Putnam Callahan 1,592 450 

Pyote Ward 2.612 150 

Pyron Scurry 2.316 25 

QUANAH Hardeman 1,568 3,172 

Quarry Washington 285 62 

Quebec Presidio 4,625 

Queen City Cass 349 ^88 

Quihi Medina 856 

Quinlan Hunt 513 537 

Quinn Jasper 47 

QUITMAN Wood 590 475 

Quito Ward 2,670 16 

Rabbs Lavaca 248 

Radium Jones 1,692 

Ragland Lamar 485 

Raisin Victoria 109 120 

Ralph Randall 3,615 25 

Ramsdell Wheeler 2.515 100 

Ramsey Bastrop 220 

Randolph Fannin 665 221 

Randon Fort Bend 112 

Ranger Eastland 1,429 586 

Rankin Upton 2,494 

Ransom San Augustine 457 

Ratcliff Houston 338 500 

Ravenna Fannin 572 280 

Ray Grayson 796 

Rayburn Liberty 157 80 

Raymond Leon 3,407 38 

Raymondville Cameron 30 800 

Rayner Colorado 173 

Rayvllle Parker 234 

Raywood Uberty 69 124 



7^6 Mineral Resources of Texas 303 



Elevation. 


Population 


374 


428 


493 


•••••» 


464 


84 


334 


• ••••»• 


388 


• •••••- 


369 




600 


210' 


483 


300 


286 


260 


566 


107 


380 


25 


50 


609 



Place. County. 

Palls 

Xieagor Springs Ellis 

SlealitOB Duval 

Xlebecca San Augustine 

Sledfleld Nacogdoches 

Sledlawn Cherokee 

Xled Oak Ellis 

Kedrock Bastrop 

:Redwater Bowie 

XteedvUle Caldwell 

IReese Cherokee 

XIEFUGIO Refugio 

Xlehm Hartley 4,031 

Xlelnhardt Dallas 546 87 

Xleklaw Cherokee 292 25 

Xlendham Baylor 1,297 

Xlenner Collin 662 161 

Xleno Lamar 546 

Tlesaca de la Palma. . .Cameron 27 

desmoids Nueces , 168 

Xleynolds Shackelford 1,909 

Khome Wise 934 486 

Tlicardo Nueces 53 25 

Tllce Harris 61 

'Rice Navarro 470 325 

Tlichards Grimes 301 225 

^Richardson Dallas 620 400 

Tlichland Navarro 377 

Ulchland Springs . . . .San Saba 1,377 475; 

:RICHM0ND Fort Bend 104 1.371 

Hicker Brown 1,375 

Hidgeway Hopkins 548 llO 

Ulesel McLennan 474 575- 

Ulnggold Montague 890 500« 

Hlo Grande El Paso 3,462 

■Rio Hondo Cameron 21 

Hio Vista Johnson 745 375. 

Hipley Titus 380 541 

Rising Star Eastland 1,630 640 

Ritchie McLennan 708 

'Riverside Bexar 606 '. . .' .' ! 

Itlverside Walker 169 128 

Riverton Reeves 2,712 

Riviera Nueces 41 250 

Roanoke Denton 648 364 

Roaring Springs Motley 2,520 

Robards Bexar 815 

Robbins Leon 527 ...... 

Roberts Hunt 495 

Robstown Nueces 40 275 

Robtin Hamilton 1,095 

Roby Fisher 1,800 7i2 

Roehelle McCulloch 1,770 275 

Rochester Haskell 1,592 375 

Rock Creek Parker 892 860 

Rock Crusher Coleman 1,947 

Rockdale Milam 462 2,07:^ 

Rock Island Colorado 251 '3fi 



508 


117 


2,380 


1,400 


392 


1,472 


32 


25 


106 


1,198 


3,660 




55 




575 


60 


396 


128 


106 




579 


1.126 



304 BuUetin of the University of Texas 

Place. County. Eleyation. Population. 

Rockland Tyler 128 305 

Rockledge Donley 3,117 

ROCKPORT Aransas 6 1,382 

Rock Springs Edwards 2,400 

ROCKWALL Rockwall 552 1.136 

Rodgers .Upshur 5*39 

Roganvllle Jasper 191 200 

Rogers Bell 62 1,275 

Roll Over Galveston 13 

Romero Hartley 4,101 25 

Rona Val Verde 1,626 

Rosanky Bastrop 

Roscoe Nolan 

Rosebud Falls 

Rosedale Jefferson 

Rosenberg Fort Bend 

Rosenfeld Brewster 

Rosharon Brazoria 

Ross McLennan 

Rosser Kaufman 

Rossyln Harris 

Rotan Fisher 

Round Mountain Blanco 1.255 158 

Round Rock Williamson 709 1,138 

Roundup Hockley 3,334 

Rowe Donley 2,654 

Rowena Runnels 1,750 525 

Rowlett Dallas 509 108 

Royal Potter 3,548 

Koxton Lamar 506 750 

Royse City Rockwall ' 554 1,210 

Royston Fisher 1,920 200 

Ruby Karnes 316 

Rudolph Willacy 28 

Rugby Red River 415 

Rugeley Matagorda 35 

Ruidosa Presidio 2,800 

Rule Haskell 1,672 891 

Ruliff Newton 24 32 

Runge Karnes 304 1.100 

RUSK Cherokee • 489 1,558 

Russellville Motley 2,395 

Rutland Angelina 241 

Rutledge Williamson 935 21 

Ryan Presidio 4,750 

Rye Liberty 123 

Rylie Dallas 463 17 

Sabinal Uvalde 956 1,640 

Sabine Jefferson 17 673 

Sable San Augustine 227 

Sachse Dallas 555 81 

Sacul Nacogdoches 307 300 

Sage Burnet 1,261 242 

Sag;er Haskell 1,621 

Sagerton Haskell 1,641 400 

Saginaw Tarrant 724 83 

St. Edward's College. .Travis 600 



The Mineral Beaourees of Texaa 



SL Jo MontBSne 1,H6 822 

SaloBTlUe Palo Pinto 1,018 82 

SalUUo Hopkins 454 220 

Hidalgo 133 125 

Goniales 291 25 

SAN ANQBLO Tom Green 1,847 10,321 

SANANTONIO Bexar 656 115.06r,« 

SAN AUGUSTINE , . .3an Augustine 304 1,204 

San Benito Cameron 35 925 

San Carlos Presidio 4.000 

SANDERSON Terrell 2,775 460 

Sand Hills Ward 2,702 

SAN DIEGO Duval 312 1,897 

Band Lake Ellis 370 

Sandstone Spur Burnet SSO 

Sandune Liberty 43 

Sandy Fork Gonzales 366 

Sandy Point Brazoria 58 180 

San Elltarlo Si Paso 3,628 834 

Sanger Denton 666 950 

San Jose B«ar 635 

San Leon Galveston 14 125 

SAN MARCOS Hays 581 4,071 

San Martina Reeves 3,714 

SAN SABA dan Saba 1,705 1,200 

San Saba Camp dan Saba 1,687 

Santa Anna Coleman 1,743 1,463 

Santa Maria >;ameron 68 120 

Santo I'alo Pinto 816 500 

Saratoga Hardin . . .'. S6 550 

Sarber Marlon 313 

Sardls i-nils 589 

Sartta Willacy 38 

Saron Trinity 285 

SarUrtIa Kort Bend 82 

Saspamco Wilson 482 125 

Satsuma Harris 120 

Satult McCulloch 1,692 

Saunders Travis 770 

Savoy Fannin 664 328 

Sayers Bexar 415 35 

Scbenck Grayson 760 

ScherUB Guadalupe 713 200 

Schofleld Hill 656 

Schulenburg Fayette 344 1,091 

Schwertner Williamson 387 

Scotland Arcber 991 175 

Scofield Burleson 230 

Scottevllle Harrison 390 49 

Scroggins Pranlilin 359 35 

Scurry Kaufman 468 200 

Seabrook Harris 15 250 

Seadrlft Calboun 7 60 

Seago Dallas 451 

flealy Austin 203 1,225 

Sebastian Cameron 36 



\m BuUetin of the VimeraOy of Texas 

Placs. Conntr- BI«Tatlon. Population. 

Spco Medina 1,066 

Security 160 

apflwlck 1,365 

SEOUIN Guadalupe 553 3,116 

aelliy McLennan HI 

Scllnifin McCulloch 1,714 

apmfnary Hill Tarrant 760 

Seneca Tyl«r 243 

Sequoyab Trinity 333 

Sequoyah Junction . .Trinity 345 

Sorbin l'*^ 481 S3 

Settegast Harris 60 

Sevllla Brown 1,343 

Seymour Baylor 1,290 8,500 

Shatter Prpsidlo 3.900 

Shamrock Wheeler 2,281 726 

Shanghai Wharton 109 

Sharon Hardin 41 

Shautler Nolan 2.184 

Shavano Heiar 937 

Shawnee Angelina 241 

Sheldon Harris 48 2S 

Sheplierd San Jacinto 143 278 

SHERMAN Grayson 720 13,167» 

Sherman Junction . . .Grayson 742 

SHERWOOn Irion 2,146 339 

fihiner Ijivaca 350 1,096 

Shlr« Grimes 373 326 

Shocklev Hamilton 1,043 

Shumla' Val Verde 1,412 

Sierra Blanca El Paso 4,609 160 

Silas Shelby 360 

Silenus Bell 597 

Siisbee Hardin 81 309 

SilT*r Lake Van Zandt 383 29 

snveMon Brisoo* 3.300 526 

Silver Vallev Coleman 2.034 2S0 

Simm* Bowie J70 47 

Sim.\nd» Pallas 432 l« 

Sin>.in»in Fon Bend 117 SK 

SimpK^nville Matajvirda S2 

S:n«1eN>t! Grimes S39 Ct 

SINTytS San ["^trU-io 49 976 

S'.?e SrrtEps Con^aa.he 1.409 J7T 

Sli*<B U»nn 1.97S 

Sktdatow «** 159 46« 

SUr--« I.ubtwk S.H* 

Slaries 0.*n«il«« St9 194 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 1307 

Place. Ckmntj. BleTation. Population. 

Sonora Sutton 2,020 783 

Soncy Potter 3,690 

Sour Lake Hardin 43 800 

Southard Donley 2,916 

South Bosque McLennan 480 89 

Southland Garza 2,975 

Southmayd Grayson 735 132 

Southern Pacifle Jet. . Bexar 667 

Sparks Bell 470 

Sparta Bell 811 48 

Sperry Grayson 760 

Spies Fannin 547 

Spindle Top Jefferson 30 

Spofford Kinney 1,008 79 

Spohn Nueces 48 

Spring Harris 126 650 

Springdale Cass 239 68 

Springtown .Parker 900 

Sprinkle .Travis 601 50 

Spur Dickens 2,274 1,360 

Stafford Fort Bend 82 57 

Stalls Marion 220 

Stamford Jones 1,603 3,902 

Standart Kinney 1,085 40 

Stanton Martin 2,654 1,100 

Stateline El Paso 2,892 

Stayton Cherokee 712 

Stella Harris 52 

Stephenson Cass 475 

STBPHBNVILLB Erath 1,283 2,561 

Sterling City Sterling 2,295 532 

Sterrett Ellis 630 28 

Stevens Sherman 3,535 

Stilson Liberty 74 28 

Stockard Henderson 421 22 

Stockdale Wilson 430 725 

Stockman Shelby 325 27 

Stone Washington 598 19 

Stoneburg Montague 934 173 

Stone City Brazos 250 42 

Stoneham Grimes 388 100 

Stowell Chambers 22 176 

Strain Hardin 68 

Strang Harris 34 

STRATFORD Sherman 3,690 

Strawn Palo Pinto 992 

Streetman Freestone 364 

Strobel Brewster 4,489 

Strykor Polk 205 

Sublime Lavaca 222 

Sudduth Burnet 1,135 

Sugarland Cameron 15 

Sugarland Fort Bend 84 

Sugar Valley Matagorda 52 

Suggs Irion 2,469 

Sulphur Bowie 237 

SULPHUR SPRINGS . Hopkins 494 5,151 



510 


612 


300 


'"125 


210 


"266 


200 



308 BuUeiin of ihs Univ^mty of Tmob 

Place. County. BleTatloii. Population. 

Summerfleld Castro 8,926 

Summit Burnet 1,491 

Summit Milam . . . : 514 

Sunny Lane Burnet 1,169 15 

Sunset Montague 992 682 

Sutherland Springs . .Wilson 428 560 

Sutton Robertson 370 

Swanson Harris 189 

Swastika Hale 8,460 

Swearlngen Cottle 1,755 

Sweden Duval 444 

Sweeny Brazoria 88 

Sweet Home Lavaca 286 274 

SWEETWATER Nolan 2,164 4,176 

Swenson Fort Bend 117 

Sylvester Fisher 1,838 300 

Taber Brewster 3,860 

TAHOKA Lynn 3.043 576 

Talco Titus 358 

Tallys Harrison 241 25 

Talpa Coleman 1,950 425 

Tanglewood Lee 476 97 

Tascosa Oldham 3,176 192 

Tatum Rusk 294 425 

Tavener Fort Bend 117 

Taylor Williamson 544 5,314 

Teague Freestone 497 3,288 

Teclfic Nolan 2,031 

Tehuacana Limestone 575 382 

Telferer Victoria 96 200 

Temple Bell 692 12,704^ 

Tenaha Shelby 351 491 

Tennyson Coke 1,875 100 

Terllngua Brewster 3,272 

Terrell Kaufman 530 7,050 

Terry Orange 19 73 

Tesnus Brewster 3,725 

Texarkana Bowie 295 11.722* 

Texas City Jet Galveston 8 

Texla Orange 31 50 

Texline Dallam 4,694 350 

Texola Wheeler 2.148 

Thatcher Montague 442 

Thomaston DeWitt 160 347 

Thompsons Fort Bend 68 104 

Thorndale Milam 460 1.100 

Thornton Limestone 496 678 

Throckmorton Throckmorton 1,700 500 

Thurber Erath 1,200 3.000 

Thurston Terrell 1,906 

Tidehaven Matagorda 35 

Tiffin Eastland 1,400 

Timber Montgomery 184 80 

Timpson Shelby 394 1.528 

TIsdale Bexar 600 

Tiocano Cameron 50 

Tioga Grayson 663 950 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 309 

Place. County. Bleyation. Population. 

Tltley Brewster 4,064 

Toklo McLennan 678 

Tolan Taylor 2,063 

Tolar Hood 1,013 455 

Tolbert Wilbarger 1,292 135 

Tomball Harris 212 275 

Tom Bean Grayson 816 288 

Tomlin Bastrop 584 

Tona Kaufman 519 43 

Torbert El Paso 4,346 

Torcer El Paso 4,272 

TomlUo El Paso 3,583 

Toronto Brewster 4,730 

Torrans Marion 395 

Tow Llano 1,025 39 

Towne El Paso 3,720 

Toyah Reeves 2,909 1,052 

Trabue Shelby 265 

Travis Palls 455 148 

Trawick Nacogdoches 438 160 

Trent Taylor 1,914 400 

Trenton Fannin 754 550 

Trice Trinity 279 

Trickham Coleman 1,400 

Trinidad Henderson 304 75 

Trinity Kaufman 357 

Trinity Trinity 226 856 

Trinity Mills Dallas 559 64 

Troupe Smith 467 1,126 

Troy Bell 680 300 

Trueloves Johnson 734 

Trumbull Ellis 463 98 

Tubbe Nacogdoches 185 

Tuggle Burnet 960 

Tulane Orange 14 

TULIA Swisher 3,447 1,216 

Tumlinson Burnet 1,265 

Tuna LaSalle 553 

Turcotte Willacy 38 

Tumey Cherokee 409 100 

Turpentine Jasper 190 25 

Tuscola Taylor 2,020 49 

Tuxedo Jones 1,662 200 

Twist Hartley 3,969 

Twohig LaSalle 457 

Tye Taylor 1,795 400 

TYLER Smith 521 11,393* 

Ulmer Grimes 287 

Umbarger Randall 3,746 100 

Upton Bastrop 34« 59 

Urbana San Jacinto 97 

Uvalde Uvalde 937 3,998 

Vair Angelina 176 

Valentino Jeff Davis 4,421 175 

Valera Coleman 1,790 225 

Valley Junction Robertson 285 



I 

310 BtUletin of the Wniversity of Texas 

Place. County. BleTation. Population. 

Valley Mills Bosque 630 708 

Valley View Cooke 714 675 

Van Alstyne Grayson 791 1,411 

VAN HORN Culberson 4,010 176 

Van Raub Bexar 1,371 «0 

Ydn Vleck Matagorda 48 200 

Van Zandt Tarrant 782 

Vega Oldham 8,984 275 

Venable San Augustine 371 

Ventura Harris 212 

Venus Johnson 658 405 

Verhelle DeWitt 164 

VERNON Wilbarger 1,205 3,195 

Viaduct Val Verde 1,550 

VICTORIA Victoria 93 3,678 

Vlda Tyler 230 

Vidor Orange 26 25 

View Taylor 1,958 

Village Mills Hardin 102 316 

Vim Nacogdoches 295 

Vineyard Jack 934 250 

Vinton El Paso 3,773 25 

Viola Nueces 17 

Virginia Point Galveston 5 

Vista Hamilton 2,381 

Viterbo Jefferson 16 

Viva Bexar 1,091 

Van Ormy Bexar 626 42 

Votaw Hardin 137 100 

Voth Jefferson 21 125 

WACO McLennan 414 28,707^ 

Wadsworth Matagorda 34 60 

Waelder Gonzales 367 . 694 

Waldo McLennan 1,008 51 

Waller Waller 250 383 

Walley Harris 68 

Wallis Station Austin 132 675 

Walnut Springs Bosque 910 1,340 

Walton Clay 861 

Wantmore Jet Dallas 433 

Waples Hood 841 80 

Ware Comanche 4,214 

Warfleld Midland 2.860 

Waring Kendall 1,359 92 

Warren Tyler 147 833 

Warsaw San Augustine 151 

Warwick Brewster 4,067 

Washburn Armstrong 

Washer Zri valla 

Waskom * Harrison 

Wastella Xolan 

Watauga Tarrant 

Waterman Shelby 

Water Valley Tom Green 2,108 

Watkins Terrell 1,718 

Watson Comanche 1,684 

Watters Travis 707 68 



3,526 


150 


829 




297 


207 


2,396 


75 


606 


58 


276 


476 


2,108 


132 



The Miner(A Resources of Texas 311 

Place. Connty. Bl«Yatlon. PopuUUon. 

Montgomery 188 

.Walker 365 232 

' SSS W t." Ellis 530 6,205 

■ «K ■ r. Parker 1.000 5,074 

-Weaver Hopkine «6 79 

-SWebb Tarrant 93* 

-Webb Webb 847 

-Webbervllle Travis 400 ■■ i' 

"^Vphater . . . Harris ^' ^^ 

^llmar ... Colorado 408 906 

^finert Haakell 1,531 500 

^eir ..!:!.. ;!.;.. WllllamHOn 694 175 

~%V(>ldon . . .HouBton 312 139 

^•,lf.°,°, :;:;:;: :::;;K»d.ii i.™ jj 

-NVellbom Brazos 318 ISO 

-Wellinston Collin gs^onh 1,980 ...... 

-Wells Cherokee 334 162 

-^Vell8 Jack 1.08^ 

-Welview Coleman l.sj* 

-Wendell Jeff Davie 4.221 ...... 

-^Veat McLennan 648 1.645 

-^est B^iok Mitchell 2.127 376 

-WeBtbnry Jefferaon 40 

-Westcott San Jaelnto Ib9 ■■■;; 

AVeetfleld Harris 114 48 

-Westhoir DeWitt 260 425 

Polk 220 

Baylor 1,286 

-West Point Fayette 298 289 

"Weat Pt. Arthur : Jefferaon 8 ■■■,■; 

, .Bexar 816 lb 

Wharton Ill 1.506 



Wheatland 



1,290 



Wheeler . .'. Wheeler 2,300 

White Wilbarger 1,186 

White City San Augustire 192 

White Deer Carson 3,338 

Whitehouae Smith 483 

Whiteland McCulioeh 1,780 

White Oak Hopkins 393 

Whltesboro Grayson 783 

Whites Ranch Chambera » 

Whitewrlght Grayson J44 

Whitney Hill sg5 

Whitsett Live Oak 208 

WICHITA FALLS . . .Wichita ^46 

Wild Horse Culberson i.''** 

Wlldorado Oldham J, 883 

WJlea Stephens 1,155 

Wllkie Birnet 1,281 

WHkina Upshur ^18 

WllUrd Trinity 297 

WHlia Montgomery 381 

Willow Springs Gregg 368 

WUlB Point Van Zanrtt -'3^ 

Wlmer DallaB *72 

Wllsej Parmer i.lZi 

Wltoon Lynn . 3.0^3 



312 Bidletin of the University of Texas 

Place. Countf. Bleration. Population. 

Winchell Browp 1,829 

Winchester Payette 

Windom Angelina 

Windom Fannin 

Windsor Cooke 

Winfleld Titus 

Winnie Chambers 

Winnsboro Wood 

Winona Smith 

Winters Runnels 1,846 

Withers Bexar 

Woden Nacogdoches 

Wofford Henderson 

Wolfe City Hunt 

Wood Grimes 

Woodbine Cooke 

Woodlawn Harrison 

Woodsboro Refugio 

WOODVILLB Tyler 

Woodward LaSalle 

Wooland Tom Green 1,993 

Wortham Freestone 478 899 

Wurtzbaugh Harrison 202 

Wyatt Ellis 624 44 

Wylie Collin 557 620 

Yarboro Grimes 416 83 

Yamall Carson 3,478 

Yellowhouse Lamb 3,401 

Yoakum DeWitt 322 4.657 

Yorktown DeWitt 255 1.180 

Ysleta El Paso 3.652 1,562 

Yturria Cameron 40 

Yucca Uvalde 368 

Zacate Zavalla 695 

Zavalla Angelina 228 175 

Zella McMullen 382 

Zephyr Brown 1.505 350 

Zillah Victoria 46 

Zita Randall 3,605 

Zulch Madison 359 100 



829 


800 


888 


375 


178 




694 


312 


886 




446 


626 


27 


25 


628 


1,741 


317 


650 


846 


1,347 


632 




244 




390 




674 


1,402 


220 




762 


113 


305 


104 


49 


325 


232 


650 


508 


20 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LOCATION AND ELEVATION OF MOUNTAIN RANGES, 

PEAKS AND HILLS. 

In the region west of the Pecos river there are 78 peaks above 

6,000 feet In elevation; 35 peaks above 6,000 feet, 10 peaks above 

7,000 feet, and 2 above 8,000 feet. In Jeff Davis county (area 

2,263 square miles) there are 14 peaks above 5,000 feet in eleva- 
tion. 

The highest point in the state appears to be El Capitan Peak, 

Guadalupe Mountains, Culberson county, 8,690 feet; Baldy Peak, 
Jeff Davis county, being second with 8,382 feet. 

Place. County. Elevation. 

Adobe Walls Brewster 3,313 

Aguja Peak Jeff Davis 5,981 

Aguja Peak, Little Jef Davis 5,300 

Alto Relex Brewster 4,017 

Anacacho Mountains Kinney 1,517 

Anderson Mountain Coryell 1,250 

Antelope Hill Coryell 1.000 

Antelope Hills Shackelford 1,500 

Anthony's Nose El Paso 6,906 

Apache Peak Culberson 5,696 

Asphalt Mountain Uvalde 1,300 

• 

Babyhead Mountain Llano 1,521 

Bachelor Peak Llano 1,350 

Backbone Mountain Burnet 1,200 

Bald Knob Burnet 1,300 

Bald Mountain Burnet 1,239 

Bald Mountain Stephens 1,450 

Bald Mountain Travis 1,250 

Baldy Mountain Burnet 1.325 

Baldy Peak Jeff Davis 8,382 

Barber Mountain Palo Pinto 1,050 

Barilla Spring Reeves and Pecos 3,900 

Barilla Mountains Jeff Davis 5,560 

Baringer Hill Burnet 1,000 

Barnard Knob Hood 900 

Batesville Hill . . ► Zavalla 964 

Baylor Mountains Culberson 5,560 

Bead Mountain Coleman 2,000 

Bee Mountain Bosque 1,100 

Bee Mountain Brewster 3,376 

Bell Mountain Brewster 3,460 

Bell Mountain Gillespie 1,750 

Berry Knob Johnson 1,000 

Big Aguja Mountain Jeff Davis 5,743 

Big Mountain Uvalde 1,150 

Bill Black Peak San Saba 1,750 

Black Hill Bexar 760 



The Mineral Resources of TexcLs 315 

Place. County. EleTation. 

Chalk Bluff Uvalde 1,350 

Chalk Knob Burnet 1,200 

Chalk Mountain Erath 1,000 

Chilicotal Mountain Brewster 4,104 

Chimneys, The Brewster 2,900 

ChlnaU Peak Presidio 7,730 

Chispa Mountain Culberson 5,215 

Christmas Mountains Brewster 5,735 

Church Mountain Nolan 2,300 

Cienega Mountain Presidio 5,227 

Cienega Mountain Brewster 6,550 

Cigar Mountain Brewster 3,290 

C. J. Mountain Stephens 1,450 

Cleveland Breaks Presidio 5,500 

Click Gap Llano 1,393 

Cline Peak Uvalde 1,517 

Comanche Peak Hood 1,200 

Concan Uvalde 1,252 

Conception Mission Bexar 590 

Contrabando Mountain Brewster 2,684 

Coon Mountain Brown 1,700 

Corazones Peaks Brewster 5,306 

Croton Peak Brewster 4,600 

Crossville Peak Bell 1,150 

Crown Mountain Brewster 7,186 

Cuesta del Burro Presidio 5,750 

Culebra Hill Bexar 1,146 

Cutoff Mountain Hamilton 1,250 

Dalton Mountain Coryell 750 

Dancer Peak Llano 1,686 

Delaware Mountains Culberson 5,870 

Devil Ridge (northern part) El Paso 5,550 

Devils Courthouse Peak Tom Green 2,250 

Dogie Mountain Brewster 3,700 

Dome Peak El Paso 5,400 

Double Mountain Stephens 1,550 

Douglas Mountains Bell 1,100 

Dunman Mountain Llano 1,250 

Dye Mounds Montague 1,236 

Eagle Mountain El Paso 7,510 

EL CAPITAN PEAK, GUADA- 
LUPE MOUNTAINS. HIGH- 
EST POINT IN STATE Culberson 8,690 

Elephant Mountain Brewster 6,200 

Ellenburger Hills San Saba 1,525 

Elm Mountain Kinney 1,449 

Emory Peak Brewster 7,835 

Enchanted Rock Llano 1,815 

Evensville Peak Stephens 1,250 

Finlay Mountains El Paso 5,700 

Plat Top Mountain Bosque 1,000 

Plat Top Mountain Eastland 1,650 

Plat Top Peak Jones and Stonewall 1,798 

Plat Top Peak Lampasas 1,541 

Fossil Knobs Brewster 3,000 



316 BaUetin of the Uwiuenity of Texoi 

Place. County. Bleratioii. 

Frenchman Hills Presidio 5»250 

Fresno Peak Presidio . . .' 6,131 

Gettysburg Peak Presidio 4,897 

Goat Mountain Brewster 6,700 

Grapevine Hills Brewster 3,859 

Green Mountain Burnet 1,500 

Green Mountain Uvalde 1,400 

Green Mountains Shackelford 1,500 

Gunsight Mountain Eastland 1,550 

Hackett Peak El Paso 5,28t) 

Harkey Knobs San Saba 1,500 

Harriet Mountain Erath 1,250 

Harris Peak Palo Pinto 1,250 

Hayes Ridge • Brewster 4,600 

Hayrick Mountain Coke 2,000 

Hen Egg Mountain Brewster 5,002 

Henson Mountain Coryell 1,000 

Hog Mountains Brown 1,900 

Hog Mountain Coryell 1,250 

Hog Mountain Runnels 2,000 

Hog Mountain Stephens 1,350 

Hondo Pass, summit Medina 1,092 

Hoover Knobs Hamilton 1,500 

House Mountain Llano 1,853 

Horse Mountain Llano 1,450 

Hot Springs El Paso 3,300 

Hubert Ridge Brewster 3,940 

Hueco Mountains El Paso Cf. Cerro Alto 

Hueco Tanks El Paso 4,500 

Indian Hills • San Saba 1,650 

Indian Knob Parker 1,200 

Indian Knoll Stephens 1,350 

Indian Mountain Brown 1,600 

Indian Mountain Burnet 1,450 

Indian Mountain Comanche 1,650 

Indian Mountain Edwards 2,114 

Indianola Peak Brewster 5,240 

Inge Mountain Uvalde 1,000 

Ivy Mountains Bell 1,100 

Jackson Knob Coryell 1.050 

Johnson Peak Bosque 1,250 

Kinchelo Peak Lampasas 1,433 

Kit Mountain Brewster 3,803 

Kyle Mountain Palo Pinto 1,350 

Lanpford Mountain Coryell 850 

Las Moras Mountain Kinney 1,667 

Loon Mountain Brewster 3,000 

Lion Mountain Burnet 1,275 

Little Twin Sister Peaks Hays 1.250 

Lockhart Mountain Llano 1,438 

Lone Grove Llano 999 

Lone Man Mountain Hays 1.450 

Lone Woman Mountain Hays 1,450 



318 BuUetin of ike University of Texas 

Place. Countr- BltoTatlon. 

Pack Saddle Mountain Llano 1,664 

Padrone Hill Bexar 604 

Paint Gap Hills Brewster 4,258 

Paisano Peak Brewster 6.060 

PelonciUo Peak Kinney 1,000 

Phantom Lake Jeff Davis 8,460 

PhilUps Rock Llano 1,600 

Pike Peak Edwards 1,606 

Pilot Knob Bosque 1,000 

Pilot Knob Erath 1,200 

Pilot Knob (east of McNeil) Travis 900 

Pilot Knob (south of Austin) Travis 700 

Pinoak Mound Gonzales 360 

Pinks Peak Brewster 3,681 

Pinto Mountain Kinney 1,551 

Point Peak Llano 1,450 

Pompey Mountains Mills 1,600 

Post Mountain Burnet 1,556 

Postoak Ridge Travis 1.326 

Potato Top Peak Burnet 1,570 

Potato Hill Comanche 1.750 

Potter's Peak Lampasas 1,500 

Powelldale Mountains Bosque 750 

Puertacitas Mountains Presidio 6,300 

Pulliam Bluff Brewster 6,921 

Pummel Peak Brewster 6.630 

Pyramid Rock Llano 1,7 i7 

Quitman Mountains El Paso 6.600 

Rattlesnake Mountain Eastland 1,600 

Riley Mountain Llano 1,600 

Robinson Peak Coleman 2,000 

Rock Hut Brewster 8,540 

Round Head Gillespie 1,800 

Round Hill Shackelford 1,500 

Round Mountain Montague 1,150 

Round Mountain San Saba 1,835 

Round Mountain Travis 1,000 

Round Mountain Uvalde 1,077 

Round Mountain Blanco 1,600 

Round Mountain Comanche 1,750 

Round Mountain Coryell 1,000 

Round Mountain (N. E. of East- 
land) Eastland 1,350 

Round Mountain (S. E. of East- 
land) Eastland 1,500 

Round Mountain El Paso 6,100 

Round Mountain Uvalde 1,600 

Rosillos Mountains Brewster 4.634 

Roys Peak , Brewster 3.935 

Royston Hill Bastrop 575 

Russell Hill Gonzales '. 500 

Salmon Peak Kinney 1,940 

Salt Mountain Brown 1.750 

San Antonio Mountain El Paso 7,020 



The Mineral Resources of Texas 319 

PUee. Count7. Klevalion. 

Sand Mountain Zavalla S68 

Sandstone Mountain Llano 1,460 

Sandy Mountain Llano 1,068 

San JoBe Mtaalon Bexar 590 

San Juan Mission Bexar 642 

San Saba Peak Mills 1,712 

Mountains Coleman 2,000 

untain Brewster 3,795 

Jeff Davia 7,748 

Bastrop 575 

Mountain Edwards 2,280 

Somervell and Bosque .... 1,00( 

Uvalde I,00( 

Sharp Mountain l.lauo I,ti3,' 

Sheep Peak El Paso . . ■ fl,055 

Shell Mountain Coryell 1,000 

Travis 1,450 

Shin Oak Mountain San Saba 1,926 

aln Uvalde 1,740 

n Blanco 1,500 

Sierra Aguja Brewster 3,281 

Sierra Blanca El Paso 6,950 

Sierra del Caballo Miierto Brewster 5,630 

Sierra EMablo El Paao 6.100 

Sierra Larga Brewster 3,126 

Sierra Prleta El Paso 5,450 

Sierra TInaJa Plnta El Paso 5,500 

Sierra Vleja Mountains Presidio 6,000 

Bkeen Peak Wise 1,350 

Slaughter Mountain Tlurnet 1,150 

Sllckrock Mountain Brewster 4,001 

Presidio 4.800 

Mountain Llano 1.833 

Kendall 1.637 

■ Coleman 1,550 

Spy Mountain Stephens 1.250 

Star Mountain Brown 1.900 

Star Mountain Hamilton 1,600 

Star Mountain Jeff Davis 6,35( 

Steal Easy Mountain Stephens 1,50< 

Steamboat Mountain Kimble 3.004 

Study Butte Brewster 2.836 

Sue Peaks Brewster 5,857 

Sugar Loaf Mountain Bosque 1,000 

Sugar Loat Mountain Coryell 950 

Sulphur Mountain Uvalde 1,124 

Summit ot Iron Ore Knobs Grayson 900 

.... El Paso 5,650 

.... Brewster 3,800 

Eastland 1.250 

Uvalde 1,000 

Tepee Butte El Paso 5.173 

Texas Hill Bastrop 611 

Threemlle Mountain Culberson 4.845 

Three Mounds Cooke 960 

nmber Mountain Jeff Davis 6.442 



320 Bvlletin of the University of Texae 

Place. County. Blevatioii. 

Tod Mountain Biason 1,195 

Tom Nunn Hill Uvalde 894 

Town Mountain Llano 1«285 

Trap Mountain Brewster 4,186 

Travis Peak Travis 1,860 

Tres Cuevas Mountain Brewster 8,686 

Trigger Mountain Mills 1,660 

Triple Hill El Paso 6,400 

Tule Mountain Brewster 8,888 

Turkey Mountain Kinney 1,806 

Twin Buttes Tom Green 8,200 

Twin Mountains Coryell 1,000 

Twin Mountains (southern part) ..Coryell 1,260 

Twin Mountains (north of Ste> 

phenville) Erath 1,260 

Twin Mountains (N. E. of Ste- 

phenville) Erath 1,500 

Twin Mountains Hamilton 1,250 

Twin Mountains Presidio 6,650 

Twin Sister Peaks Lampasas 1,650 

Tyler Bluff Cooke 1,000 

Upper Juniper Spring (Chisos 

Mountains) Brewster 5,000 

Valley Spring Llano 1,336 

Van Horn Mountains Culberson 5,786 

Victoria Peak Culberson 6,432 

Wagon Wheel Hill Uvalde 976 

Walker Peak Llano 1,551 

Washout Mountain Erath 1,250 

Watch Mountain Llano • 1,620 

Weymiller Butte Uvalde 1,000 

Wilbern's Glen Llano 1,200 

Wildhorse Mountain Brewster 3,505 

Wylle Mountain Culberson 5,031 

Willow Mountain Brewster 3,830 

Wolf Mountain Palo Pinto 1,300 

Wolf Ridge Cooke 1,000 

Yearling Head Mountain Llano 1,669 

Yegua Knobs Lee 800 



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INDEX 

Page. 

Acme Pressed Brick Co 107, 197 

AfiT&te ••. ... . .. ... 11 

Aiba-Maiakoff Lignite Co! !!!!!!!.!!!..!'.!.'.!!!!!!...!!!!!!...!! ! 254 

Alum, native 79 

American Vichy Water, Mineral Wells, analysis of 194 

Amethyst 11 

Asphalt, production and value of 3, 6 

Austin White Lime Co 231 

Bailey, J. R 193 

Bat guano, composition of 72 

Bay City Brick & Tile Co 178 

Bear Grass Coal Co 165 

Beaumont Brick Co 154 

Belton Brick Co., tests of brick from 65 

Blossom Mineral Water, analysis of 160 

Bertettl Mine (lignite) 180 

Boone, D. R., Lone Star Lime Works 100 

Border Gas Co., Laredo 243 

Brazos Tile & Brick Co 125 

Brenham Pressed Brick Co 240 

Brick, tests on, counties: 

Bastrop 61-62 

Bell 65 

Bexar 71 

Cherokee 91 

Comanche 99 

Cooke 100 

Denton 107-108 

Ellis 114 

Erath 117 

Fannin 120 

Gonzales 131 

Guadalupe 135-136 

Harrison 140-141 

Henderson 144 

Hopkins 147 

Jefferson 154 

Jones ". 156 

Lamar 160 

Matagorda 178 

Navarro 188 

Parker .' 197 

Rusk 209 

Tarrant 223 

Washington 240 

Williamson 245-246 

Wilson 250 

Wise 251 

Brock's Mineral water, analysis of 108 

Calvin Coal Co. (lignite) 63 

Capitol Well, Austin, analysis of water of 230 

Carlsbad Mineral water, analysis of 227 

Carr Mine (lignite) 180 

Carrington & Co., B. W 237 



354 IndM 



Cement, materials for manufacture of: couEtlee: 

Bexar 66 

Dallas 104 

Bl Paso 116 

Cement plants, counties: 

Bexar 65 

Dallas IW 

Bl Paso 116 

Cement, production and value of..... t, 7 

Central Quarry Co 216 

Champion Well, near Austin, analjrsis of water of 261 

Clays and Clay products, production and value of S, 7-S 

Clays, calcareous, analysis and tests of, counties: 

Bell 64-65 

Gonsales 129-130 

Guadalupe 135 

Medina 180 

Wharton 243 

WUliamson 245 

Wilson 249 

Clays, fire, analysis and tests of, counties: 

Bastrop 62 

Bexar 67, 69 

Bowie 73 

Brewster 77 

Henderson 143-144 

Limestone 166 

Robertson « 207 

Clays, ordinary, analysis and tests of, counties: 

Bastrop '. 62-63 

Bexar ', 68 

Bowie 74 

Cherokee 91-92 

Dallas 104 

Delta 106 

Bills 113 

Erath 117.11S 

Grayson 162 

Harris 139 

Hunt 149 

Jefferson 153 

Liamar 160 

McLennan 173 

Marion 175 

Milam 181 

Navarro 188 

Panola 196 

Shackelford 216 

Wise 250^251 

Clays, pottery, analysis and tests of, counties: 

Bastrop 62 

Bexar 67 

Bowie 74 

Denton 166^ 

Falls 11^ 

Harrison » 14^ 



Index 355 

Page. 

Henderson 143-144 

Hopkins 147 

Limestone 166 

Nacogdoches 186 

Parker 197 

Rusk 209 

Smith 217 

Wilson 249 

Wood 253 

Clays, sandy, analyses and tests of, counties: 

Bastrop 63 

Bowie 74 

Chambers 91 

Cherokee 92 

Fort Bend 125 

Gregg 133 

Harris 139 

Harrison 140 

Houston 148 

Lee 163 

Polk 20 

Red River 205 

Tyler 232 

Clays, semi-refractory, counties: 

Bexar 68 

Denton 107 

Eastland Ill 

Payette 120 

Gonzales 129 

Grimes 134 

Polk 200 

Robertson 207 

Tom Green 226 

Webb 242 

Wise 251 

Cluck ft Bro., E 246 

Coal, analyses of, counties: 

Brewster 78 

Burnet 83 

Coleman 96 

Eastland Ill 

Erath 117 

Jack 150 

Maverick 179 

Montague 184 

Palo Pinto 191 

Parker 198 

Presidio 201 

Stephens 220 

Webb 242 

Wise 251 

Young 255 

Coal, production and valae of 3.8-9 

Cobb Brick Co 223 

Comanche Brick Co 99 

Consumers Lignite Co 254 

Copper, production and value of 3. 9 



356 Index 

Page. 

Corsicana Brick Co 18S 

Courschesne, A • • 115 

Crazy Well Water, Mineral Wells, anlaysia of 194-195 

Denny Pottery Co 119 

Denton Brick & Tile Co 107 

D'Hanls Brick & Tile Co 180 

Derby Brick Mfg. Co 242 

Developer's Oil & Gas Co 95 

Diamond Press Bricks Works 114 

Dittlinger Ltime Co 98 

Dolomite, analyses and tests of, counties: 

Burnet 84 

El Paso 115 

Gillespie 128 

Tom Green 226 

Williamson 247 

Dumble. B. T 194 

Elevation, highest in State, "Ei Capitan, Culberson countv 54. 315 

Elevations Chanters VIT and Vin 

Elgln-Butler Prick & Tile Co.. tests of brick from 61 

Elgin Standard Brick Co. tests of brick from 61 

Everhart, E 119 

Ferris Press Brick Co 114 

Fox, A. C, Lueders 155 

Fox, J. W. Stewarton 161 

Fuller's earth, production and value of 10 

Fuller's earth, tests of, counties: 

Burleson 81 

Colorado 97 

Favette 121 

Shelby 216 

Washington 241 

Gainesville Pressed Brick Co 100 

Garbade, W. T 227 

Gems and nrecious stones, production and value of 11 

George & Co., R. B 246 

Gibson water. Mineral Wells, analysis of 198 

Globe Pressed Brick Co 114 

Gold ore, counties: 

Brewster 78 

Tom Green 226 

Williamson 246 

Granite, production and value of 11-12 

Granite, tests of, counties: 

Burnet 82 

El Paso 116 

Llano 169-171 

Presidio 202 

Gravel and sand, production and value of 34-35 

Gulf States Brick Co 154 

Gvnsum, production and value of 12-18 

Harner, H. W 231 

Harrington, H. H 225 

Harris, F. A 178 

Henrietta Oil A Gas Co 96 

Hot Wells. El Paso Co., analysis of water from 116 

Hot Wells Sanitarium. Hubbard. Hill county, analysis of water from 146 



Index 357 

Page. 

Houston County Coal A Mfg. Co 148, 165 

Independence Mining Co., analysis of lignite from 63 

Indian Wells, water, Mineral Wells, analysis of 192 

International Coal Mines Co 179 

Iron ore, analysis of, counties: 

Anderson 55-56 

Cass 89-90 

Cherokee 93 

Gregg 133 

Harrison 141 

Henderson 144 

Llano 169 

Marion 176 

Mason 177 

Morris 185 

Nacogdoches 187 

Rusk 209 

Sh«*lby 216 

Upshur 233 

Iron ore, area of, countiej. 

Anderson 56 

Cass 90 

Cherokee 93 

Gregg 134 

Harrison 141 

Henderson : 145 

Marion » 176 

Morris 185 

Smith 218 

Van Zandt 237 

Wood 253 

Iron furnaces 93 

Iron ore, production and value of 13-14 

Iron, oxide paint 177 

Kaolin : 

Edwards County (see Real County) 204-205 

Kennedy, James ' 71 

Kerr, A. B. & Sons 123 

Lamar Well. Mineral Wells, analysis of water from 192 

Lamar White Sulphur water. Mineral Wells, analysis of 194 

Lead, production and value of 14-15 

Lignite (brown coal), analyses of, counties: 

Angelina 57 

Atascosa 59 

Bastrop 63 

Bowie 75 

Brown 80 

Caldwell 86 

Cass 89 

Cherokee 92 

Fayette 122 

Freestone 126 

Harrison 141 

Hopkins 146-147 

Houston 148 

Lee 164 

Leon 165 



358 Index 

Page. 

Limestone 167 

Medina 180 

Milam ,. 182 

Morris 186 

Panola 196 

Raines 203 

Robertson 207 

Rusk 209 

San Augustine 211 

Titus 225 

Trinity 232 

Upshur 233 

Van Zandt 237 

Walker 239 

Wood 254 

Lignite, production and value of 15-18 

Lime, production and value of 18-19 

Lime, white, analsrses of, counties: 

Comal 98 

Travis 231 

Williamson 247 

Limestone, analyses of, counties: 

Anderson 36 

Bexar 65-67 

Bosque 73 

Burnet 83-85 

Caldwell 86 

Callahan '. 87 

Coleman 96 

Comal 98 

Coryell 100-101 

Duval : : . 110 

Edwards 112-113 

El Paso 115-117 

Erath 118 

Fayette 123 

Gillespie 128 

Hamilton 137 

Hays 142 

Jack 150 

Jones 15^* 

Kaufman 157 

Limestone 167 

McLennan 174 

Montague 184 

Navarro 188 

Palo Pinto 191 

San Saba 212 

Shackelford 215 

Smith 218 

Tarrant 223 

Travis 227-230 

Williamson 246-247 

Wise 252 

Limestone, bituminous, counties: 

Burnet 82 

Pecos 198 

Uvalde 234-235 



Index 359 

Page. 

Limestone, production and value of 19-20 

Ling & Hughes, limestone 67 

Lone Star Oas Co 94 

Lone Star Lime Works 100 

Lone Star Press Brick Co 114 

Magnenat, L 231 

Malakofl Pressed Brick Co 144 

Mallet, J. W 219 

Mangum Mineral Water, analysis of 112 

Marble, analyses and tests of, counties: 

Brewster » 78-79 

San Saba 213 

Stephens 221 

Travis 229 

Marlin Hot Wells water, analysis of 119 

Marshall Brick Co 140 

Merrill, A 195 

Mexia Quarry Co 167 

Min-Ala Water, Mineral Wells, analysis of 195 

Mineola, Wood county, analysis of water from 254 

Mineral products, value of. 1882-1913 2-4 

Mineral production, statistics of (Chapter I.) 41-51 

Mineral waters, analyses of, see under the different counties: 

List of 20 

Production and value of * 21 

Mineral Wells, Palo Pinto county, analyses of water from 192-195 

Mineral Wells Crushed Stone Co 191 

Mineral Wells Splltz, water, analysis of 193 

Morgan Mineral Water, anals^ls of 227 

Moulton Sandstone Co 162 

Mt. Marion Coal Mining Co. (coal) 191 

Natural gas, production and value of 21-23 

Natural gas, production and value of, counties: 

Clay 94 

Erath 117 

Gonzales 131 

Houston 148: 

Limestone 168" 

McMullen 174" 

Maverick 179' 

Montgomery 185 

Nueces 211 

Red River 205 

Shackelford 215 

Webb 243 

Needham, R. H 227 

Nitrate of potash 79 

Noyes, W. A 72 

O. K. or Sleepy Water. Mineral Wells, analysis of 192 

Olmos Coal Co I79 

Opal 11 

Page & Co., Geo. H 242 

Palm, O. H 247 

Palmer Pressed Brick Co H 4 

Paving brtck 117, 255 

Pearls 11. 176 

Petroleum, production and value of 21-30 



360 Index 

Page. 

Petrolum producing countlee: 

Bexar 70 

Clay 9i 

Hardin 13S 

Harris 133 

Jack 161 

Jefferson 164 

Liberty 166 

Marlon •• ... 176 

Matagorda 17S 

Navarro 18S 

Shackelford 215 

Wichita 244 

Williamson 248 

Phosphate rock, Fayette county 122 

Phosphatlc pebbles, analysis of 69-70 

Picton ft Co., D. M., Beaumont 162-163,232 

Pioneer Brick Works ! 156 

Potash salU 30-32 

Potash salts, counties: 

Potter 201 

Randall 204 

Quicksilver, production and value of 32-38 

Read. W. T 192, 198, 196 

Red Mineral Springs water, analysis of 225 

Reiser Pressed Brick Co 242 

Rlsley Bros., Jacksboro 150 

Riviere Mineral water, analysis of 219 

Round Rock White Lime Co 247 

Rusk Brick Co 91 

St. Mary's Mineral Water, analysis of 163 

Salt, counties: 

Anderson 66 

MltcheU 183 

Smith 218 

Van Zandt 237 

Salt, production and value of - 83-34 

San Antonio Lime Co 66 

Sand and gravel, production and value of 84-35 

Sand-lime brick, tests of, counties: 

Bexar 71 

Coleman 96 

Comanche 99 

Fannin 120 

Fort Bend 125 

Sandstone, analysis and tests of, counties: 

Burnet 85-86 

Callahan 87 

Duval 110 

Fayette 123 

Jasper 162-151 

Lampasas 161 

Lavaca 163 

Tyler 282-233 

Ward 240 



Index S61 

Page. 

Sandstone, bituminous, analyses of, counties: 

Anderson 55 

Cooke 100 

Jasper 153 

Montague 184 

Panola 19« 

S%n Augustine 210 

Tyler 235 

Uvalde 235 

Sandstone, production and value of 35-36 

Sangcura Water, Mineral Wells, analysis of 193 

Seguin Vitrified A Face Brick Co 135 

Shale, analyses of, counties: 

Bexar 65 

Dallas 105 

Shackelford 215-216 

Silver, production and value of 86-38 

Shafter, Presidio county 202-203 

Smith-Lee Coal Mine .«^ Ill 

Southland Mineral Water (Duffan), analysis of 118 

Standard Brick Co 114 

Standard Coal Co 63 

Star Clay Products Co., tests of brick from 69 

Star Well Water, Mineral Wells, analysis of 195 

Steel furnace, first built in Texas 183-134 

Strawn Coal Mining Co. (coal) 191 

Strawn Oil Field, Palo Pinto county 193 

Sulphur, production and value of 88-39 

Sulphur, production of, counties: 

Brazoria 75-76 

Culberson 103 

Pecos 199 

Sunset Brick & Tile Co 129, 131 

Taylor Brick Co 246 

Terrell Hot Well, Bexar county, analysis of water from 71 

Texas Fire Brick Co., tests of brick from 61-6:2 

Texas A Pacific Coal Co. . : 117 

Texas Portland Cement Co 104 

Texas Press Brick Co 114 

Thrall Oil Field, Williamson county 248 

Thurber Brick Co 117 

Tilson, P. S 108. 192, 194 

Tin, production and value of 89-40, 116 

Tioga Sanitarium & Water Co., analysis of water from 132 

Topaz, Mason county 1/8 

Trap rock, counties : 

Travis 830 

Uvalde 236 

Trinity Portland Cement Co 104 

Turquois 11 

Udden, J. A., Report on Oil and Gas Fields of Wichita and Clay 

counties 95 

Potash in Texas Permian 201 

Underwriters Laboratory 247 

Waite, WiUis W 116 



362 Ind» 



Wichita Falls Oaa Co 94 

Wise County Brick Co S61 

Wood's Sandstone <iaarry 86 

Zinc, production and value of 40 






!% 



!* '.